JCR-UK

the former

Sunderland Hebrew Congregation

Sunderland, Tyne & Wear

 

 

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congregations throughout the British Isles and Gibraltar, both past and present.


Sunderland Synagogue 
The former Sunderland Synagogue in Ryhope Road.
Peter Gatoff

Congregation Data

Name:

Sunderland Hebrew Congregation

Sunderland Hebrew Congregation incorporating the Beth Hamedrash from 1985(iii)

Formation and Earlier Names:

It is believed that first Jewish congregation was established in Sunderland in about 1768(iv) although nothing is known about any early congregation or congregations until the establishment in 1781 of the Polish Synagogue.(v)

On 13 July 1821 a second and rival congregation was established in the town under the name Adath Jeshurun,(vii) which gradually dropped this name in favour of the Congregation of the Israelites or the Sunderland Israelite Congregation.(vii)(viii)

In 1857, the Israelite Congregation, together with the other small congregations that then existed in the town (including the remnants of the Polish Synagogue), decided to join forces to build "a spacious synagogue ... uniting the different congregations into one body".(x) In December 1861, the synagogue (in Moor Street) was completed and the Sunderland Hebrew Congregation was formally established.(xi)

In 1889, a further split developed in the community which led to the establishment of the Beth Hamedrash ("the Greeners' shul"), after which the congregation was frequently referred to as the "Englisher" shul to distinguish its more Continental rival.

Last Address:

Ryhope Road, Sunderland SR2 7EW, from 9th December 1928(xii) until last services on 25 March 2006.(xiii)

The Ryhope Road synagogue, designed by Marcus Kenneth Glass of Newcastle, was completed at the initial cost of £11,000 and the opening ceremony was performed by the Lord Mayor of Hull, Cllr. Benno Pearlman, the service being conducted by Rev. L. Muscat and Rev. Gottlieb and the consecration sermon was delivered by Rev. Emmanuel Drukker of Newcastle.(xv)

Although in use until 2006, the synagogue, which was a Grade II listed building, had actually been sold for 65,000 in September 2000 to an American Jewish charity, the Shlomo Memorial Trust, but the community was permitted to continue using it, paying a peppercorn rent.(xvi)

Earlier Addresses:

Moor Street, Sunderland, from 1862 to 1928

The synagogue was built following a decision by the different congregations to unite into one body, largely through the efforts and generosity of Aaron Moses Lotinga, who in 1858 inserted the appeal for funds in The Jewish Chronicle:(xx)

"The Jewish community of Sunderland, at present amounting to 250 Souls, have for the last 90 Years (when the number was much smaller) worshipped in rooms under different congregational heads. They are now building a spacious synagogue and uniting the different congregations into one body, so that peace and unity may be established and the service of the Most High be conducted in perpetuity, and in a more decorous manner, in one body, than has heretofore under various congregations. They now appeal to their brethren to aid them in their good work."

It took three years to raise the requisite funds and the foundation stone for the new synagogue was laid on 11 June 1861 by Mr. Lotinga, with Rev. David Joseph, the unpaid minister, conducting the service and reading a prayer especially written by the Chief Rabbi for the occasion. The building was completed in December 1861.(xxi) On 7 May 1862, the synagogue was consecrated by Chief Rabbi Nathan Adler accompanied by his son, Dr. Herman Adler.(xxii)

In 1899/1900 major renovations and alterations were carried out to the synagogue, referred to as a "Reconstruction" and on 30 December 1900, the renovated building was reopened by Sir Francis Montefiore and reconsecrated by Rev. Dr. Herman Gollancz.(xxiii)

It is unclear where the predecessor Israelite Congregation held its regular services prior to the opening of the Moor Street synagogue, although there are references to services being held at the home of Rabbi Jacob Josephs (see below).(xxiv)

Final Status:

Following the final service in the synagogue in 2006 (see above), certain services continued to be held in members' homes until 2008, when Jewish communal life finally came to an end in Sunderland after 240 years.

Ritual:

Ashkenazi Orthodox.

Affiliation:

The congregation was unaffiliated but under the aegis of the Chief Rabbi.

Spiritual Leaders of Adath Jeshurun:

"Rabbi" Jacob Joseph (previously chazan and shochet of the Polish Synagogue - the first spiritual head of the Sunderland community) - frequently carried out services of a ministerial nature from the 1821 until about 1834.(xxviii)

Rev. David Joseph - minister from 1834 and continued to act in various capacities, including registrar, until 1861.(xxix)

Ministers(xxvii) of the Congregation:
(To view a short profile of a minister, hold the cursor over his name.)

Rev. Moses Woolf - from February 1862 until 1865(xxx)

Rev. Isaac Hart - from December 1866 until 1870(xxxi)

Rev. Israel Aaron Levy - from May 1871 until 1881(xxxv)

Rev. Mark Louis Harris - from April 1883 until August 1886(xxxvi)

Office vacant 1886 to 1888.

Rev. Aaron Asher Green - from 1888 until 1892(xxxvii)

Rev. Jacob Phillips - from April 1893 until July 1897(xxxviii)

Rev. Zacharia Lawrence - from September 1897 until October 1904(xxxix)

Rabbi Dr. Samuel Daiches - from January 1905 until December 1907(xlii)

Rabbi Dr. Salis Daiches - from September 1908 until February 1919(xliii)

Rev. Aaron Plaskow - from April 1920 until June 1923(xliv)

Rabbi Dr. Alec Eli Silverstone - from December 1924 until October 1927(xlv)

Office vacant 1927 to 1934, however, the readers, Rev. L.J. Muscat and A.N. Oler (see below), respectively, served as acting minister for much of this period.

Rev. Shlomo Pesach Toperoff - from August 1934 until 1951(xlvi)

Rabbi Moshe Turetsky - from 1952 until 1959(xlx)

Rabbi Ephraim-Levy Gastwirth - from 1960 until September 1964(l)

Rev. (later Rabbi) Bernard Susser - from February 1965 until 1971(li)

Rabbi Mordechai Lev (Lionel) Cofnas - from 1971 until 1975(lii)

Rev. Joseph Braunold - effectively minister from about 1975 until 1984 (previously second reader from 1957, then reader from 1969)(liii)

Rabbi Shammai Zahn - communal rav of Sunderland from 1981 to 2001(liv)

Readers (Chazanim) of the Congregation:
(To view a short profile of a reader whose name appears in blue - hold the cursor over his name.)

Rev. Moses A. Schreiber - reader and teacher from December 1866 until 1869(lix)

Rev. Elias Friedlander - reader from January 1871 until 1878(lx)

Rev. S. J. Levy - reader and shochet unknown date until 1888(lxi)

Rev. W. Kantorowitz - reader and shochet from 1888 until 1897(lxii)

Rev. Lazarus Jacob Muscat - reader and shochet from 1898 until 1923 and from 1924 until 1929(lxiii)

Rev. Abraham Noach Oler - first reader from about 1931 until World War II (and acting minister 1931-1934)(lxvi)

Rev. Abraham Isaac Burland - second reader from about 1931 until about 1945(lxvii)

Rev. E. Slotki - second reader from about 1946 until about 1948(lxviii)

Rev. Eli Wilenzyck - first reader from about 1947 until about 1957(lxix)

Rev. A. Cohen - first reader from about 1959 until about 1968(lxx)

Rev. Joseph Braunold - see above, listed under ministers

Notable Lay Members of Adath Jeshurun:

Little is known of the lay officers of Adath Jeshurun (the Israelite Congregation) - there are no extant minutes. The following are some of its notable known members:

David Jonassohn (1795-1859) was the most prominent member of the Jewish community in the 1820s to 1850s. He was a successful industrialist. In 1953, he was elected as the congregation's first deputy to the Board of Deputies. (The Polish Synagogue had previously elected the first deputy to represent a provincial congregation, who resigned in 1841.) Unfortunately, Mr. Jonassohn was excluded from taking his seat, when it was revealed that he was a member of the West London (Reform) Synagogue. (Reform congregations were not eligible for membership of the Board until 1874.) Although he died and is buried in London, an Obelisk to his memory (and possibly the gravestone of his wife) is the only extant structure at Sunderland's first Jewish cemetery at Ayeres Quay.(lxxv)

Aaron Moses Lotinga was the leader of the congregation in the latter part of the 1850s and the person most instrumental in the building of the synagogue in Moor Street and the formation of the Sunderland Hebrew Congregation.(lxxvi)

Honorary Officers of the Congregation:

The years, or span of years, given below are the years in which the honorary officer was elected to office. In most instances, he would have continued to serve until the following year.

Unless otherwise stated, the data on the honorary officers below has been extracted, as regard the period to 1952, from the names and years listed on the tablets of such officers that adorned the walls of the synagogue(lxxx) and, as regards the period 1953 to 1955, it has been extracted from relevant Jewish Year Books.(lxxxi) In most instances, the officer's first name has been obtained from other sources.

Presidents

Aaron Moses Lotinga - 1862, 1866

E. Fryde - 1864, 1869, 1871, 1874/75. 1883/84, 1888/89

George Asher - 1865

Joseph Harris - 1867

Joseph Aaronson - 1868, 1870, 1872/73, 1876/77, 1880/81/82

Joseph Wolfe - 1878/79

Jacob Gallewski - 1885/86

Isaac Goldman - 1887

Phillip Gallewski - 1890/91/92

Israel Jacobs - 1893/94, 1911, 1921/22/23, 1925, 1929/30

Bernard Jacoby - 1895/96/97, 1913 through 1918

Cllr. Newman Richardson - 1898 through 1904

Simon Olswang - 1905/06/07

Jacob Goldberg - 1908/09/10, 1912

Cllr. H. Minski - 1919/20

Maurice Jacobs - 1921

Henry Olswang - 1924

Solomon Gillis - 1926/27/28, 1936/37/38

B. Josephs - 1925

Julius Behrman - 1931/32/33

Hyman Berg - 1934, 1939

L. Magrill - 1935

Stan Goldberg - 1940

Abraham Merskey - 1941 through 1946

Jacob Clark - 1947

Harold Olswang - 1948 through 1953

Major Mordaunt Cohen, RA(TA)  - 1954/55

Parnassim

Sol Gallewski - 1919/20

I. Levy - 1921

Jacob Goldberg - 1922 through 1930(lxxxii)


Wardens

Jacob Clark - 1948 through 1952

Isaac Gordon - 1948 through 1952

W. Morris - 1953/54

Gerald Behrman - 1953/54/55

Isaac Gordon - 1955

Treasurers

Joseph Aaronson - 1862/63/64, 1884

Joseph Wolfe - 1865 through 1969, 1874/75/76

Jacob Schott - 1870/71

Isaac Goldman - 1872, 1877/78/79

A.N. Richardson - 1873

Myer Cohen - 1880, 1888/89

N. Gallewski - 1881/82/83

S. Wolfe - 1885/86/87

Israel Jacobs - 1890/91/92, 1999

Bernard Jacoby - 1899, 1904, 1908, 1911

Cllr. Newman Richardson - 1895/96/97, 1909, 1913

Aaron Jackson - 1900/01/02

Simon Olswang - 1903/04

Israel Jacobs - 1905, 1910

A. Share - 1906

Jacob Goldberg - 1907/08

Hyman Berg - 1918, 1931/32

Maurice Jacobs - 1919/20

Charles Brewer - 1921/22

Henry Olswang - 1923

Solomon Gillis - 1924/25, 1929/30

H. Taylor - 1926/27/28

Isaac Gordon - 1933

L. Magrill - 1934

Jacob Clark - 1935 through 1946

Harold Olswang - 1947

Hyman Book - 1948 through 1952

Major Mordaunt Cohen, RA(TA) - 1953

J.D. Levene - 1954/55

Gabbais

I. Levy - 1919/20

Julius Behrman - 1921/22, 1928

Jacob Gallewski - 1923, 1925/26/27

Herman Berg - 1924

Abraham Merskey - 1929

Hyman Berg - 1930

Secretaries of the Congregation:

Secretaries and Hon. Secretaries

(Based upon listings in Jewish Year Books)(lxxxiii)

1896-1899 - Joseph Levy

1899-1900 - Bernard Jacoby

1900-1901 - D.R. Morris

1901-1902 - Lionel Wolfe

1902-1920 - D.R. Morris

1920-1921 - E. Mark Rowlands

1921-1922 - I. Muscat

1922-1923 - B. Freedman

1923-1925 - no data

1925-1946 - Jack Goldberg(lxxxiv)

1946-1952 - M. Cohen

1952-1953 - Major Mordaunt Cohen, RA(TA)

1953-1955 - T. Buck

1955-1958 - Maurice H. Minchom

1958-1964 - Louis Berg

1964-1966 - Cyril E. Lee

1966-1969 - David R. Berg

1969-1971 - B. Taylor

1971-1975 - D.D. Levey

1975-1978 - Peter N. Olswang

1978-1983 - J. Sadlik

1983-1984 - Dr. J. Phillips

1984-1985 - Dr. Bernard I. Chazan

1985-1986 - Dr. H. Wacks

Committee Members in 1874(lxxxv):

George Asher, E. Fryde, Jacob Gallewski, Isaac Goldman, Israel Goldman, Joseph Kaufman, Jacob Schott, Joseph Wolfe

Membership Data:

General

1845 - 5 ba'alai batim (Chief Rabbi's Questionnaire)

Number of Seatholder as reported by Jewish Year Books)

1896

1898

1902

1903

1904

1905

1908

1909

1911

1912

1913

98

106

115

120

110

120

110

123

125

122

135

National Reports and Surveys(lxxxvi)

1977 - 164 male (or household) members and 39 female members

1983 - 153 male (or household) members and 40 female members

1990 - 149 members (comprising 64 households, 53 individual male and 32 individual female members

1996 - 73 male or households members

Former Charitable Status:

The congregation was a registered charity, number 1078345.

Cemetery
Information:

There were four Jewish cemeteries, in consecutive use by the Sunderland Jewish Community (for details, see Sunderland Cemetery Information)

Notes & Sources: In light of the large number of notes, these now appear towards the foot of this page, instead of the foot of this box. However, the note can also still be viewed in a pop-up box when the cursor is held over the note number.

 

Bibliography, Online Articles and Other Material
relating to this Congregation

 


edited by
H. Davis, 2009

On JCR-UK

  • Chief Rabbi's Questionnaire of 1845 - Congregational Data and Educational Data & Other Remarks.

  • Officers of Institutions associated with the Beth Hamedrash

  • Selected Bibliography

    • History of the Sunderland Jewish Community 1755-1955 by Arnold Levy (1956)

    • "The nineteenth-century constitution of Sunderland congregation" by Rabbi Bernard Susser, Jewish Historical Studies Transactions of the JHSE, Vol. 40 (2005), pp.7-73.

    • Sunderland Jews at War, Monthly Bulletins by Rabbi S. Toperoff to the Armed Forces, 1942-1946. Book (2009)containing copies of the Bulletins, edited by Harold A. Davis.

    • The articles "Sunderland" (p.114) and "Ryhope Road Synagogue" (pp.213-221) in Kol Dodi by Rabbi David Katanka (2015)

    • Other Bibliography

on Third Party Websites

 


David Shulman 2013

A close-up of the luhot (tablets signifying the Ten Commandments)
 at the top of the the synagogue building above the main entrance.

Sunderland Institutions associated with the Hebrew Congregation

Educational & Theological

The Hebrew School (the congregation's Hebrew and religious classes) was founded in 1862 and was initially situated at the Moor Street synagogue. In about 1924 it moved to Bede Towers and then, in 1929, to the new synagogue premises in Ryhope Road.(ci) The congregation's minister or reader was generally the school's headmaster or principal.

Number of pupils(cii):

1867

1874

1896

1898

1904

1914

1915

 

41

40

80

90

75

73

75

Other Institutions & Organisations

Founded in 1996 "to assist members with the grant of loans without security, without interest or other charges and to promote habits of industry, providence self reliance among other."(civ) It appears to have ceased activities following World War II.(cv) The Beth Hamedrash has its own Gemiluth Chesodim, founded by 1924.

Number of members(cvi):

1897

1902

1906

1922

 

90

130

110

150

Founded by 1938 and active until at least 1956(cix)

Jewish Year Books from 1938 to 1956 listed the Ladies Guild specifically as affiliated to the Hebrew Congregation. At others time, ladies or women's guilds were listed without specific mention as to which congregations they were affiliated.

Founded by 1927, where the congregation was at Moor Street, in connection with the building of a new synagogue (ultimately at Ryhope Road) and active until at least 1932(cx)

Founded by 1946 and active until at least 1956(cxi)

 

 

Congregational Records

General:

  • Numerous records of the Jewish Communities in Northeast England (only a sample of which are listed below) are deposited with the Tyne and Wear Archives Service (http://www.legacyarchives.org.uk).  

    CLICK HERE to view a full list of these records (correct to December 2005).

Births/Circumcisions::

  • Birth register 1867-73, 1892 - Tyne and Wear Archives Service (see above);

  • Brit milah (circumcisions) 1850-1889 - Tyne and Wear Archives Service (see above);

  • Brit milah (circumcisions) 1850-1889 -  Tyne and Wear Archives Service (see above).

Deaths/Burials:

  • Burials 1856 to 1899 listed in Appendix V to Arnold Levy's "History of the Sunderland Jewish Community 1755-1955" (see Bibliography).

Marriages:

  • Marriages 1837-1985 searchable on All-UK Database and -  Tyne and Wear Archives Service
    (see above);

  • All marriage records are now deposited with the Office of Chief Rabbi.

Synagogue Records:

  • Minutes 1899-1984 - Tyne and Wear Archives Service (see above);

  • Lists of Subscribers, Seat Rentals 1901-1912 -  Tyne and Wear Archives Service (see above);

  • Annual Reports 1904-1996 -  Tyne and Wear Archives Service (see above);

  • Plans 1927 - Tyne and Wear Archives Service (see above).

 

Notes & Sources
( returns to text above)

  • (i) and (ii) Reserved.

  • (iii) The Sunderland Beth Hamedresh 1889-1999 by Derek Taylor & Harold Davis (2010) ("Taylor-Davis's History") pp.245/9.

  • (iv) In an appeal for funds inserted in The Jewish Chronicle in 1858 (see HERE for full text), it was stated that the Jewish congregations in Sunderland had existed " for the last 90 years" - History of the Sunderland Jewish Community 1955-1955 by Arnold Levy (1956) ("Levy's History") p.26.

  • (v) Cecil Roth's The Rise of Provincial Jewry.

  • (vi) Reserved.

  • (vii) Jewish Historical Studies - Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England, volume 40 (2005) ("Transaction No. 40") - "The nineteenth-century constitution of the Sunderland congregation" by Rabbi Bernard Susser, p. 8. The article inclides a full copy of the 1821 constitution, a complete translation and explanatory notes.

  • (viii) The phrase "Israelite" Congregation was used as an alternative to the now more comonly used ""Hebrew" Congregation.

  • (ix) Reserved.

  • (x) Appeal in The Jewish Chronicle of 1858 - History of the Sunderland Jewish Community 1955-1955 by Arnold Levy (1956) ("Levy's History") p.26.

  • (xi) "Transaction No. 40" p.8.

  • (xii) Levy's History p.145.

  • (xiii) However in Taylor-Davis's History p.251, it states that the synagogue was last used for services in July 2006.

  • (xiv) Reserved.

  • (xv) Levy's History p.145.

  • (xvi) Sunderland Echo article of 23 May 2021 and Taylor-Davis's History p.251,

  • (xvii) to (xix) Reserved.

  • (xx) Taylor-Davis's History p.20.

  • (xxi) Levy's History p.54 and Taylor-Davis's History p.21 (which refers to the foundation stone as laid in May 1861).

  • (xxii) Levy's History pp.57/8.

  • (xxiii) Levy's History pp.114/5.

  • (xxiv) Taylor-Davis's History p.53.

  • (xxv) and (xxvi) Reserved.

  • (xxvii) This list includes those early spiritual leaders (principally readers) who effectively performed the duties of a minister, although they were not generally described as such.

  • (xxviii) Levy's History pp.38, 46, 84 and 155/6.

  • (xxix) Levy's History pp.29, 30, 45, 55 and 156.

  • (xxx) Levy's History, p.55 refers to Rev. Woolf's election and The Jewish Chronicle of 24 November 1865 published his death notice. He position was described as "preacher, assistant chazan and teacher"

  • (xxxi) Levy's History, p.64 (Rev. Hart's commencement) and p.82 (resignation). He position was described as "chazan, teacher, etc. ".

  • (xxxii) and (xxxiv) Reserved.

  • (xxxv) Levy's History, p.82 (Rev. Levy's commencement) and p.89 (resignation).

  • (xxxvi) Jewish Chronicle of 22 December 1911 (article on the congregation by Rabbi Dr. Salis Daiches relates that in April 1883 Rev. Harris was appointed minister and teacher); Levy's History,, p.91 (Rev. Harris's resignation).

  • (xxxvii) Levy's History, p.92 (Rev. Green's commencement) and p.1og (resignation).

  • (xxxviii) Levy's History, p.106 (Rev. Phillips's commencement) and p.112 (resignation).

  • (xxxix) Jewish Chronicle of 1 October 1897 reported that Rev. Lawrence, the newly-elected minister, gave his inaugural sermon the previous Sabbath; Levy's History, p.122 (Rev. Lawrence's resignation). He was listed as minister of the congregation in Jewish Year Books 1898/9 through 1904/5. The office was shown as vacant in the 1905/6 edition.

  • (xl) and (xli) Reserved.

  • (xlii) Jewish Chronicle of 3 February 1905 reported that Rev. Dr. Samuel Daiches had been elected as minister of the congregation the previous Sunday. Levy's History, p.124 (Rev. Dr. Samuel Daiches's resignation). He was listed (as Rev. Dr. Daiches) as minister of the congregation in Jewish Year Books 1906/7 through 1907/8.

  • (xliii) Levy's History, p.127 (Rev. Dr. Salis Daiches's commencement) and p.137 (resignation) He was listed as minister of the congregation in Jewish Year Books 1909 through 1919. The office was shown as vacant in the 1920 edition.

  • (xliv) Levy's History, p.140 (Rev. Plaskow's commencement) and p.142 (resignation). He was lited as minister of the congregation in Jewish Year Books 1921 through 1923. The office was shown as vacant in the 1924 edition.

  • (xlv) Levy's History, p.143 (Rabbi Silverstone's commencement) and p.145 (resignation). He was lited as minister of the congregation in Jewish Year Books 1925 through 1927. The office was shown as vacant in the 1928 edition.

  • (xlvi) Levy's History, p.149 (Rev. Toperoff's commencement) and p.154 (resignation). Rev. Toperoff provides an account of his ministry in Sunderland in this book (pp. 242/5). 

  • (xlvii) and (xlviii) Reserved.

  • (xlix) The Jewish Chronicle reported on 14 December 1951 that a "call" was extended to Rabbi Turetsky to be minister of the congregation and on 17 July 1959 that a presentation had been made by the staff and classes of the congregation to Rabbi Turetsky on his departure for Leeds.

  • (l) The Jewish Chronicle reported on 15 April 1960 that Rabbi Gastwirth had accepted a "call" to be minister of the congregation and headmaster of the religion classes and hoped to commence his duties during the summer and on 26 February 1965 it mentioned that Rabbi Gastwirth had left Sunderland in September 1964.

  • (li) The Jewish Chronicle reported on 26 February 1965 that Rev. Susser had accepted a "call" to be the minister of the congregation and headmaster of the classes and on 19 February 1971 it reported on the farewell sermon of Rabbi Susser.

  • (lii) The Jewish Chronicle reported of 4 June 1971 that Rabbi Cofnas had accepted a " call" to be minister of the congregation and on 27 June 1975 that he had accepted a "call" from the Cardiff United Synagogue.

  • (liii) The Jewish Chronicle reported of 31 May 1957 reported that Rev. Braunold of the Great Central Synagogue was recently entertained at the home of Rabbi N. Shapiro. Rosh of the Glasgow Yeshiva, before leaving Glasgow to take up the appointment of Second Reader to the congregation. He died in office on 29 March 1984 (obituary in The Jewish Chronicle).

  • (liv) Rabbi Zahn's obituary The Jewish Chronicle on 23 March 2001 and Taylor-Davis's History pp.241 & 252. From 1985, the congregation was the only Jewish congregation in Sunderland.

  • (lv) to (lviii) Reserved.

  • (lix) Rev. Schrieber was appointed Chazan-Shochet in December 1866, duties commencing on last Satureday in December (Levy's History, p.64). He submitted his resignation on 6 February 1869, which was accepted (Levy's History, p.81).

  • (lx) Rev. Friedlander was appointed was appointed reader at a meeting held on 1 January 1871 (Levy's History, p.82). He served until 1878 (biography on Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Vol.XV).

  • (lxi) "In May 1888, the reader and shochet, the Rev. S.J. Levy, left the congregation on being appointed to a similar post in Leeds." (Levy's History, p.91). He is not mentioned elsewhere.

  • (lxii) At a general meeting of the congregation held in July 1888 "the Rev. W. Kantorowitz was elected Reader and Shochet." (Levy's History, p.91.) In July 1897, "the Rev. Mr. Kantorowitz accepteda call from Johannesburg, South Africa." (Levy's History, p.112.)

  • (lxiii) At a meeting of the congregation held in September 1887 the Rev. L. Muscat, of Manchester, was unanimously elected shochet, chazan and mohel." (Levy's History, p.112.) Levy's History, p.142 refers to his move to Swansea in 1923 and his recall in early 1924. He died in office. In periods when the congregation was without a minister, in particular shortly before his death, he performed the duties of acting minister He was listed as reader of the congregation in Jewish Year Books only from 1909 through 1930 and as acting minister in 1930.

  • (lxiv) to (lxv) Reserved.

  • (lxvi) Rev. Oler was listed as first reader of the congregation in Jewish Year Books 1932 through 1940 and in the 1945/6 edition (althoughthi smay have been an error). He was also listed as acting minister in the editions 1932 through 1934.

  • (lxvii) Rev. Burland was listed as second reader of the congregation in Jewish Year Books 1932 through 1945/6.

  • (lxviii) Based upon Rev. Slotki's listing as second reader of the congregation in Jewish Year Books 1947 and 1948.

  • (lxix) Based upon Rev. Wilenzyck's listing as first reader of the congregation in Jewish Year Books 1948 through 1957.

  • (lxx) Based upon Rev. Cohen's listing as first reader of the congregation in Jewish Year Books 1960 through 1969.

  • (lxxi) to (lxxiv) Reserved.

  • (lxxv) Levy's History, pp.42-51.

  • (lxxvi) Levy's History, pp.51-65.

  • (lxxvii) to (lxxix) Reserved.

  • (lxxx) Images of the two tablets appear opposite p.143 of Levy's History.

  • (lxxxi) With effect from the 1956 edition, the Jewish Year Book generally ceased providing details of honorary officers, although it generally continued to provide details of the congregation's secretary.

  • (lxxxii) Although the tablet indicates that Jacob Goldberg was elected parnass in 1922 and in 1930, it appears, based upon Jewish Year Book listings, that he was also parnass in the intervening years, and it is assumed that he served from 1922 to 1930. He died in 1930.

  • (lxxxiii) Where a person is first listed as secretary or hon. secretary of the congregation in a Jewish Year Book, it has been assumed that his term of office commenced in the year of publication of the relevant year book and that he continued in office until the commencement of office of his successor, unless the office was vacant. Initially year books corresponded to the Hebrew year, and thus ran roughly from autumn of one year - the year of publication - until autumn of the next year. From 1909, year books were published according to the Gregorian year, being published generally towards the end of the year prior to the year appearing in the title of the year book. For example, if an officer is listed in Jewish Year Books 1949 through 1954, it is assumed that he commenced office in 1948 and continued in office until 1954. However, it should be noted that this is only an assumption and, accordingly, his actual years of office may differ somewhat from those shown here.

  • (lxxxiv) The Jewish Year Book was not published during the war years 1941 to 1945. However, as Jack Goldberg was listed as secretary prior to such period (in the editions from 1926 through 1940) and in the first publication following the war (the 1945/6 edition), it is assumed that he also srved as secretary throughout the war, although by no means certain as, in July 1941, he changed his name to Jack Grantham.

  • (lxxxv) Listed in The Jewish Directory of 1874 by Asher I. Myers.

  • (lxxxvi) Reports on synagogue membership in the United Kingdom, published by the Board of Deputies of British Jews and which can be viewed on the website of the Institute of Jewish Policy Research. Click HERE for links to the various reports.

  • (lxxxvii) to (c) Not utilized.

  • (ci) The listed addresses first appearing respectively in Jewish Year Books 1896/7, 1925 and 1930.

  • (cii) The 1867 figure comes from Levy's History, p.64 and the 1874 figure from The Jewish Directory of 1874 by Asher I. Myers. The remaining figures are from Jewish Year Books for the relevant years.

  • (ciii) Reserved.

  • (civ) Jewish Year Book 1897/8.

  • (cv) Its last listing was in Jewish Year Book 1945/6, merely repeating the same officers who served prior to World War II.

  • (cvi) Jewish Year Books for the relevant years.

  • (cvii) and (Cviii) Reserved.

  • (cix) Listed in Jewish Year Books from 1939 through 1956.

  • (cx) Listed in Jewish Year Books from 1927 through 1933.

  • (cxi) Listed in Jewish Year Books from 1947 through 1956.

Sunderland Jewish Community home page

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Page created: 10 February 2006
Data significantly expanded and notes added: 10 January 2022
Page most recently amended: 22 March 2022


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