An Eternal Light: Brody, in Memoriam

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Translation of
Ner Tamid: Yizkor leBrody

Edited by: Organization of former Brody residents in Israel, 1994



Project Coordinator

Moshe Kutten


Marjorie Stamm Rosenfeld (emerita)


Our sincere appreciation to Yariv Gilboa, of the Organization of Former
Brody residents in Israel for permission to put this material on the JewishGen web site.

This is a translation from: Ner Tamid: Yizkor leBrody; An Eternal Light: Brody in Memoriam;
Organization of former Brody residents in Israel, 1994.

Note:The original book can be seen online at the NY Public Library site: Brody (pdf)

Purchase details for a printed copy of this translation can be found at

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About An Eternal Light

The city of Brody – now in Ukraine but in Austrian Galicia in the 19th century and in Poland between the two world wars--boasted a Jewish presence for almost 400 years. A Jewish community was documented there as early as 1588 and endured until 1943, when the last Jews were deported from Brody for extermination in a Nazi death camp. A number of survivors who had miraculously escaped the Nazi death machine ended up in Israel. There, in 1955, Nathan-Michael Gelber's Toldot Yehudei Brody 1584-1943 (Brody: A History of the Jews of Brody 1584-1943)was published by Mosad HaRav Kook in Jerusalem as part of a series about towns in Europe which had been home to Jews. Meanwhile, other Brody survivors dreamed of a second book to commemorate and perpetuate their mother city. What they envisioned was a spirited collection containing historical essays, remembrances, testimonies, even poems, about what life had been like in Brody. Out of this dream was born the volume Ner Tamid: Yizkor LeBrody (An Eternal Light: Brody, in Memoriam), published by the Organization of Former Brody Residents in Israel in 1994.
Marjorie Stamm Rosenfeld
(Project Coordinator emerita)
Translator's Foreword

My father, Aharon Kutten, ran away from his home in Brody when he was 16 years old, jumping, at the spur of a moment, on a train that took young members of a Zionist organization, for whom he was counselor, on their way to Palestine. While the young kids were sent by their parents to Palestine, he left without any documentation and with only his shirt on his back. He made it to Palestine, after stealing borders on the train and living on the streets of Trieste, Italy for two years. He went back to visit his parents in Brody in winter 1938, but they could not or would not leave with him. He left Europe just in time before WW II broke out and was able to build a home, a family, as well as a successful and extremely productive career in Israel. My grandparents, Khana and Moshe Kutten, perished in the Holocaust along with the six million Jewish martyrs.

My parents, Aharon and Sonia Kuten, did not talk to us much about their childhood and about their family life in their hometowns. Being young and busy with our own lives and family we were not smart enough to interrogate them until it was too late.

I found out that my father's story and the stories of his siblings, who also escaped Europe in time, were not unique when I started reading the “Ner Tamid–Brody Yizkor” book, in search for more information on the Jewish life in Brody. I learned so much about the culturally rich Jewish life in Brody before the war and the events during Holocaust from this book that it drove me to translate it to English, so that my children and my descendants would be able to read it when they start to ask questions.

I am also thankful for the opportunity presented to me, to be able to do my small part in making sure that the Holocaust and the rich Jewish life in Europe would never be forgotten

Moshe Kutten
Pennsylvania, USA


Front cover - painted by the artist Shmuel Lamm
Back cover - Memorial in “Yad Vashem”


[book cover sleeve]

This book tells about Brody's Jews during a period of 400 years of the existence of their community: about the changes they went through, the days of flourishing and glory and the days of lowliness and poverty, and the way Brody came to be called “Jerusalem of Galitzia”, until its destruction during the Holocaust.

The first part of the book, authored by the historian N. M. Gelber z”l, along with the entry “Brody” from “Pinkas Ha'Kehilot”, embodies the history of the community from its establishment until its destruction (1588 - 1943).

The second part of the book - which is the main part - contains the description of the community between the two World Wars, until its destruction during the Second World War. Presented are testimonies and memories from the Holocaust (chapter three and four), which complement the original details of the history of the community and its tragic and cruel end during the period of the Holocaust.

The fifth chapter of the book - “Images and Eulogies” ends with a list of the “Righteous of the Nations of the World”, who saved a few of our Brody's community Jews.

The Yizkor chapter, containing the list of our community martyrs who were killed during the Holocaust at the hands of evil gentiles “For the sanctification of the Name,” is actually a realization of the idea of the publication of a memorial book for those who were buried in mass graves in foreign soil, those who were not given a Jewish burial and those whose burial location is unknown.

The following lists were added to the Yizkor chapter: A list of Brody's young people who fought against the Nazis and were killed during the years 1939 - 1945, a list of Brody's natives who passed away in Israel and a list of Brody's natives and their descendants who were killed during the Israel campaigns.

Two appendices were added at the end of the book: an appendix in English and the article “We the Polish Jews” by Julian Tuvim.



The Founders of the Organization of Former Brody and its Vicinity Residents in Israel
Uri Gasthalter Naphtali Jacob Rotmann
David Hammermann, of blessed memory Haya Shahar-Donner
Nathan Meirsohn Moshe Shalmi-Stadtmauer
Josef Parvari-Leiner, of blessed memory Haim Shmuszkin
Alexander-Olek Podmerner Mendel Singer, of blessed memory
Moshe Rosenblum, of blessed memory Anshel Stromwasser, of blessed memory
The Former Brody and its Vicinity Residents Committee
Naphtali Harash Moshe Shalmi-Stadtmauer
Hermann Lilian Raphael Shlinger-Shalev
Dov Pestes (chairman) Haim Shmuszkin
Alexander-Olek Podmerner Eliezer Tolmacz
Zipora Rom Jacob Tomashower
Haya Shahar-Donner Isaac Zohar-Zorne
The Memorial Book's Committee
David Altmann Dov Pestes
Josef Ettinger, of blessed memory Zipora Rom
Bianka Lilian Zehava Shmuszkin
Malwina Lilian-Dembinski Isaac Zohar-Zorne
The Editorial Board
Yehoshua-Shiko Mandel
Aviv Meltzer (editor-in-chief)
Josef Parvari-Leiner, of blessed memory
Sarah-Samith Shmuszkin-Rubinstein


Eternal memorial to Brody's martyrs in Holon cemetery


Map of Brody
Preface Yehoshu'a-Shiko Mandel 1
At the Outset Aryeh Tartakover 9
On the Character of the Brody Community Aryeh Tartakover 11
Snail, Emerge from Your Shell! Simon Sauber 17
Chapter One: Brody – its History and Jewish Community
On the Start of the Jewish Settlement in Brody
from his History of the Jews of Brody: “Jewish Mother Cities”, Vol. 6, Mosad HaRav Kook, Jerusalem (1955) , pp 13-14
The Jewish Settlement of Brody from its Beginnings until its annihilation; from “Pinkas Ha'kehilot”, Jerusalem (1979-80), pp 121-134
Nathan Michael Gelber 23
Brody, “Jerusalem of Austria” Nathan Michael Gelber 50
The Last Fire – May 23, 1867 Adele Landau-Mises 55
Brodyites in Leipzig A. Yehuda (Osterzetzer) 59
The Synagogue in Brody
from The Synagogues in Poland and Their Destruction,
Mosad HaRav Kook and “Yad Va-Shem,” Jerusalem, 1943
David Davidowitz 61
Chapter Two: Culture and Society
The Sages of the Brody Kloiz Rabbi I. I. Weissblum 67
The Rabbis of Brody of the Past 150 Years Meir Wender 86
The Brody Singers Yosef Parvari (Leiner) 96
The Brody Singers and their Inheritance
from Bimah II (9-10), 1961-1962, pp. 27-33
Dov Sadan 100
Brody: City of Border and Immigrants
from his With Joseph Hayyim Brenner to the Land of Israel Sixty Years Ago,
Mo'etzet Po'alei Haifa, 1969, pp. 19-29
Mendel Zinger 108
On the Very Close Connection of the Jews of Brody and of Volhynia Joseph Parvari (Leiner) 114
The Aliyah of the Halutzim, “Artificial Immigration” and Hakhshara Activities
from his With Joseph Hayyim Brenner to the Land of Israel Sixty Years Ago,
Mo'etzet Po'alei Haifa, 1969, pp. 29-47
Mendel Zinger 117
The Shomer Branch on Leshniovska Street Sonya Katzman-Vinogradov 129
Jewish Brody in the Last Decade of its Existence, As I Remember It Yitzhak Zohar (Izio Zorne) 135
The Sorrow of the Lonely Jewish Homes
from his book “Realm of Childhood” , “Dvir,” Tel-Aviv, 1938, pp. 64-74
Dov Sadan (Stock) 143
Women's Organization in Brody Bianca Lilian 150
Chapter Three: Testimonies to the Holocaust
Correspondence between Shlomo Bardach in the Brody Ghetto and his Sister-in-law Dora Bardach in Switzerland   155
“From a Letter to the Editor” Shmuel Stoianover and Raphael Shalev 158
The Last Days of the Community
This report was translated from Yiddish to Hebrew by Yaakov Netaneli-Rotman.
It is citied from Nathan Michael Gelber's History of the Jews of Brody:
“Mother Cities” in Israel, Vol. 6,
Mosad HaRav Kook, Jerusalem [1955], pp. 397-406
Kalman Harnik 159
“I Alone Survived of My Family” Gina Lantzeter 169
The Jewish Fighting Organization in Brody
From the collection "Underground Movements in the Ghettoes and the Camps,"
The editor Betty Eisenstein, 1946, published by the War Archives, the Jewish Committee in Cracow (in Polish)
Brody in the Days of the Nazi Conquest Amalia Olesker Friedmann 175
Revenge on the Murderer Hersh Pollack 180
In the Days of Wrath Vladislava Larissa Choms (Righteous Among the Nations) 185
Testimony Genya Rosenfeld-Berger 189
The Hand of Fate Pessya Loewy 191
In the Days of the Conquest (Excerpts from a Diary) Fanya Zorne Laufer 192
Brody Happenings during the Years 1941-1943 Malvina (Mishka) Lillian-Dembinsky 197
Testimony (in third person) Raphael Shalev (Fulu Shlinger) 202
Memories from Brody Berta Landgeuertz Miasnik 208
My Mother—Pela Pepernik-Poliner Rivka Flumin 210
My Father, My Mother, and My Sister Bronia Roth 212
Testimony Abraham (ben Hayyim Noah) Shapira 214
Two Testimonies Clara–Khaya Zhorna 216
“What We Ourselves Experienced” Khayim and Bina Gasthalter 220
Chapter Four: Remembrances
A String of Memories Joseph Parvari (Leiner) 261
In Memory of the City of Brody – A “Mother City” in Israel Miriam Lieberbaum (Dishel) 271
In Memoriam Yitzhak Zorne-Zohar 273
Brody David Altman 274
How My Family and Rabbi Steinberg's Family Were Saved Ya'akov Braun 287
The Last “Oleh” from Brody Issac (Yitzchak) Weltman 292
My Family in Brody before World War I Shmuel Lamm 305
How Fortunate was I Hinda Wahl (Hela Tuch-Tuviel) 307
From My Father's House Naftali Harash 309
My Family of Blessed Memory Joseph Kahana 311
Members of My Family and Images of Brody Preserved in My Heart Joseph Ettinger 313
There Was a Pious Man Ya'akov Lieberman 318
Friday at Home Berta Kalenberg (Margulies) 320
My Family's Fate Eliezer Tolmetz 322
My Family's Fate Lea Shduel 323
My Family Lola Rotenberg-Buchan 324
About My Family That Is No More Pnina Hertzberg Lansky 326
Memories from My Father's House Hadassah Esther Nathan (Weiss) 327
A Visit to Brody – 45 Years Later . . . Ziporah Rom 331
Chapter Five: Images and Eulogies
Our Teacher Nachum Okser, Brody's Janusz Korczak Joseph Parvari (Leiner) 341
A Letter from Brody Heinrich Adler 343
Through the Window (a poem) Hadassah Esther Nathan (Weiss) 346
Samuel Weiler Joseph Parvari (Leiner) 347
Alas, German Mothers! (a poem) Fanya Zorne 350
The Brody “Klezmers” Samuel Lamm 352
In Memory of My Parents Simcha and Yasse Weiser Shoshana Weiser 353
Two Episodes Shraga Weintraub 354
In Memory of Our Father Ya'akov Unreich Rivka Matushewicz 355
My Father's House (a poem) Fanya Zorne 356
Profiles from Brody Joseph Kahana 359
Our Father Joseph Parvari Uri and Elazar Parvari 360
Our City Brody Shaul Perlmutter 362
“Kaddish” for the Lost Avshalom Sion-Szmuszkin 367
My Friend Nunek Raphael (Fulu) Shalev-Shlinger 374
List of the “Righteous of the Nations of the World” Who Saved a Few of Brody's Jews   375
Chapter Six: Memorial Pages
Yizkor [prayer]   381
List of the Martyrs of Brody and its Environs   383
The Youth of Brody Who Fought the Nazis and Fell in the Years 1939-1945   420
Former Brody Residents Who Passed Away in Israel   421
Former Brody Residents and their Offsprings Who Fell in Israel's Campaigns   426
English Section
Preface Yehoshu'a-Shiko Mandel 11*
The Jewish Settlement of Brody: From its Beginnings Until 1919
(From “Pinkas Hakehilot”)
We Polish Jews (My, Zydzi Polscy)
(Translation from Polish - Hebrew, Yiddish versions also appear in the book)
Julian Tuwim 53*
List of Pictures
Map and aerial photographs of Brody
Name index

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