Norwich Hebrew Congregation

Norwich, Norfolk




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Former Norwich Synagogue, destroyed in a Nazi air raid 1942

The two principal books on the history of the congregation are The Norwich Hebrew Congregation 1940-1960 - A Short History by Henry Levine, 1961 (here referred to as "Levine's History") and The Norwich Hebrew Congregation 1940-1960 - The Short of a Community Fifty Years Plus 1960-2019 by Maureen Leveton, 2019 (here referred to as "Leveton's History").

Norwich Synagogue logo 

Congregation Data


Norwich Hebrew Congregation


3 Earlham Road, Norwich NR2 3RA

Initially a pre-fabricated synagogue was erected on the site, in use from 1948. The Communal Hall, with a flat above to house the congregation's minister, was built in 1951 and consecrated by then Chief Rabbi, Dr Israel Brodie. Later plans were prepared and building commenced on a permanent synagogue, which was completed in 1968 and consecrated on 16 October 1969 by the then Chief Rabbi, Dr Immanuel Jacobovitz.(iii)

Previous Synagogue:

Synagogue Street (previously known as St. Faiths Lane), Mountergate, Norwich

The site was purchased for £150 and the foundation stone for this beautiful synagogue, situated in St Faiths Lane on the corner of a small street which was later renamed Synagogue Street, was laid on 26 June 1848 by the congregation's president Joel Fox and the services were conducted by Rev. Simon Caro. The synagogue was consecrated on 6 September 1849 by Chief Rabbi Dr. N. Adler.(iv)

In 1942, the synagogue was tragically destroyed in a German air raid.  Thereafter, services were held temporarily in the Spiritualist Church hall, Chapel Field North, Theatre Street, Norwich, until the congregation move to Earham Road.(v)

Earlier Synagogues:

From 25 July 1828 to 1848, the synagogue was in Tombland Alley (opposite Norwich Cathedral),(viii) the restored seventeenth century building thought to have housed the synagogue, at 2 Tombland Alley, Norwich NR3 1HL,(ix) is a Grade II Listed Building (number 1210840) designated on 5 June 1972. View description on Historic England website.

Previously, the following had been reported as the location of the synagogue:

  • A large room in a house in Ber Street, in the district of St. John De Sepulchre (where the first and oldest cemetery was situated).(x)

  • A room in Gowing's Court, St Stephen’s Street.(xi)

  • In 1746, the synagogue was situated to the southwest of Norwich Castle on an unmarked lane running from Hog Hill to Cheese and Hay Market. This was clearly marked as "The Jews New Synagogue and Schools" on a 1746 map of Norwich by Francis Blomefield.(xii)


The dates frequently viewed for the founding of the congregation are 1848 (the building of the St. Faiths Lane synagogue) or 1828 (the opening of the Tombland Abbey synagogue), although organised congregations met in Norwich prior to those dates, as indicated above. Other dates given are 1813 (from which continuous records of the Norwich community appear to date(xv)) and 1823/1842.(xvi)


Active. The congregation is the last remaining Orthodox-based congregation in East Anglia.


There services were originally all Ashkenazi Orthodox / Traditional

However, from at least 2022 an egalitarian service was held at the synagogue on one Shabbat each month, which has seen a significant increase in attendance.(xvii)


The congregation is an unaffiliated provincial congregation under the aegis of the Chief Rabbi.



Ministers:  (To view a short profile of a minister whose name appears in blue - hold the cursor over the name.)

Rev. Michael Solomon Alexander - minister / reader in 1821.(xviii)

Rev. Lyon Mordecai - shochet from 1823 possibly until 1844.(xix)

Rev. Simon Caro - minister and shochet from 1840 until 1870.(xx)

Rev. Lazarus Jacob Slevansky - minister and shochet from about 1872 until about 1874.(xxi)

Rev. Heim Neumann - minister from 1874 until about 1888.(xxii)

Rev. Louis Harrison - minister from about 1887 until at least 1890.(xxiii)

Rev. Max Schulman - minister briefly from about 1893.(xxiv)

Rev. Simon Joseph - minister and shochet from about 1895 until about 1909.(xxv)

Rev. Hermann Abrahams - minister from 1910 until about 1915.(xxvi)

Rev. Alter Behrman - minister from about 1915 until about 1917.(xxviii)

Rev. Nathan Isaacs - minister from about 1917 until about 1919.(xxix)

Rev. Philip Freedman - minister from about 1919 until about 1920.(xxx)

Rev. Maurice Isaac Fabritz - minister from 1921 until 1950.(xxxii)

Rev. Baruch Ben-Zion Greenberg - minister from 1950 until 1955.(xxxiii)

Rev. Harold Lerner - minister from 1955 until 1959.(xxxvi)

Rabbi Dr. Alfred Willman - minister from 1959 until 1964.(xxxvii)

Rev. Maurice Joseph Golomb - minister from 1964 until 1967.(xxxviii)

Mr. Sam Stone - lay reader from 1967 until 1968.(xl)

Rev. Harold Silman - lay reader / minister from 1968 until 1970.(xli)

Rev. Harry Levine - lay reader / minister from 1971 until 1983.(xlii)

Mr. Cecil Jackson - lay reader from 1983 until 1987.(xliv)

Mr. Menachem Friedman - lay reader / minister from April 1987 until 1993.(xlv)

Rev. Mark Daniels - lay reader / minister from 1993 until August 1997.(xlvi)

Rev. Steven Burns - lay reader / minister from December 1997 until June 1998.(xlviii)

Rev. Alex Bennett - lay reader / minister from 2000 until 2013.(xlix)

Rev. Daniel Rosenthal - minister from 2013 until present (May 2023).(l)

Lay Officers of the Congregation:

Generally, unless otherwise stated, data on lay officers has been extracted from the following sources:

  • Years 1840-1896 and 1940-1945 - Levine's History, pp.43/5.

  • Years 1896-1940 and 1945-1960 - from listings in Jewish Year Books (first published 1896/7) and (except Secretaries from 1897-1913) Levine's History, pp.44/6.(lviii)

  • Years 1960-1984 and 1997-2012  - from listings in Jewish Year Books and Leveton's History, pp.108/9.

  • Years 1984-1997 and 2012-2020 - from Leveton's History, pp. 108/9.

  • Years 2020-2023 - from Maureen Leveton.


c.1828-1835 - Barnett Crawcour(lx)

1840-1842 - Joel Fox

1842-1844 - Myers Levine

1844-1850 - Joel Fox(lxi)

1850-1851 - Myers Levine

1851-1852 - Joel Fox

1851-1854 - Moses Kisch

1854-1855 - Abraham Keysor

1855-1856 - Emanuel Hyams

1856-1857 - Maurice Joseph

1857-1858 - Israel Bloch

1858-1859 - Philip Cohen

1859-1860 - Maurice Joseph

1860-1863 - Israel Bloch

1863-1864 - Joel Fox

1864-1883 - Israel Bloch(lxii)

1884-1887 - Philip Haldinstein

1887-1919 - Alfred Isaac Haldinstein, JP

1919-1921 - Samuel H. Harrison

1921-1924 - Louis Ecker

1924-1926 - Max Brenner

1926-1928 - Ellis Jacobs

1928-1929 - Archie King

1929-1931 - Dan Benjamin

1931-1932 - Louis Ecker

1932-1934 - Adolph H. Saxton

1934-1935 - Louis Ecker

1935-1937 - Max Brenner

1937-1941 - Louis Ecker

1941-1951 - Emanuel Solomon

1951-1954 - Cyril D. Leveton

1954-1955 - Emanuel Solomon

1955-1957 - Teddy F. Keller

1957-1960 - Cyril D. Leveton

1960-1963 - Henry Levine

1963-1966 - Cyril D. Leveton

1966-1969 - Henry Levine

1969-1972 - Cyril D. Leveton

1972-1975 - Cyril Caplan

1975-1978 - Cyril D. Leveton

1978-1981 - Jack Stern

1981-1984 - Cyril Caplan

1984-1986 - vacant

1986-1989 - Jack Stern

1989-1990 - Dr. A. Woolstone

1990-1993 - Jack Stern

1993-1994 - Peter Cummin

1994-1997 - Jack Stern

1997-2000 - Mrs. Ethel Imber-Lithman

2000-2003 - Victor Bishop

2003-2006 - Barrie Mencher

2006-2009 - Clive Roffe

2009-2012 - Peter Prinsley

2012-2015 - Maureen Leveton

2015-2018 - Marian Prinsley

2018-2021 - Barry Leveton

2021-2023 - John Cadywould


1840-1842 - Myers Levine

1842-1844 - Simon Aaron

1844-1850 - Myers Levine

1850-1852 - Abraham Keysor

1852-1855 - Joel FoxDaniel Soman

1855-1856 - Israel Bloch

1856-1857 - Philip Cohen

1857-1858 - Philip CohenEmanuel Hyams

1858-1859 - Joseph Griffenberg

1859-1860 - Joel FoxJoseph Griffenberg

1860-1861 - Philip CohenJoseph Griffenberg

1861-1863 - Daniel Soman

1863-1887 - Benjamin Samuel

1887-1897 - Jacob Caro

1897-1899 - S. Symons

1899-1902 - Samuel H. Harrison

1902-1903 - J. Fredman

1902-1906 - Walter Joseph

1906-1917 - Louis Ecker

1917-1918 - Samuel H. Harrison

1918-1919 - David Braham

1919-1920 - Isaac Leveton

1920-1921 - Max Brenner

1921-1923 - Ellis Jacobs

1923-1924 - Adolph H. Saxton

1924-1926 - H. Goodhall

1926-1928 - Archie King

1928-1929 - Dan Benjamin

1929-1931 - Max Brenner

1931-1934 - H. Goodhall

1934-1935 - George Haldinstein


Vice Presidents (1935-1938)

1935-1936 - S.H. Levine

1936-1937 - J. Phillips

1937-1938 - Hyman Simons


Treasurers (cont.)(lxiv)

1938-1939 - Hyman Simons

1939-1940 - Louis Levine

1940-1941 - Mr. Daniels

1941-1945 - George Haldinstein

1945-1952 - Ronald Ecker

1952-1953 - Teddy F. Keller

1953-1954 - L.E. Goodman, JP

1954-1957 - Louis Burke

1957-1960 - Henry Levine

1960-1962 - Jack Stern

1962-1963 - Louis Burke

1963-1964 - Abe Cohen

1964-1967 - Sam Stone

1967-1999 - Victor Bishop(lxv)

1999-2018 - Nick Simons

2018-2023 - Peter Prinsley

Vice Presidents (from 1960)

1960-1962 - Jack Stern

1962-1963 - Louis Burke

1963-1964 - Abe Cohen

1964-1969 - Sam Stone

1975-1978 - Jack Stern

1978-1980 - Cyril Caplan

1981-1985 - Cecil Jackson

1987-1988 - Victor Bishop

1989-1990 - Jack Stern

1990-1992 - Dr. A. Woolstone

1992-1993 - Shaoul Salmon

1994-1995 - Derek Gillman

1995-1996 - Desmond Levine

1996-1997 - Mrs. Ethel Imber-Lithman

1997-2001 - Jack Stern

2001-2003 - Mrs. Ethel Imber-Lithman

2009-2018 - Clive Roffe

2018-2023 - Marian Prinsley

Secretaries & Hon Secretaries

1840-1842 - Myers Levine

1842-1844 - Simon Aaron

1844-1849 - Myers Levine

1849-1850 - Moses Kisch

1850-1863 - Simon Caro

1863-1887 - Benjamin Samuel

1887-1898 - Jacob Caro

1898-1901 - S. Symons

1901-1903 - Samuel H. Harrison

1903-1904 - J. Fredman

1904-1907 - Walter Joseph

1906-1913 - Louis Ecker

1913-1918 - Dan Benjamin

1918-1920 - Ellis Jacobs

1920-1925 - Cyril D. Leveton

1922-1932 - Edward Ecker

1932-1934 - Alfred B. Rosen

1934-1936 - I. Phillips

1936-1937 - Ronald Solomon

1937-1938 - Ronald Solomon & G. Levy

1938-1939 - Ronald Solomon

1939-1940 - M. Barnett

1940-1945 - Miss Rose Ecker

1945-1946 - Mrs. K. Trafford

1946-1951 - Lionel Saxton 

1951-1961 - Victor N. Brenner

1961-1962 - Louis Burke

1962-1966 - Cyril Caplan & Joan Goodman

1966-1969 - Cyril Caplan

1969-1972 - Cyril Caplan & Desmond Levine

1972-1979 - Desmond Levine

1979-1989 - Simon Goodman

1988-1989 - Jack Griffith

1989-1990 - Mark Green

1990-1995 - Jack Griffith

1995-1997 - Bryan Levy

1997-1999 - Jack Griffith

1999-2006 - Peter Prinsley, FRICS

2006-2010 - George Wilson

2010-2011 - M. Barrie Mencher

2011-2023 - Fay Candywould

Communal Journals:(lxx)

The Brochure founded in the late 1940's, or even earlier, was produced by Norwich Zionist and Social Society (later known as Norwich Israel and Social Society).

The Synagogue Newsletter was first produced in 1985.

Membership Data:


1845 - 7 ba'alai batim and 3 seatholders (Chief Rabbi's Questionnaire)

Number of Seatholders - Board of Deputies Returns(lxxi)











Number of Members - as reported by Jewish Year Books






10 seatholders

7 seatholders
& 16 members

14 seatholders
& 17 members

37 members

47 members

Reports & Survey(lxxii)

1977 - 30 male (or household) members and 10 female members

1983 - 39 male (or household) members and 9 female members

1990 - 70 members (comprising 47 households, 4 individual male and 19 individual female members)

1996 - 71 members (comprising 37 households, 6 individual male and 28 individual female members)

2010 & 2016 - listed as having 50 to 99 members (by household)

Charitable Status:

The congregation is a registered charity (no. 1187450), registered on 20 January 2020 (standard CIO registration), with an alternative working name of Norwich Jewish Community and Heritage Centre.

It replaced an earlier registration (no. 205449) registered on 13 April 1965 (standard registration).

Cemetery Information:

For details of the cemeteries used by the congregation, see Norwish Cemetery Information)


Online Articles and Other Material
relating to this Congregation



on Third Party Websites


Other Jewish Institutions & Organisations
connected to this congregation

Educational & Theological

  • Hebrew School - founded 1890 (girls school founded 1897)(lxxvi)

    Number of pupils:
























  • Sabbath Classes - founded 1895(lxxvii)

  • Sunday Afternoon Classes - founded 1909(lxxviii)

Other Institutions

  • Jewish Ladies Society - founded 1896 (it celebrated its centenary in 1996)(lxxix). It started life as the Ladies Holy Verstment Society.(lxxx)

  • Chevra Kadisha (Holy Burial Society) - founded by 1896.(lxxxi)


Notes & Sources
( returns to text above)

  • (i) and (ii) Reserved.

  • (ii) "History" on the congregation's website and various Jewish Year Books.

  • (iv) Provincial Jewry in Victorian Britain section on Norwich and Levine's History, pp. 9-13.

  • (v) "History" on the congregation's website and Jewish Year Books 1945/6 through 1948.

  • (vi) and (vii) Reserved.

  • (viii) The "History" on the congregation's website refers to the synagogue opening here in 1828 and the opening of the St. Faiths Lane Synagogue in 1849. The indication being that this was the address of the synagogue for some two decades.

  • (ix) Jewish Heritage in Britain and Ireland by Sharman Kadish, pp. 133/4

  • (x) Provincial Jewry in Victorian Britain section on Norwich.

  • (xi) Congregation's website.

  • (xii) Jewish Heritage in Britain and Ireland by Sharman Kadish, p. 133.

  • (xiii) and (xiv) Reserved.

  • (xv) Cecil Roth's The Rise of Provincial Jewry, section on Norwich, which is also the date of establishment given in the Jewish Year Book 1934/6.

  • (xvi) The first editions of the Jewish Year Books from 1896/7 give 1842 as the date of establishment of the congregation, as does the 1950 edition, which appears to be an error if the dates of the Tombland Abbey synagogue are correct. The 1936 edition states that the congregation was established in 1823 and re-established in 1842.

  • (xvii) Discussion with the president of the congregation, April 2024.

  • (xviii) Nelson Fisher's Eight Hundred Years - The Story of Nottingham's Jews (1998), p.174.

  • (xix) Cecil Roth's The Rise of Provincial Jewry, section on Norwich.

  • (xxx) "History" on the congregation's website.

  • (xxi) Listed as secretary, reader and shochet of the congregation in the Jewish Directory for 1874, edited by Asher I. Myers.

  • (xxii) Jewish Chronicle reports.

  • (xxiii) Rev. Harrison was listed as minister from 1889 by Henry Levine in The Norwich Hebrew Congregation 1940-1960 - A Short History, p.41. However, Jewish Chronicle reports of 25 November 1887 and 10 January 1890 place Rev Harrison in Norwich.

  • (xxiv) Rev. Schulman was listed as minister from 1893 by Henry Levine in The Norwich Hebrew Congregation 1940-1960 - A Short History, p.41.

  • (xxv) Listed as minister of the congregation in Jewish Year Books !896/7 through 1910 (although the 1896/7 edition gave the initial J. Joseph(sic)).

  • (xxvi) Jewish Chronicle report of 29 April 1910 described Rev. Abrahams as the newly appointed minister at Norwich. He is listed as minister of the congregation in Jewish Year Books 1911 through 1915.

  • (xxvii) Reserved.

  • (xxviii) Jewish Chronicle report of 29 April 1910 described Rev. Abrahams as the newly appointed minister at Norwich. He was listed as minister of the congregation in Jewish Year Books 1916 and 1917.

  • (xxix) Rev. N. Isaacs was listed as minister of the congregation in Jewish Year Books 1918 through 1921.

  • (xxx) Jewish Chronicle reports place Rev. Freedman in Norwich in 1919 and early 1920 and a report of 16 July 1920 reports his election as minister of the Oxford Road Hebrew Congregation, Manchester.

  • (xxxi) Reserved.

  • (xxxii) The Jewish Chronicle on 11 February 1921 reported that the Rev. M. I. Fabritz had been unanimously elected minister of the congregation and on 23 June 1950 it reported that he had been appointed minister in South Shields after 28 years as minister in Norwich. He is listed as minister of the congregation in Jewish Year Books 1922 through 1950.

  • (xxxiii) The Jewish Chronicle Obituary of 9 September 1966 reported that the death of the Rev. Baruch Greenberg "is deeply mourned by the Norwich Jewish community...During the period of his ministry from 1950 to 1955." He was listed as minister of the congregation in Jewish Year Books 1952 through 1955.

  • (xxxiv) and (xxxv) Reserved.

  • (xxxvi) Rev. Lerner was listed as minister of the congregation in Jewish Year Books 1956 through 1959.

  • (xxxvii) Jewish Chronicle Obituary of 24 April 1964. Rabbi Willman was listed as minister of the congregation in Jewish Year Books 1960 through 1964.

  • (xxxviii) The Jewish Chronicle of 27 November 1964 places Rev. Golomb in Norwich and on 31 March 1967 it reported that Rev. Golomb, formerly minister in Norwich, had been appointed minister of the Enfield Synagogue. Rev. Golomb was listed as minister of the congregation in Jewish Year Books 1965 through 1968.

  • (xxxix) Reserved.

  • (xl) "History" on the congregation's website.

  • (xli) Jewish Chronicle obituary of 24 May 2002. Rev. Silman was not listed with regard to the congregation in any Jewish Year Book.

  • (xlii) Jewish Chronicle of 8 May 1970 reported that Mr Harry Levine, has been appointed reader/teacher of the congregation and on 15 April 1983 it reported that warm tribute were paid to the Rev Harry Levine, minister of the congregation, on his retirement after twelve years of devoted service. He was listed as minister of the congregation in Jewish Year Books 1972 through 1984.

  • (xliii) Reserved.

  • (xliv) Jewish Chronicle obituary of 2 March 1990 states that Mr Cecil Jackson (m. Mimi), who has died February 1990, aged 76, took over the post of lay reader of the Norwich Hebrew Congregation on Rev. Harry Levine's retirement and served the community with great dignity and dedication for five years. He died within a day of his predecessor at Norwich, Rev. Harry Levine. He was not listed as minister of the congregation in any vJewish Year Book.

  • (xlv) "History" on the congregation's website. Menachem Friedman was married to Ester. They had been living in Israel and returned to Britain to take up the Norwich post.

  • (xlvi) The Jewish Chronicle of 8 July 2011 reported that Rabbi Daniels was the Norwich community’s lay-reader from 1993 to 1997 before he took semichah. He was listed as minister of the congregation solely in the Jewish Year Book 1998.

  • (xlvii) Reserved.

  • (xlviii) "History" on the congregation's website.

  • (xlix) The Jewish Chronicle of 11 October 2013 reported that at a kiddush, following a Simchat Torah service, the Norwich community honoured Alex Bennett — its recently retired minister who served the congregation for 14 years. He was listed as minister of the congregation in Jewish Year Books 2002 through 2014.

  • (l) Congregation's website, last accessed May 2023.

  • (li) to (lvii) Reserved.

  • (lviii) Initially Jewish Year Books corresponded to the Hebrew year, and thus ran roughly from autumn of one year - the year of publication - until autumn of the next year. From 1909, year books were published according to the Gregorian year, being published generally towards the end of the year prior to the year appearing in the title of the year book. In listings in year books, it had been assumed that a person's term of office commenced in the year of publication of the year book in which he was first listed (although if he had assumed office late in that year he would not have been listed until the subsequent edition). Where there is a descrepancy between the two sources, which was never more than a single year, we have adopted the dates given by Henry Levine. Jewish Year Books were not published during World War II subsequent to 1940.

  • (lix) Reserved.

  • (lx) Barnett Crowcour, born 1785, is considered the father of the congregation and was the founder of the Tombland Alley synagogue. He died on 25 September 1835 and is buried in the Quaker Lane cemetery (section on Norwich in Provincial Jewry in Victorian Britain). Described as a dentist, he was also the first named signatory on the deed acquiring Quaker Lane cemetery in 1813 (section on Norwich in Cecil Roth's The Rise of Provincial Jewry).

  • (lxi) Joel Fox was president who oversaw the opening of the St Faiths Lane synagogue in 1848. According to the section on Norwich in Provincial Jewry in Victorian Britain, he was president in 1853, but this appears to be incorrect as (according to Henry Levine) he was treasurer, or possibly vice president at the time.

  • (lxi) Israel Bloch was referred to as president in 1872 in the section on Norwich in Provincial Jewry in Victorian Britain and was listed as president of the congregation in the Jewish Directory for 1874, edited by Asher I. Myers.

  • (lxiii) Reserved.

  • (lxiv) In the list of officers by Henry Levene, these officers (to 1960) are listed under the heading "Treasurer or Vice President".

  • (lxv) However, according to the "History" on the congregation's website, Mr. Bishop only remained treasurer until 1997.

  • (lxvi) and (lxix) Reserved.

  • (lxx) "History" on the congregation's website.

  • (lxxi) Section on Norwich in Provincial Jewry in Victorian Britain.

  • (lxxii) Reports on synagogue membership in the United Kingdom, published by the Board of Deputies of British Jews and which can be viewed on the website of the Institute of Jewish Policy Research. Click HERE for links to the various reports.

  • (lxxiii) to (lxxv) Reserved.

  • (lxxvi) As reported in Jewish Year Books.

  • (lxxvii) Jewish Year Book 1901/2 gives 1895 as the year of founding - it was listed until at least 1938.

  • (lxxvii) Jewish Year Book 1912 gives 1909 as the year of founding - listed until at least 1913.

  • (lxxix) "History" on the congregation's website.

  • (lxxx) Listed under this name in Jewish Year Books from 1901/2. Almost consistent with the comment in the "History" on the congregation's website that it was known in 1896 as the "Norwich Jewish Ladies Ark Decorating Society".

  • (lxxxi) Listed in the first Jewish Year Book, 1896/7.

Norwich Jewish Community home page
(which includes additional information and other articles relating to this congregations)

List of Synagogues destroyed by German air raids during World War II

Jewish Congregations in Norfolk

Jewish Communities of England homepage

Page created: 2 March 2004
Data significantly expanded and notes added: 16 May 2023
Page most recently amended: 12 April 2024

Research by David Shulman
(assisted by Steven Jaffe with regard to the congregation's ministers)
Formatting by David Shulman

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