After the expulsion of Jewish families of Noerdlingen in 1507 the once flourishing Jewish Community came to an end, and no further Jewish Community was permitted in Noerdlingen until 1870. Their new cemetery was founded in 1878. The synagogue was built in 1885/86. By 1942 no Jews lived in Noerdlingen any more, due to emigration and deportation. Only Friedrich Levite and his family returned to Noerdlingen after World War II. When they died, these were the last burials at this cemetery.
Originally this burial ground had about 260 grave monuments for grown ups, today only about 200 of them are left. Many of the grave stones were taken away by the citizens of Noerdlingen after World War II, when there seemed to be no further need for these monuments, as there were no Jewish families any more. In January 1946 Agnes Weig (who by then had taken care of the Jewish cemetery) noted the names of the deceased as she recalled their burial sites before the vandalism had happened. Her memory was correct in most cases. She mentioned that 77 monuments of adults were missing by that time and 26 monuments of children. Besides that obviously not all of the replaced grave stones were brought back to their original sites, and some grave stones were even replaced later, as they don't appear in Agnes Weig's list.