The Zamosc Memorial Book
(Zamość, Poland)

50°43' / 23°15'

Translation of
Pinkas Zamosc

Edited by: Mordechai V. Bernstein

Published in Buenos Aires 1957


English Translation Prepared and Published by

Jacob Solomon Berger

Mahwah, New Jersey, USA 2004




Our sincere appreciation to Jacob Solomon Berger who has kindly donated
his original book to JewishGen for online presentation.

Our thanks to Sondra Ettlinger for extracting the pictures from the original book,
enabling their addition to the project.



This is a translation of Pinkes Zamosc; yizker-bukh (The Zamosc Memorial Book),
Edited by M. W. Bernstein, Committee of the Zamosc Memorial Book, Buenos Aires 1957 (Y, 1265 pages)


This material is made available by JewishGen, Inc. and the Yizkor Book Project for the purpose of
fulfilling our mission of disseminating information about the Holocaust and destroyed Jewish communities.
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JewishGen, Inc. makes no representations regarding the accuracy of the translation. The reader may wish to refer to the original material for verification.
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Dedication - Majer (Mark) Swiatlo
Supporters Honor Roll
The Central Committee For Pinkas Zamość xiii
Translator's Foreword xv
Foreword By Wolf Kornmass 1
The Genesis of Zamość 3
Regarding the History of the Jews in Zamość By Israel Levin (Jerusalem) 9
The Sephardim in Zamość Dr. Yaakov Shatzky 35
      1. The Creation of Zamość 35
      2. Sephardic Jews in Poland 38
      3. The Sephardic Settlement in Zamość 44
The Schul in Altstadt David Davidovich 49
The Pinkas of the Hevra Kadisha & Gemilut Hasadim of Zamość By Ephraim Kupfer 52
The Maggid of Dubno By Y. Y. Trunk (New York) 93
Historical Data & Facts 109
      A. The Decrees of 1648 in Zamość 109
      B. A Jewish Lady Cook from Zamość for the Jewish Trade Guests in Breslau in the Year 1697 111
      C. A Terrible Incident in Zamość in the Year 1727 112
      D. From the Pinkas, “The Hevra Tzedaka-Gedolah” In Zamość 113
      E. The Libel Against the Zamość Jews in 1870 and Illuminations from the Memoirs of [I. L.] Peretz 114
The Haskala in Zamość Dr. Yaakov Shatzky 116
      1. Historical Development 116
      2. The Writers and The Readers 123
      Addenda 128
      Zalman Sobel, An Unknown Fabulist from Zamość 135
The Books of the Rabbis & Sages of Zamość (Bibliography) Yaakov Dov Mandelbaum 137
Shlomo Ettinger, His Life and Personality Dr. Max Weinreich 144
      2. Joseph-Yoskeh Ettinger and His Descendants 159
      3. Dr. Shlomo Ettinger's Warsaw Friend, Y. Korngold 160
Zamość Nearly a Century Ago (Two Documents) 163
      1. The Jewish Community in Zamość 164
      2. The Jewish Colony of Zdanów Near Zamość 168
The Jewish Agricultural Colonization in the Zamość Province Y. Bartys 171
Alexander Zederbaum and “Kol Mevaser” By Sh. L. Citron 181
      The Birth Pangs of the First Jewish Newspaper 181
      “Kol Mevaser” 182
Alexander Zederbaum's Bibliography by Yefim Jeshurun 191
Yaakov Eichenbaum 192
Yaakov Reifman 194
      Yaakov Reifman's Autobiography 194
A Letter of Recommendation from Yaakov Reifman 199
Zamość, The City of I. L. Peretz 201
Zamość and Peretz By Dr. Yaakov Shatzky 202
      After Hazy Years 212
“Order” in Zamość 220
The Life and Works of I. L. Peretz 223
Peretz Has Died! By M. Olgin 229
The National Significance of I. L. Peretz By Dr. Ch. Zhitlovsky 231
Our Peretz By B. Mikhalevich 239
The Peretz-Year By Joseph Opotashu 241
The Yitzhak Leibusz Peretz Bibliography By Yefim Jeshurun 242
Yitzhak Leibusz Peretz and Berish Beckerman By Louis Gross 243
      Who Was The Baker ? 243
      He Writes Dramatic Works and Operettas 244
      Who Is The Originator of This Story? 245
      Beckerman's Journals and Brochures 246
      Beckerman's Troubles in America 247
      Beckerman Replies 249
      Beckerman Doesn't Give In Easily 250
      Beckerman Seeks a Partner 251
      Berish Beckerman 253
The She-Eagle that Flew Out of Zamość By Y. Zudiker 255
      A. Childhood and Young Years 256
      B. In the World-at-Large 258
      C. Rosa Luxembourg's Jewish Moments 260
      D. In Prisons and Out Free 261
      Rosa Luxembourg's Husband, Leo Jogiches Tiszka 262
The Zionist Movement in Zamość By Yekhiel Goldwag, Moshe Schliam 266
      Basic Overview 266
      The Movement for Hebrew in Zamość 271
The Religious Life of Our Zamość By Rabbi Abraham Goldschmid 274
The Gaon, Rabbi Mordechai HaLevi Sternfeld By Sender Rothstein 277
Religious Periodical Output in Zamość 281
      ‘HaBe'er’ 281
Zamośćher Vort 282
Fragmentary Memories (Zamość 1914-1923) By Yaakov Ne'eman (Neimark) 289
      Homeless 289
      The First World War (1914-1917) 291
      The Red Revolution 293
      The Bolshevist Invasion 294
      In Prison 296
      Regarding the Destruction of the I. L. Peretz Library in Zamość 298
The Library Named for Dr. Shlomo Ettinger in the Neustadt By Simcha Zworyn 300
Yiddish Theater-Lovers and Drama Circles By 'Sheva Fekher-Garfinkel & Moshe Garfinkel 302
Community Life in Zamość By Chaim Shpizeisen 305
      The Jewish Socialist Movement in Zamość Up To World War I 305
      The First Great Demonstration in Zamość in the Year 1905 307
      Bund and Trade Union Movement in Zamość Between the Two World Wars (1914 - 1939) 307
      I. L. Peretz in Zamość 309
      The I. L. Peretz Library in Zamość 310
      The Creation of the Yiddish-Secular School Named for I. L. Peretz, in Zamość 313
The Martyred Teachers of Zamość 316
A Community Chronology of Zamość 320
      Regarding I. L. Peretz Gasse in Zamość 320
Zamośćher Stimme 333
Neustadt By Wolf Kornmass 350
      Why a Neustadt? 351
      Markets of the Neustadt 353
      Community Activities 358
      The First Occupation of 1914 359
      Support-Work 360
      The Battle for the Youth 361
      The ‘Little Room’ 363
      Our Artistic Debut 365
      In the Surrounding Towns 366
      Means of Livelihood in the Neustadt 368
New-Zamość Types and Stories By A. Schwartzberg 372
      Shlomo'leh Beikhel 372
      ‘The Young Flower’ 373
      The Great Fire in the Neustadt 374
In Those Days By Mark Jakubowicz 376
The Zamość Pogrom of 1914 By Akiva Schwartzberg 378
Jewish Life in Zamość in the Last Century By Zvi Gebet 380
      The ‘Fifth’ Year in Zamość 380
      The First Jewish Community Library in the City 384
      The First HeHalutz Group 386
      The Musicians in Zamość 389
      Thousands of Memorial Lights 390
The Zamość Kaleidoscope By Shlomo Schwartzberg 391
      The Physicians – Feldschers – In the Neustadt 391
      A Bit of Topography, Buildings and Places 395
      ‘White Mekhl’ 396
      Rabbi Gaon R' Moshe'leh Epstein עצ”ל 399
      “The Bent Little Jew” 400
      Rabbi Mordechai HaLevi ז”ל 401
      Moshe Koval 406
      Moshe Dichter 408
      Yohanan Morgenstern 409
Institutions and Public Servants in Zamość By Moshe Kezman 412
      The ‘Linat HaTzedek’ 412
      The Yiddish-Polish Gymnasium 412
      The Merchant's Society and Small Business Society 414
      Shlomo David Fershtendig and His Wine Cellar 416
      The Jewish Gentleman from Ploskia – Ignacy Margolies 417
Documents Concerning Hunger and Need 418
      Document One 418
      Document Two 420
Zamość on the Eve of the Holocaust By Helena Schaffner 422
The ‘Kadima’ Hebrew School By Kalman Engelstein 424
A Dispute for Reasons of Faith in Zamość By Baruch Sobol 426
      The Dispute between Hasidim and Mitnagdim 426
      White-Blue Charity Boxes and Rabbi Meir Baal-HaNess Boxes 428
Ten Years of the Labor Movement in Zamość (1913 - 1923) By Lejzor Finkman 430
A Wedding at the Cemetery By Mottel Steiner 434
The Zionist-Revisionist Movement in Zamość By David Kornblit 438
The Linat-HaTzedek of Zamość By Akiva Eierweiss 440
Institutions of Good Work By Chaim Shpizeisen 442
Memories of Youth By Yekhezkiel Szlak 444
      A Thirst for Knowledge 444
      Choir and Culture-Undertakings 445
      Theater-Performances 446
      A Literary-Artistic Evening 447
      A Theater-Troupe Gets Out of Town 448
      The Bourgeoisie Youth Comes to Us 449
      Shlomo'leh Gerzon 451
      Providing Food and a Kitchen for the Unemployed 454
      Peretz'l Gonif Does Good Deeds Secretly 456
The Sensational Trial of Two Jews in Zamość for ‘Belittling the Crucifix’ 458
From Life in Zamość in Times Gone By By Moshe Freilich 460
      How the Zamość Water Carriers Came to Declare a Strike 460
      The Wife of the Orchestra Leader 461
      They Were Three 462
      Guests in Zamość between the First and Second World Wars 463
Memories of Former Times By Itcheh Leib Herring 468
There Was a Life, and It Was Cut Down By Nekha Rok-Schwartz 471
The Trade Union Movement By Wolf Kornmass 475
      In the Neustadt 475
      The ‘Council’ of the Professional Class-Unions 478
      The Union of the House Servants 478
      Libraries 479
      May 1, 1926 480
      Municipal Council Elections and Self-‘Parceling’ 480
      We Secretly Put Up a Fence 481
      Enlightenment and Cultural Activity 482
Our Landlord Cannot Rest 483
      Artistic-Dramatic Initiatives 483
      The Youth Council 484
      Inter-Community Relations 485
      The Arrest of Ephraim Cooperstein 486
The Petlura Pogrom in Zamość By Gita Ackerman-Grosser 486
Individual Personalities from Our Zamość 489
Profiles of Activists By Chaim Shpizeisen 490
      R'Moshe'leh Strekher-Zilber נ”ע By Yaakov Rothenstein 497
      Leah'keh Brokh By Sarah Shlafrok (Yankeh) 501
      Sholom Shmucklar By Zvi Gebet (Tel-Aviv) 501
      R' Shmuel Reisen By David Kornblit 504
      Israel Sheck By Jekuthiel Zwillich 505
      Dr. Philip Lubelski By ERE”Z 505
      Feivel HaKohen Geliebter 506
      R' Moshe Yehoshua Heschel Wohl By Yaakov Reifman 508
      Mordechai-Joseph Kornfeld By Simcha Harrari-Kornfeld (Kiryat Amal, Israel) 508
      Shabtai Hollesch 509
      David Shifman By Zvi ben Ramalyahu (Chelm) – (‘HaMelitz’ No. 49, 1903) 510
      Dr. Yitzhak Geliebter By Dr. Yitzhak Szyfer 510
      Aryeh-Leib Naimanovich By Naphtali Naimanovich 513
      Issachar Ber Falkensohn 513
      Oytzer Hirsch By Jekuthiel Zwillich 514
      Abraham Gerson By Shoshana Herman-Rikhman 514
      Shlomo (Lomeh) Luxenbourg 516
      Rachel Kornfeld By Jekuthiel Zwillich 516
      Emanuel Zoberman 516
Fishl Geliebter 517
      Philip Geliebter Bibliography By Yefim Jeshurun 518
The Zwillich Family By Jekuthiel Zwillich 518
      Mordechai Zwillich 518
      Chaim Zwillich 519
Other Portraits 519
      Shlomo Wohl 519
      Ben-Zion Lubliner 519
      Aharon Geliebter 519
      Yossel Finkman 519
      Rabbi Joseph Shlomo Shabtai Hurwitz 519
      Jonah Szper 520
Activists in the Professional Movement 520
The Destruction of Zamość 525
The Beginning of the Destruction By Mendel Sznur 527
And This Is How It Happened By Mordechai Shtrigler 530
The Last Day in the Neustadt By Leib Gewirtz 535
      Neustadt is Bombed 535
      In the Village 536
      Back in the Neustadt 538
      The Red Army Arrives 539
How a Sabbath-Observing Congregation Traipsed Off to God By Mordechai Shtrigler 541
The Extermination of the Jews of Zamość By Jekuthiel Zwillich 549
       The First Signs of a Ghetto 557
      The Zamość Jews That Belonged to the Judenrat 559
      The Zamość Judenrat Policemen 560
On the Day of the Unjust Sentence By Mordechai Shtrigler 571
Residents of Zamość in a Fight for Life During the Hitlerist Occupation By Beryl Eisenkopf 582
      Zamość During the First Two Weeks of the War 582
      The Germans and Soviets in Zamość 582
      The Evacuation 584
      The Suffering and Killing of the Zamość [Jews] in Ludomir 585
On Aryan Papers By Rosa Rosett 599
A Chronology of the Nazi Occupation 603
Children 603
A Surviving Jew from Zamość Relates: 604
Zamość People in the Ludomir Ghetto By Shlomo Stern 606
Through Forests and with the Partisan Movement By Itkeh Herring 610
Ghetto, Slaughter, Forest, Majdanek By David Meckler 614
      1. In the Zamość Ghetto 614
      2. The Slaughter of April 11, 1942 614
      3. The Last Jews in Zamość 616
      4. A Partisan 616
      5. In Majdanek 617
Through Seven Hells By Henoch Nobel 619
Ghetto, Majdanek, Skarzysko, Buchenwald, Schlieben, Theresienstadt By Abba Friedling 625
Expulsions and Extermination of the Jews in the Zamość Vicinity By T. Brustyn-Bernstein 631
      Expulsion and Extermination of the Settlements in the Lublin District 635
The Nazi Death Machine at Belze? 642
Accusation Speech in Dachau By Yaakov Schwartz 657
Yizkor 660
Our Sanctified Ones and Martyrs 663
      Our List of Martyrs 688
      Our Day of Sorrow – 24 Nissan 690
Documents and Materials 691
The Leader of the ‘Judenrat Tells’ 692
      The Jewish Region and its Administration 696
      The Jewish Police 700
      The Financial Problems of the ‘Judenrat’ 701
      Jewish Labor in the Camps 706
      The Help-Committee 719
The ‘Judenrat’ Creates a ‘Labor-Company’ 723
The ‘Judenrat’ Demands Taxes 724
Warning to Observe the Police Hours 725
Krasnobrod Asks for Help 726
“Evacuated” German Jews in Zamość 728
“Evacuees” from Theresienstadt Demand Their Luggage 729
Zamość Survivors 730
The Committees of the Zamość Survivors In Poland, in the Years 1945-1950 731
Zamość After The Holocaust By Jekuthiel Zwillich 734
Zamość Without Jews By Moshe Schliam 738
Yitzhak Leib Peretz on the Streets of Zamość By Sholom Stern 741
Zamość 1945 By Helena Schaffner 746
The Zamość ‘Rotunda’ By Akiva Eierweiss 749
Zamość, the City of I. L. Peretz By M. Tzanin 751
Pages from a Tour of Poland By Sholom Stern 753
Zamość Survivors in Germany 759
Chaim Shpizeisen 763
The People of Zamość Around the World 764
The Landsleit of Zamość By Israel Zilber 765
The Establishment of Zamośćher Progressive Branch 375
Workman's Circle By Jack Fox 768
The Union of Friends from Zamość, Philadelphia 771
The Zamość Landsmanschaft in Montreal (Canada) By A. Schwartzberg & B. Eisenkopf 772
      General Report of Our Activity 773
The Zamość Society in Israel By Yaakov Ne'eman (Neimark) 775
      Foreword 775
      Society 776
      Our Activity 776
Zamość People in Argentina By Wolf Kornmass 781
Our Deceased Leadership Members 785
The Central Committee of Pinkas Zamość 785
      Sub-Committee United States – New York 785
      United States: Other Cities 785
      Sub-Committee Canada: Montreal 785
      Sub-Commission Brazil 786
      Australia 786
      Sub-Commission Bolivia 786
Shlomo-Leib Schwartzberg ז”ל 789
Pinkas Zamość By Mordechai V. Bernstein 791
Glossary 795
List of Martyrs


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