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Polish Occupation Definitions - English Translations

Compiled by: Lauren B. Eisenberg Davis

These are occupations typically found in 19th-century Polish vital records.

PolishEnglish Rough Translation
akuszerkamidwife
aptekarzdispensing chemist, pharmacist
arendarz, arędarzlease-holder, innkeeper
artystaartist
bakalarzteacher
bankierbanker
belekbela = log, belka = beam
belferassistant melamed in cheder
blacharzplumber, tinker, tinsmith
browarnikbrewer   (browar = brewery)
brukarzpaver
bufetowybartender
burmistrzmayor
ceglarzbrickmaker
chazancantor
cieslacarpenter
cyrulikbarber-surgeon
czapnikcap-maker
czarownikmedicine man, magician
czeladnikjourneyman
czlowiek studiujacystudent, scholar
doktordoctor
domu czynszowegobuilding for rent
dozorca boznicnysynagogue caretaker
drobny kupiecchandler
drukarzprinter
duchownyclergyman
dziedziclandlord, estate owner
dzierżwcalease-holder, tenant
ekonom, ekonomiabailiff, land-steward
farbarzdyer
fabrykantmanufacturer
faktorbroker, agent
felczerassistant surgeon
fryzjerbarber
furmancart-driver
galanternikoutfitter, seller of fancy goods
garbarztanner
garncarzpotter
gorzelnikalcohol distiller
gospodarzfarm-owner
górnikminer
grabarzgrave-digger
handlarzpeddler
handlarz bydlacattle peddler
handlarz chmieluhops peddler
handlarz drzewawood peddler
handlarz solasalt merchant
handlarz zbozacorn/grain peddler
introligatorbookbinder
jalmuznikalms giver
kahalnysenior kahal (Jewish community council) member
kamieniarzstone cutter
kantorcantor
kapelusznikhatter
karabelnikhawker, peddler
karczmarzinnkeeper
kominiarzchimney-sweep
komornikcottager
kotlarzcoppersmith, brazier
kowalblacksmith
kramarzstall-keeper
krawiectailor
krawiec damskidressmaker
krawcowadressmaker
kreslarzdraftsman
krochmalnikstarch-maker or merchant
kucharzcook
kupiecmerchant
kuśnierzfurrier
laznikbath attendant
lekarzphysician
lesnikforester
listonoszpostman
maczarzflour miller
majstermaster craftsman
malarzpainter, artist
mleczarzdairyman
młynarzmiller
mosiężnikbrass worker, brazier
mularz, murarzmason
muzykantmusician
mydlarzsoap-maker
najemnikhired hand
nauczycielteacher, schoolmaster
oberzystatavern keeper
ogrodnikfarmer, gardener
pachciarztenant gardner
palaczstoker/fireman or distiller
parobekfarmhand
piekarzbaker
pisarzauthor, writer
piwowarbrewer
podkahalnylesser kahal member
podrabinassistant rabbi
podszkolnikassistant shammes
poetapoet
pogrzebaczgrave-digger
policjantpoliceman
poslugaczservant, porter
producentmanufacturer
przekupienpeddler, dealer, huckster
przemyslindustry
przewoznikferryman, carrier, boatman
przybioroutfit, equipment, clothing
rabinrabbi
radzic, doradcaadvisor
rewizorcontroller
robotnikworker
robotnik rolnyfarmhand
rolnikfarmer
roznydiverse
rybakfisherman
rysownikdraftsman
rzemieslnikartisan
rzezakmohel
rzezbiarzsculptor
rzeznikbutcher, shochet
sklepikarzshop keeper
skorniktanner
slodownikmaltster
sluzacyservant
smolarzpitch-burner
solnysalt
stelmachcart/wheel maker
stolarzcarpenter
straznik, strozdoorkeeper, watchman, guardian
strycharzbrick-maker
stypendystascholar
sukiennikclothier, draper
szewcshoemaker
szklarzglazier
szkolniksynagogue sexton, shammes,
minor kahal (Jewish community council) official
szmuklarzhaberdasher, lace maker
szpektorteacher's assistant
szpitalnikhospital worker
szpekulantmoney-lender
szwaczkaseamstress
szynkarzinnkeeper
slusarzlocksmith
tapicerupholsterer
targownikpeddler
terminatorapprentice
tkaczweaver
tokarzturner (lathe)
towargoods, merchandise
uczenpupil
uczonyeducated person, scholar
urzednikclerk
waciarzquilt maker
wapniarzlime burner
wierniktrustee
winnikwine maker
wlascicielproprietor, owner
wloscianinpeasant
wyrobnicaday-laborer, charwoman
wyrobnikday-laborer
wyszynkarzinnkeeper
wytwórcamanufacturer
zebrakbeggar
zegarmistrzwatchmaker
zlotnikgoldsmith
znachormedicine man
zniwiarzreaper
zolnierzsoldier

Compiled from a variety of sources, with help from Warren Blatt and Michael Tobias.

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