The Tomaszow-Lubelski Memorial Book
(Tomaszów Lubelski, Poland)

50°28' / 23°02'

Translation of
Tomashover Lub. yisker-bukh

Edited by Joseph M. Moskop

Published in Brooklyn, NY 1965


English Translation Prepared and Published by

Jacob Solomon Berger

Mahwah, New Jersey, USA 2008




Our sincere appreciation to Jacob Solomon Berger who has kindly donated
his original book to JewishGen for online presentation

Our thanks to Sondra Ettlinger for extracting the pictures from the original book,
enabling their addition to the project.


This is a translation of: Tomashover Lub. yisker-bukh (The Tomaszow-Lubelski Memorial Book),
Edited by Joseph M. Moskop; English translation prepared by Jacob Solomon Berger.
Mahwah, New Jersey, 2008


This material is made available by JewishGen, Inc. and the Yizkor Book Project for the purpose of
fulfilling our mission of disseminating information about the Holocaust and destroyed Jewish communities.
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JewishGen, Inc. makes no representations regarding the accuracy of the translation. The reader may wish to refer to the original material for verification.
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Our mission is to produce a translation of the original work and we cannot verify the accuracy of statements or alter facts cited.



Translator's Foreword xv
Foreword 1
The Yizkor Book Committee in New York 4
Members of Va'ad Sefer HaYizkor in Israel 4
A Few Words to the Reader By J. Moskop 5
A Headstone for Our City By Rae Fust 9
The History of Jews in Tomaszow-Lubelski By Mordechai W. Bernstein 10
     Introduction 10
     Beginning of the Settlement 11
The First Jews in Tomaszow 13
     The Privilege of the Tomaszow Jews 15
     Jewish Barber-Surgeons (Physicians) in Tomaszow 20
     Jewish Tradespeople in Tomaszow 22
     Contentious Relations between the Jews and Poles in Tomaszow 23
     Comparative Data about the Jews in Different Time Periods 25
The Martyr, R' Pinchas of Tomaszow, הי”ד 27
The Girl Martyr By Sh. Lemar 28
The Synagogue By Sh. Licht 29
The Pinkas of the Synagogue By Shmuel Eliezer Branner 34
My Grandfather R' Pinchas, and the Seat of Elijah in the Tomaszow Synagogue By Rae Fust-Lehrer 36
The Synagogue and the Bet HaMedrash By Israel Zilberman 38
Nahum the Shammes, הי”ד By Sh. Licht 39
The Mishna Study Group in the Great Bet HaMedrash By Aharon Pitluck 40
Jews of the Bet HaMedrash By Shmuel Elazar Branner 41
The Belz Shtibl and its Influence in Tomaszow By Asher Reis 42
Sanz-Cieszanow Shtibl By Y. Nierengang 46
    The Study of Torah 46
    The Curriculum 47
    The Sabbaths & Festivals 47
    Charity & Good Deeds 47
    Guests 48
    Books 48
    Agudah Activities 48
    The Dress 49
    The Worshipers of the Sanz Shtibl 49
The Chelm Shtibl By Zusha Kawenczuk 50
The Hevra Kadisha By Joseph Moskop 52
Memories of Tomaszow By Mikhl Weinblatt 55
    Linat HaTzedek 55
    The Ritual Slaughterer from Markuszow 55
    The Collection Box of Rabbi Meir Baal HaNess By Sh. Leibowitz 56
The Rabbis of Tomaszow By Sh. Licht 57
The Rabbi of Cieszanow Rabbi, R' Aryeh Leibusz Rubin, זצ”ל By Y. Weintraub 60
The Tashlikh River By Rae Lehrer Fust 62
A Few Facts about My Family from Tomaszow By Isaac Bashevis 64
My Shtetl Rising By Rae Fust 68
Tomaszow – Before the First World War By Moshe Garzytzensky 69
    The Rebbe, R' Mendele ז”ל 70
    The Rebbe, R' Yoss'leh ז”ל 74
    R' Hirsch Tomashover ז”ל 76
    Rabbi Yehoshua'leh Tomashover ז”ל 76
    The Rebbe, R' Leibusz Neuhaus ז”ל 78
    My Grandfather 78
    Rabbi R' Shmuel Singer זצ”ל 81
My Father 82
Rabbi Chaim Aharon Zvi Shidkovsky ז”ל 84
Spring in Tomaszow A. H. 94
The Jewish Way of Life in Tomaszow By Joseph Moskop 95
The Tomaszow Box Factories By Rae Fust 104
My Father's Factory By Rachil Fust-Lehrer 106
The Bulak-Balakhovich Pogroms in Tomaszow-Lubelski By M. Zeldin 110/td>
    Document Number 1 111
    Document Number 2 111
    Document Number 3 113
    Document Number 4 113
    Document Number 5 114
    Document Number 6 114
    Document Number 7 114
    Document Number 8 115
    Document Number 9 115
    Document Number 10 115
    Document Number 11 115
    Document Number 12 116
Letter from the Laszczow and Komarow Communities to the Jews of Tomaszow 116
Letter from Laszczow 117
Letter from Komarow 117
The Re-established, Liberated Poland By Shmuel Shiflinger 119
Halutzim in Tomaszow By Fishl Hammer 121
The War and the Birth of Tze'irei Zionist Parties By Rae Fust (Lehrer) 124
The Bund Movement in Tomaszow-Lubelsk(i) By David Geyer 131
    The City Library 133
    In the Municipal Council 134
    The Bund Helps to Organize the Polish Workers 136
    Far-Flung Work with the Masses 136
    Youth and Children's Movement 137
    Contentious Relationships in the Surrounding Jewish Area 137
    The Bund Committees 137
A Gallery of Bund Activists in Tomaszow-Lubelski 138
    Yaakov-Shia Grohman 138
    Mordechai Weissberg 138
    Shlomo Lieber 139
    Peltik Lederkremmer 139
    Leibusz Kaffenbaum 140
    Shevakh Kornworcel 140
    Nahum Schuldiner 141
    Koppel Szpizajzen 141
Histadrut 'Tze irei HaMizrahi' in Tomaszow By Nahum Ratzimer 143
The Establishment of the HaShomer HaTza'ir Chapter in Tomaszow-Lubelski By David Y. Levenfus 146
A Short Overview of 'The Working of the Land of Israel' in Tomaszow 148
The 'Agudah,' Its Establishment and Development By Rabbi Yitzhak Meir Gartler 153
Agudah Movement By Sh. Licht 156
    Tze'irei Agudat Yisrael 156
    Pirkhei Agudat Yisrael 156
    Poalei Agudat Yisrael 157
    Heder Yodei HaTorah 157
    Beth Yaakov 157
A Monument to Unforgettable Friends By Isaac Krass 158
    Israel Pearl 158
    Mordechai Ganzer 158
    Yitzhak Meir Pflug 158
    Sinai Stender 159
    Leib'l Lehrer 159
    Leib'l Mermelstein 159
The Agudah Boycott By Sh. L. 161
The Leftist Movement in Tomaszow By Leah Friedlander 162
The Jewish Youth in the City Tomaszow Lubelski By Pinchas Ehrlich 165
The Yavneh School By Aryeh Arbesfeld 173
The Leaders of Mizrahi By Ch. Y. Lehrer 177
    First and Foremost, R' Eliezer Lederkremmer 177
    R' Sholom Zilberman, הי”ד 178
    R' Benjamin Tepler, הי”ד 178
    R' Mordechai Ratzimer, הי”ד 179
    R' Mordechai Blank הי”ד 179
    R' Pinchas Brass, הי”ד 180
    R' Nahum Dov Glas , הי”ד 180
    R' Yaakov Arbesfeld , הי”ד 180
The Yeshiva of Novardok By Joseph Friedlander 182
    Bread for the Poor 185
    Objective of the Organization 185
    Sources of Income 185
    Distributing the Products 186
Taharat Israel By Sh. Licht 187
    Stores 189
    The Spoldzielnia 190
    The 'Liatnicze Brigada' (The Flying Brigade) 190
    The Tricks of the Flying Brigade 191
    Retail Stores 191
    Saloons 193
    Soda Stands and Confectioneries 193
    The Bitter Circumstances of the Storekeepers 194
    The Relationship of the Polish Authorities to the Jewish Storekeeper 194
    The Tax Authority (Urzad Skarbowy) 194
    The Tax Authority Staff 194
    The Jewish Quandary 196
    The Jewish Craftsmen 197
    The Social Improvement! 197
    The Bank of the Manual Tradespeople 198
    Tailors 198
    Shoemakers 199
    Glaziers 199
    Hat Makers 199
    The High Level of Jewish Work 199
    The Spiritual and Religious State of the Jewish Worker 200
    Concerning the Religious Side 200
    Sabbath at the Time of 'Shaleh-shudes' 200
    Youth 201
    The New Registration Laws as a Means to Excise the Jews from the Manual Trades 201
    The 'Spolka ' (Partnership) 201
    Foreign Currency Traders 204
    The Meat Industry 205
    The Tomaszow Porters 206
Livelihoods By A. H.Wroclaw 210
    Ber'leh Katriel's 210
    On the Marketplace 211
    Hilkeh'leh 213
    Deaf Moshe and the Pony 214
This was Tomaszow By Sh. Leibowitz 216
    The Commercial Center 216
    Craftsmen; Free Occupations 216
    The Magistrate 217
    The Way of Living 217
    Religious Life 217
    Rabbis and Yeshiva Headmasters between the Two World Wars 217
    Ritual Slaughterers 218
    The Shamashim 218
    Educational Institutions 218
    Secular Studies 219
    Philanthropic and Charitable Institutions 219
    Productive and Economic Institutions 219
    Leisure Amusements of the Young 219
    Emigration 220
Attributes of our City By Sholom Licht 221
Memories of a Tomaszow Scion By Fulya Haut 228
Our City By Yaakov Laneil 228
    The Market 228
    The Houses of Worship 230
Tomaszow-Lubelski – The City Where I Was Born By Mordechai Ehrlich 233
    Sabbath and the Festivals 234
    Educational Institutions 235
    Talmud Torah 238
    Groups and Youth Movements 238
Elections in the Town By Sh. Licht 240
    B.B.W.R. (Pilsudski's Sanacja) and the Jewish Voters 240
    Community Elections 241
    Municipal Council Elections 243
In Passing By Neta Eisen (A. Roum) 243
The Spiritual State of Tomaszow Jewry By Sh. Licht 245
    The Spiritual Nourishment of the Last Era 246
    The Spiritual Situation Up To 1905 246
    New Currents 247
    The Spiritual Revolution 248
Unique Jewish Sartorial Choices By Sh. Leibowitz 250
The Preparations for Sabbath and Festivals By Sh. Leibowitz 252
    Passover Preparations 254
    The Eve of Shavuot 255
    The Eve of Rosh Hashana & Yom Kippur 256
    The Eve of Sukkot & Simchat Torah 257
    Preparations for Hanukkah & Purim 257
Theack Pillar By Yoss'l Shepsel's 258
The First and Last Theater Performance on the Sabbath By Hirsch Reis 259
Sabbath and Holiday Time in Tomaszow By Kh. Y. Biederman 261
    Erev Shabbat in the City 262
    Kabalat Shabbat 262
    At the Rebbe's Tisch 263
    Rosh Hashana to Tashlikh 264
    Simchat Torah 264
    The Siyyum Celebration of Daf Yomi 265
    The Joy of Purim 265
    The Bet Yaakov Movement 266
    The Heder Yesodei HaTorah 266
    Pirkhei Agudat Yisrael 267
    The Activists Among the Youth 268
    Talmud Torah 268
    The Shtibl of R' Nachman Neuhaus ז”ל 269
    The Angel of Death [in the form of] Typhus 269
    The Ger Shtibl 270
The Great Wedding By Asher Reis 272
Reminiscences of Youth By Isaac Krass 274
A Cure for One Who Was Sick By Sh. Leibowitz 275
    A Catarrh or Cold 275
    An Evil Eye 275
    Pouring Wax 276
    Broken or Hyper-extended Limbs 276
    A 'Lemung' 276
    Feldscher or Doctor 276
    Pregnancy 277
    Birth 277
    The Seriously Ill 277
    'Tearing In' 277
    Cures & Prayers 278
    Toothaches 278
    Baby Teeth 279
    Prescriptions 279
Memories of My Childhood By Leah Ardinatsky-Barnstein 280
Unforgettable Impressions By Yaakov Minkowsky 282
    The Synagogue 282
    The Situation on the Eve of War 283
    The Institutions and Their Activists 284
    Between the World Wars 285
    The Lesson 285
A Threnody for Tomaszow By Yaakov Herbstman 286
The Life and Death of Our Shtetl, Tomaszow Lubelski By Y. Schwartz 291
    The Gabbaim in our Beautiful Synagogue 291
    The Jewish Community 292
    The Free Loan Society Bank 292
    The City Council 292
    Keren-Kayemet 293
    Keren HaYesod 293
    Volks-Bank 293
    The Merchants Union 293
    The Manual Trades Union 294
    Competitors 294
    The Fire Fighters 294
    The Bund 294
    The Drama Circle 294
Little Jewish Snows By A. H 296
Portraits, Names and Personalities 297
Shmuel Meldung By Sh. Licht 299
David Schwindler By Dov ben David 299
Noah ben Abraham Herbstman By Asher Herbstman 300
In Memory of my Son, of Moshe הי”ד By Zusha Kawenczuk 300
Avigdor Eidelsberg By Sh. Zamoyski 301
Shlomo Goldzamd By Sh. Zamoyski 301
Moshe Reichenberg By Sh. Zamoyski 302
Pinchas Goldstein By Sh. Zamoyski 302
Gershon Brand By Sh. Licht 302
Ary' Heller By Sh. Licht 303
Yaak'li Lederkremmer By Sh. Licht 304
Yitzhak Karper By Sh. Licht 304
Sholom Singer By Sh. Licht 305
Yaakov Moshe Guthartz By Sh. Licht 305
Shlomo Akst By Sh. Licht 306
R' David Weitzman By Sh. Licht 307
R' Ben Zion Faber By Sh. L(icht) 308
Benjamin Weinberg By Sh. Lamed (Licht) 308
R' Shmuel Putter הי”ד By Leah Moskop (Friedlander) 310
R' Sinai Putter ז”ל 311
Yekhezkiel Lehrer and the Krasnobrod Gasse By Eli' Lehrer 313
My Father, R' Shabtai ז”ל By Moshe Friedlander 316
    In Bayrakh'eh's Mill in Belzec 318
R' Tevel ז”ל By Israel Zilberman 323
Rabbi Dov Ber'l Fershtman הי”ד By Sh. Licht 325
The Dornfeld Family By Leah Dornfeld 326
    R' Yaakov Mordechai Dornfeld ז”ל 326
My Father, R' David Tevel Nat, הי”ד By Ephraim Fishl Hammer 327
My Grandfather and Grandmother ז”ל By Ephraim Fishl Hammer 329
My Unforgettable Friends By Y. Liebowitz 331
    Moshe Szparer 331
    Mihkl Reis 331
    Henikh Koch 332
    Hertz Feldsehn 333
To the Memory of My Acquaintances By Sh. Khanowich 334
    Moshe Weissleder 334
    Elazar Ader 334
    Abraham Sztajnworcel 334
    Yaakov Arbesfeld 335
    Dr. Shulman 335
    Advocat Mandeltort 336
    Itcheh Bernstein 336
    Eli' Shtruzler 337
    Ary' Levenfus 337
    Yekhezkiel Kaffenbaum 337
    Eliezer Dorenfeld 337
    Fyvel Holtz 337
    Abraham Yitzhak Blonder 338
The City Elders By Sh. Licht 339
    Old Heschel 339
    Old Yaak'leh 339
    Old Shmuel Mikhl'eh's (Bodenstein) 339
A Headstone for Acquaintances and Friends By Sh. Licht 339
    Alter Stahl 339
    R' Nathan Neu 340
    Shmuel Lubert 340
    Eli' Chaim Gershon's 340
    Dud'l Goldstein 340
    Reuveh'leh Chay'tcheh's (Gartler) 341
    Pesach Putter 341
    Yisroel'keh Lehrman 341
    Anshel Szur 342
    Eliezer Bergenbaum 343
Shtibl Youth By Sh. Licht 344
    Mott'l Fish 344
    Yekhezkiel'i Zekhari[ah]'s 344
    Yoss'li Gelber 344
Sinai Friedlander By Leah Hertzig 345
Frieda Tyerstein By Rekhil Friedlander 345
    Sara Dvora Friedlander 346
Meshullam Borg By Y. M. 346

Yoss'l Wassertreger By Sh. Licht 347
The Matchmaker with the Crooked Head By Ephraim Fishl Hammer (Nad) 348
Nahum the Blind One By Yaakov Schwartz 349
“Blind Nahum” By A. H. 351
Crazy Tema'leh By A. H. 352
Destruction and Annihilation 354
Tomaszow-Lubelski By Yaakov Schwartz 355
At the Outbreak of the War By Shammai Drilman 357
The First Days of the War in Tomaszow By Asher Herbstman 362
    The Last Look at My Former City – Tomaszow 365
German Acts of Brutality in the First Days of the War By Chaim Yehoshua Biederman 366
The Black Sabbath By Mordechai Lehrer 373
    Black Sabbath 373
A Model of Salvations By Shmuel Ehrlich 375
Destruction and Annihilation of My Shtetl, Tomaszow-Lubelski By Sheva Kempinsky-Krieger 376
    The Second Aktion 377
    The Last Aktion 377
My Experiences Under the Germans By Abraham Singer 381
I Am the Sole Survivor of My Entire Family By Chana Ruduler (Krieger) 391
In the Struggle for One's Life By Herman & Sabina Keitel 397
During the Years of Horror By Rachel Schwartzbaum (Klarman) 404
    My First Fright on the Way from Warsaw to Tomaszow 404
    My Arrival in Tomaszow 405
    My Lonely Existence in Rawa RuskaUntil the Outbreak of the German-Russian War in June 1941 405
    My Return to Tomaszow and My Frightening Experiences 406
    I am Slandered as a Communist 407
    The Aktion in Tomaszow 407
    The Aktion in Belzec 408
    Judenrein 408
    My Experiences in Tarnowska 409
    In Majdanek 410
    In Auschwitz 411
    Torture at Work 412
    My New Workplace with Better Conditions 413
    The Liquidation of the Good Workplaces 414
    My New Work in the Union Factory 414
    I Am Drawn into the Underground 414
    The Judgement 415
    The General Evacuation of the Auschwitz Camp 416
    Our Wanderings 416
    The Liberation 417
My Experiences By Charna Kaufman-Eilen 419
    My Four Good Years in Wloclawek 419
    My Three Frightful Months with the German Executioners 419
    My Husband Flees to Tomaszow 420
    I Go Off To Bialystok 421
    My Life in Russia 422
    Our Return to Poland, and the Effect on Me of the Bad News 422
On the Waves of the Hitler Storm By Beryl Hirschensohn 424
A Gentle Christian Woman Saved Me By Chana Szpizajzen-Weissleder 432
Dark Days In My Life By Feiga Pess'l Bergman 434
Joel the Wit and His Wartime Experiences Transcribed By Yaakov Schwartz 437
    The Beginning of the War 438
    Yom Kippur in Jarczów 438
    In Lubicz 439
    Back in Tomaszow 439
    In Rawa Ruska 439
    We Travel Voluntarily to Russia 440
    The Outbreak of the German-Russian War 440
    In Zmerynka Under the Germans 441
    In the Ghetto Under the Rumanians 442
    A Rumanian-Jewish Doctor – Head of the Ghetto 442
    Dr. Hershman and His Activities 443
    In Brailiv Under the Germans 445
    How We Were Rescued 446
The Last Times and the Great Miracles in the Ghetto of Zmerynka 447
The Testimony of Maria Kopiecka 450
Statistical Inquiry 451
Translation from Polish 452
A Few Words About the Questionnaire By Y. Moskop 453
My Tortured Brothers & Sisters Who Fell In Sanctification of The Name By Yaakov Schwartz 455
“Bones Lie In Belzec” By A. H. 456
The Sorrowful End of 500 Years of Jewish Settlement in Tomaszow By Sholom Licht 458
    The Beginning of the Destruction 458
    The Anxious Mood 460
    Homes Are Requisitioned 460
    The Bombardment 460
    The Results of the Bombardment 461
    Brought to Rest in Burial 462
    The Entry of the Germans 462
    Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur Under the German Occupation 463
    Interregnum 463
    Under the Russians 464
    The Reason I Left Tomaszow 464
    In Rawa Ruska 465
    The Germans Occupy Tomaszow for the Second Time 466
    Efforts to Obtain Entry Permission from the Russians 466
    A New Delegation is Sent to Lvov (Lemberg) 467
    The Fate of the Jews Who Left Tomaszow 467
    The Passport Transaction 468
    The Fate of the Jews Who Remained in Tomaszow 468
    The Judenrat 469
    Religious Life 469
    During the Difficult Years of Dying 470
    The Collaboration of the Poles with the Germans 470
    The Permanent Enmity Towards the Jew 471
    The Ultimate Liquidation 472
    The German Tactic 472
    An Example of German Barbarism 473
    An Act of Martyrdom 473
    Jewish Partisans 474
The Survivors in Russia By Chaim Joseph Lehrer 475
    Where Did the Rawa [Ruska] Echelon Go To? 476
    How Did They Survive Living in Russia? 476
    Where Did They Live? 477
    What Did They Live From? 477
    Amnesty for Polish Citizens 477
    The Wandering Through Central Asia 478
    The Situation After Liberation 478
    The First News of the Holocaust 479
    Traveling Back to Poland 480
At the Site of the Destruction By Dov ben David Schwindler 482
In Tomaszow, After the Holocaust By Moshe Taubenblatt 483
Tomaszow [Jews] After the Holocaust By Leah Moskop-Friedlander 486
The Tomashover Hilfs Commitet in New York 488
The Free Loan Society of the Tomaszow–Lubelski Émigrés By Zusha Kawenczuk 489
    R' Abraham Goldschmid ז”ל 489
The Yizkor Book Commission in Israel By Yaakov Herbstman 491
    Circular 493
The Assistance Committee By Yaakov Laneil 495
The Tomaszow Free Loan Society in Israel By Mordechai ben Ben-Zion Honigsfeld 496
Tomaszow People in B'nai Brak By L. Wermuth 498
Cornerstone Laying Ceremony for Talmud Torah Kol Ary' 499
Memories of Tomaszow-Lubelski By Shmuel Shiflinger 500
    A Theater Presentation 500
    Dr. Zawadski 501
    A Victim in Illegally Crossing the Border 501
The Common Folk Get A Place By Y. Moskop 502
    A Protest Demonstration 502
    The Dispute of the Shokhtim and Election of the Spiritual Leader 503
Necrology 508
Memorials 527


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