The Tomaszow-Lubelski Memorial Book
(Tomaszów Lubelski, Poland)

50°28' / 23°02'

Translation of
Tomashover Lub. yisker-bukh

Edited by Joseph M. Moskop

Published in Brooklyn, NY 1965


English Translation Prepared and Published by

Jacob Solomon Berger

Mahwah, New Jersey, USA 2008




Our sincere appreciation to Jacob Solomon Berger who has kindly donated
his original book to JewishGen for online presentation

Our thanks to Sondra Ettlinger for extracting the pictures from the original book,
enabling their addition to the project.


This is a translation of: Tomashover Lub. yisker-bukh (The Tomaszow-Lubelski Memorial Book),
Edited by Joseph M. Moskop; English translation prepared by Jacob Solomon Berger.
Mahwah, New Jersey, 2008


This material is made available by JewishGen, Inc. and the Yizkor Book Project for the purpose of
fulfilling our mission of disseminating information about the Holocaust and destroyed Jewish communities.
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JewishGen, Inc. makes no representations regarding the accuracy of the translation. The reader may wish to refer to the original material for verification.
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Translator's Foreword xv
Foreword 1
The Yizkor Book Committee in New York 4
Members of Va'ad Sefer HaYizkor in Israel 4
A Few Words to the Reader J. Moskop 5
A Headstone for Our City Rae Fust 9
The History of Jews in Tomaszow-Lubelski Mordechai W. Bernstein 10
     Introduction 10
     Beginning of the Settlement 11
The First Jews in Tomaszow 13
     The Privilege of the Tomaszow Jews 15
     Jewish Barber-Surgeons (Physicians) in Tomaszow 20
     Jewish Tradespeople in Tomaszow 22
     Contentious Relations between the Jews and Poles in Tomaszow 23
     Comparative Data about the Jews in Different Time Periods 25
The Martyr, R' Pinchas of Tomaszow, הי”ד 27
The Girl Martyr Sh. Lemar 28
The Synagogue Sh. Licht 29
The Pinkas of the Synagogue Shmuel Eliezer Branner 34
My Grandfather R' Pinchas, and the Seat of Elijah in the Tomaszow Synagogue Rae Fust-Lehrer 36
The Synagogue and the Bet HaMedrash Israel Zilberman 38
Nahum the Shammes, הי”ד Sh. Licht 39
The Mishna Study Group in the Great Bet HaMedrash Aharon Pitluck 40
Jews of the Bet HaMedrash Shmuel Elazar Branner 41
The Belz Shtibl and its Influence in Tomaszow Asher Reis 42
Sanz-Cieszanow Shtibl Y. Nierengang 46
    The Study of Torah 46
    The Curriculum 47
    The Sabbaths & Festivals 47
    Charity & Good Deeds 47
    Guests 48
    Books 48
    Agudah Activities 48
    The Dress 49
    The Worshipers of the Sanz Shtibl 49
The Chelm Shtibl Zusha Kawenczuk 50
The Hevra Kadisha Joseph Moskop 52
Memories of Tomaszow Mikhl Weinblatt 55
    Linat HaTzedek 55
    The Ritual Slaughterer from Markuszow 55
    The Collection Box of Rabbi Meir Baal HaNess Sh. Leibowitz 56
The Rabbis of Tomaszow Sh. Licht 57
The Rabbi of Cieszanow Rabbi, R' Aryeh Leibusz Rubin, זצ”ל Y. Weintraub 60
The Tashlikh River Rae Lehrer Fust 62
A Few Facts about My Family from Tomaszow Isaac Bashevis 64
My Shtetl Rising Rae Fust 68
Tomaszow – Before the First World War Moshe Garzytzensky 69
    The Rebbe, R' Mendele ז”ל 70
    The Rebbe, R' Yoss'leh ז”ל 74
    R' Hirsch Tomashover ז”ל 76
    Rabbi Yehoshua'leh Tomashover ז”ל 76
    The Rebbe, R' Leibusz Neuhaus ז”ל 78
    My Grandfather 78
    Rabbi R' Shmuel Singer זצ”ל 81
My Father 82
Rabbi Chaim Aharon Zvi Shidkovsky ז”ל 84
Spring in Tomaszow A. H. 94
The Jewish Way of Life in Tomaszow Joseph Moskop 95
The Tomaszow Box Factories Rae Fust 104
My Father's Factory Rachil Fust-Lehrer 106
The Bulak-Balakhovich Pogroms in Tomaszow-Lubelski M. Zeldin 110
    Document Number 1 111
    Document Number 2 111
    Document Number 3 113
    Document Number 4 113
    Document Number 5 114
    Document Number 6 114
    Document Number 7 114
    Document Number 8 115
    Document Number 9 115
    Document Number 10 115
    Document Number 11 115
    Document Number 12 116
Letter from the Laszczow and Komarow Communities to the Jews of Tomaszow 116
Letter from Laszczow 117
Letter from Komarow 117
The Re-established, Liberated Poland Shmuel Shiflinger 119
Halutzim in Tomaszow Fishl Hammer 121
The War and the Birth of Tze'irei Zionist Parties Rae Fust (Lehrer) 124
The Bund Movement in Tomaszow-Lubelsk(i) David Geyer 131
    The City Library 133
    In the Municipal Council 134
    The Bund Helps to Organize the Polish Workers 136
    Far-Flung Work with the Masses 136
    Youth and Children's Movement 137
    Contentious Relationships in the Surrounding Jewish Area 137
    The Bund Committees 137
A Gallery of Bund Activists in Tomaszow-Lubelski 139
    Yaakov-Shia Grohman 139
    Mordechai Weissberg 139
    Shlomo Lieber 140
    Peltik Lederkremmer 141
    Leibusz Kaffenbaum 141
    Shevakh Kornworcel 141
    Nahum Schuldiner 142
    Koppel Szpizajzen 142
Histadrut ‘Tze'irei HaMizrahi’ in Tomaszow Nahum Ratzimer 144
The Establishment of the HaShomer HaTza'ir Chapter in Tomaszow-Lubelski David Y. Levenfus 147
A Short Overview of “The Working of the Land of Israel” in Tomaszow Asher Herbstman 149
The “Agudah,” Its Establishment and Development Rabbi Yitzhak Meir Gartler 153
The Agudah Movement Sh. Licht 157
    Tze'irei Agudat Yisrael 157
    Pirkhei Agudat Yisrael 157
    Poalei Agudat Yisrael 158
    Heder Yodei HaTorah 158
    Beth Yaakov 158
A Monument to Unforgettable Friends Isaac Krass 159
    Israel Pearl 159
    Mordechai Ganzer 158
    Yitzhak Meir Pflug 159
    Sinai Stender 160
    Leib'l Lehrer 160
    Leib'l Mermelstein 160
David Yud'l Shur, הי”ד A. Freund 162
The Agudah Boycott Sh. L. 162
The Leftist Movement in Tomaszow Leah Friedlander 163
The Jewish Youth in the City Tomaszow Lubelsk Pinchas Ehrlich 166
The Yavneh School Aryeh Arbesfeld 174
The Leaders of Mizrahi Ch. Y. Lehrer 178
    First and Foremost, R' Eliezer Lederkremmer 178
    R' Sholom Zilberman, הי”ד 179
    R' Benjamin Tepler, הי”ד 179
    R' Mordechai Ratzimer, הי”ד 180
    R' Mordechai Blank הי”ד 181
    R' Pinchas Brass, הי”ד 181
    R' Nahum Dov Glas , הי”ד 181
    R' Yaakov Arbesfeld , הי”ד 181
The Yeshiva of Novardok Joseph Friedlander 183
Bread for the Poor Jonah Feldsehn 186
    Objective of the Organization 186
    Sources of Income 186
    Distributing the Products 186
Taharat Israel Sh. Licht 188
The Economic Structure of Our Community Vova Neu & Baylah Kreitzer 189
    Stores 190
    The Spoldzielnia 191
    The “Lotna Brygada” (The Flying Brigade) 190
    The Tricks of the Flying Brigade 191
    Retail Stores 191
    Cut Goods – Fashion and Leather – Shoe Businesses 193
    Food Stores and Confectionaries 193
    Hotels and Restaurants 193
    Saloons 194
    Soda Stands and Confectioneries 194
    The Bitter Circumstances of the Storekeepers 195
    The Relationship of the Polish Authorities to the Jewish Storekeeper 195
    The Tax Authority (Urzad Skarbowy) 195
    The Tax Authority Staff 194
    Jewish Combinations Against Tax Shakedown 196
    When the Jew Finally Laughed Sadly 197
    The Jewish Quandary 197
    The Jewish Craftsmen 198
    The Social Improvement! 198
    The Bank of the Manual Tradespeople 199
    Tailors 199
    Shoemakers 200
    Glaziers 200
    Hat Makers 200
    The High Level of Jewish Work 200
    The Spiritual and Religious State of the Jewish Worker 201
    Concerning the Religious Side 201
    Sabbath at the Time of “Shaleh-shudes 201
    Youth 202
    The New Registration Laws as a Means to Excise the Jews from the Manual Trades 202
    The “Spolka” (Partnership) 202
    Foreign Currency Traders 205
    The Meat Industry 206
    The Tomaszow Porters 207
Livelihoods A. H., Wroclaw 211
    Ber'leh Katriel's 211
    On the Marketplace 212
    Hilkeh'leh 214
    Deaf Moshe and the Pony 215
This was Tomaszow Sh. Leibowitz 217
    The Commercial Center 217
    Craftsmen; Free Occupations 217
    The Magistrate 218
    The Way of Living 218
    Religious Life 218
    Houses of Worship 218
    Rabbis and Yeshiva Headmasters between the Two World Wars 218
    Ritual Slaughterers 219
    Mohels 219
    The Shamashim 219
    Educational Institutions 219
    Secular Studies 220
    Philanthropic and Charitable Institutions 220
    Productive and Economic Institutions 220
    Leisure Amusements of the Young 220
    Political Parties 220
    Emigration 221
Attributes of our City Sholom Licht 222
Memories of a Tomaszow Scion Fulya Haut 229
Our City Yaakov Laneil 229
    The Market 229
    The Houses of Worship 231
Tomaszow-Lubelski – The City Where I Was Born Mordechai Ehrlich 234
    Sabbath and the Festivals 235
    Educational Institutions 236
    Talmud Torah 239
    Groups and Youth Movements 239
Elections in the Town Sh. Licht 241
    The B.B.W.R. (Pilsudski's Sanacja) and the Jewish Voters 240
    Community Elections 242
    Municipal Council Elections 244
In Passing Neta Eisen (A. Roum) 244
The Spiritual State of Tomaszow Jewry Sh. Licht 246
    The Spiritual Nourishment of the Last Era 247
    The Spiritual Situation Up To 1905 247
    New Currents 248
    The Spiritual Revolution 249
    In Summary 250
Unique Jewish Sartorial Choices Sh. Leibowitz 251
The Preparations for Sabbath and Festivals Sh. Leibowitz 253
    Passover Preparations 255
    The Eve of Shavuot 256
    The Eve of Rosh Hashana & Yom Kippur 256
    The Eve of Sukkot & Simchat Torah 258
    Preparations for Hanukkah & Purim 258
The Black Pillar Yoss'l Shepsel's 259
The First and Last Theater Performance on the Sabbath Hirsch Reis 260
Sabbath and Holiday Time in Tomaszow Kh. Y. Biederman 262
    Erev Shabbat in the City 263
    Kabalat Shabbat 263
    At the Rebbe's Tisch 264
    Rosh Hashana to Tashlikh 265
    Simchat Torah 265
    The Siyyum Celebration of Daf Yomi 266
    The Joy of Purim 266
    The Bet Yaakov Movement 267
    The Heder Yesodei HaTorah 267
    Pirkhei Agudat Yisrael 268
    The Activists Among the Youth 269
    Talmud Torah 269
    The Shtibl of R' Nachman Neuhaus ז”ל 270
    The Angel of Death [in the form of] Typhus 270
    The Ger Shtibl 270
The Great Wedding Asher Reis 273
Reminiscences of Youth Isaac Krass 275
A Cure for One Who Was Sick Sh. Leibowitz 276
    A Catarrh or Cold 276
    An Evil Eye 276
    Pouring Wax 277
    Broken or Hyper-extended Limbs 277
    A ‘Lemung 277
    Feldscher or Doctor 277
    Pregnancy 278
    Birth 278
    The Seriously Ill 278
    ‘Tearing In’ 279
    Cures & Prayers 279
    Toothaches 279
    Baby Teeth 280
    Prescriptions 280
Memories of My Childhood Leah Ardinatsky-Barnstein 281
Unforgettable Impressions Yaakov Minkowsky 283
    The Synagogue 283
    The Situation on the Eve of War 284
    The Institutions and Their Activists 285
    Between the World Wars 286
    The Holocaust 286
    The Lesson 286
A Threnody for Tomaszow Yaakov Herbstman 287
The Life and Death of Our Shtetl, Tomaszow Lubelski Y. Schwartz 292
    The Gabbaim in our Beautiful Synagogue 292
    The Jewish Community 293
    The Free Loan Society Bank 293
    The City Council 293
    Keren-Kayemet 294
    Keren HaYesod 294
    Volks-Bank 294
    The Merchants Union 294
    The Manual Trades Union 295
    Competitors 295
    The Fire Fighters 295
    The Bund 295
    The Drama Circle 295
Little Jewish Snows A. H. 297
Portraits, Names and Personalities 298
Shmuel Meldung Sh. Licht 300
David Schwindler Dov ben David 300
Noah ben Abraham Herbstman Asher Herbstman 301
In Memory of my Son, of Moshe הי”ד Zusha Kawenczuk 301
Avigdor Eidelsberg Sh. Zamoyski 302
Shlomo Goldzamd Sh. Zamoyski 302
Moshe Reichenberg Sh. Zamoyski 303
Pinchas Goldstein Sh. Zamoyski 303
Gershon Brand Sh. Licht 302
Ary' Heller Sh. Licht 304
Yaak'li Lederkremmer Sh. Licht 305
Yitzhak Karper Sh. Licht 305
Sholom Singer Sh. Licht 306
Yaakov Moshe Guthartz Sh. Licht 306
Shlomo Akst Sh. Licht 307
R' David Weitzman Sh. Licht 308
R' Ben Zion Faber Sh. L(icht) 309
Benjamin Weinberg Sh. Lamed (Licht) 309
R' Shmuel Putter הי”ד Leah Moskop (Friedlander) 311
    R' Sinai Putter ז”ל 312
Yekhezkiel Lehrer and the Krasnobrod Gasse Eli' Lehrer 314
My Father, R' Shabtai ז”ל Moshe Friedlander 317
    In Bayrakh'eh's Mill in Belzec 319
Gut'sheh the Widow Rachel Lehrer-Fust 322
R' Tevel ז”ל Israel Zilberman 324
Rabbi Dov Ber'l Fershtman הי”ד Sh. Licht 326
The Dornfeld Family Leah Dornfeld 327
    R' Yaakov Mordechai Dornfeld ז”ל 326
My Father, R' David Tevel Nat, הי”ד Ephraim Fishl Hammer 328
My Grandfather and Grandmother ז”ל Ephraim Fishl Hammer 330
My Unforgettable Friends Y. Liebowitz 332
    Moshe Szparer 332
    Mihkl Reis 332
    Henikh Koch 333
    Hertz Feldsehn 334
To the Memory of My Acquaintances Sh. Khanowich 335
    Moshe Weissleder 335
    Elazar Ader 335
    Abraham Sztajnworcel 335
    Yaakov Arbesfeld 336
    Dr. Shulman 336
Shabtai – Good Morning to You Sh. L. 337
    Advocat Mandeltort 337
    Itcheh Bernstein 337
    Eli' Shtruzler 338
    Ary' Levenfus 338
    Yekhezkiel Kaffenbaum 338
    Eliezer Dorenfeld 338
    Fyvel Holtz 338
    Abraham Yitzhak Blonder 339
The City Elders Sh. Licht 340
    Old Heschel 340
    Old Yaak'leh 340
    Old Shmuel Mikhl'eh's (Bodenstein) 340
A Headstone for Acquaintances and Friends Sh. Licht 339
    Alter Stahl 340
    R' Nathan Neu 341
    Shmuel Lubert 341
    Eli' Chaim Gershon's 341
    Mendele Tepler 341
    Dud'l Goldstein 341
    Reuveh'leh Chay'tcheh's (Gartler) 342
    Pesach Putter 342
    Yisroel'keh Lehrman 342
    Anshel Szur 343
    Eliezer Bergenbaum 344
Shtibl Youth Sh. Licht 345
    Mott'l Fish 345
    Yekhezkiel'i Zekhari[ah]'s 345
    Yoss'li Gelber 345
Sinai Friedlander Leah Hertzig 346
Frieda Tyerstein Rekhil Friedlander 347
    Sarah Dvora Friedlander 347
Meshullam Borg Y. M. 347

Yoss'l Wassertreger Sh. Licht 348
The Matchmaker with the Crooked Head Ephraim Fishl Hammer (Nad) 349
Nahum the Blind One Yaakov Schwartz 350
“Blind Nahum” A. H. 352
Crazy Tema'leh A. H. 353
Destruction and Annihilation 355
Tomaszow-Lubelski Yaakov Schwartz 356
At the Outbreak of the War Shammai Drilman 358
The First Days of the War in Tomaszow Asher Herbstman 363
    The Last Look at My Former City – Tomaszow 366
German Acts of Brutality in the First Days of the War Chaim Yehoshua Biederman 367
The Black Sabbath Mordechai Lehrer 374
    The Black Sabbath 374
A Model of Salvations Shmuel Ehrlich 376
The Destruction and Annihilation of My Shtetl, Tomaszow-Lubelski Sheva Kempinsky-Krieger 377
    The Second Aktion 378
    The Last Aktion 378
My Experiences Under the Germans Abraham Singer 382
I Am the Sole Survivor of My Entire Family Chana Ruduler (Krieger) 392
In the Struggle for One's Life Herman & Sabina Keitel 397
During the Years of Horror Rachel Schwartzbaum (Klarman) 405
    My First Fright on the Way from Warsaw to Tomaszow 405
    My Arrival in Tomaszow 406
    My Lonely Existence in Rawa Ruska Until the Outbreak of the German-Russian War in June 1941 406
    My Return to Tomaszow and My Frightening Experiences 407
    I am Slandered as a Communist 408
    The Aktion in Tomaszow 408
    The Aktion in Belzec 409
    Judenrein 409
    My Experiences in Tarnowska 410
    In Majdanek 411
    In Auschwitz 412
    Torture at Work 413
    My New Workplace with Better Conditions 414
    The Liquidation of the Good Workplaces 415
    My New Work in the Union Factory 415
    I Am Drawn into the Underground 415
    The Judgement 416
    The General Evacuation of the Auschwitz Camp 417
    Our Wanderings 417
    The Liberation 418
My Experiences Charna Kaufman-Eilen 420
    My Four Good Years in Wloclawek 420
    My Three Frightful Months with the German Executioners 420
    My Husband Flees to Tomaszow 421
    I Go Off to Bialystok 422
    My Life in Russia 423
    Our Return to Poland, and the Effect on Me of the Bad News 423
On the Waves of the Hitler Storm Beryl Hirschensohn 425
A Gentle Christian Woman Saved Me Chana Szpizajzen-Weissleder 433
Dark Days in My Life Feiga Pess'l Bergman 435
Joel the Wit and His Wartime Experiences Transcribed By Yaakov Schwartz 438
    The Beginning of the War 439
    Yom Kippur in Jarczów 439
    In Lubicz 440
    Back in Tomaszow 440
    In Rawa Ruska 440
    We Travel Voluntarily to Russia 441
    The Outbreak of the German-Russian War 441
    In Zmerynka Under the Germans 442
    In the Ghetto Under the Rumanians 443
    A Rumanian-Jewish Doctor –Head of the Ghetto 443
    Dr. Hershman and His Activities 443
    In Brailiv Under the Germans 446
    How We Were Rescued 447
The Last Times and the Great Miracles in the Ghetto of Zmerynka 448
The Testimony of Maria Kopiecka 451
Statistical Inquiry 452
Translation from Polish 453
A Few Words About the Questionnaire Y. Moskop 454
My Tortured Brothers & Sisters Who Fell In Sanctification of the Name Yaakov Schwartz 456
“Bones Lie in Belzec” A. H. 457
The Sorrowful End of 500 Years of Jewish Settlement in Tomaszow Sholom Licht 459
    The Beginning of the Destruction 459
    The Anxious Mood 461
    Homes Are Requisitioned 461
    The Bombardment 462
    The Results of the Bombardment 462
    Brought to Rest in Burial 463
    The Entry of the Germans 463
    Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur Under the German Occupation 464
    Interregnum 464
    Under the Russians 465
    The Reason I Left Tomaszow 465
    In Rawa Ruska 466
    The Germans Occupy Tomaszow for the Second Time 467
    Efforts to Obtain Entry Permission from the Russians 467
    A New Delegation is Sent to Lvov (Lemberg) 468
    The Fate of the Jews Who Left Tomaszow 468
    The Passport Transaction 469
    The Fate of the Jews Who Remained in Tomaszow 469
    The Judenrat 470
    Religious Life 470
    During the Difficult Years of Dying 471
    The Collaboration of the Poles with the Germans 471
    The Permanent Enmity Towards the Jew 472
    The Ultimate Liquidation 473
    The German Tactic 473
    An Example of German Barbarism 474
    An Act of Martyrdom 474
    Jewish Partisans 475
The Survivors in Russia Chaim Joseph Lehrer 475
    Where Did the Rawa [Ruska] Echelon Go To? 476
    How Did They Survive Living in Russia? 476
    Where Did They Live? 477
    What Did They Live From? 477
    Amnesty for Polish Citizens 477
    The Wandering Through Central Asia 478
    The Situation After Liberation 478
    The First News of the Holocaust 479
    Traveling Back to Poland 480
At the Site of the Destruction Dov ben David Schwindler 482
In Tomaszow, After the Holocaust Moshe Taubenblatt 483
Tomaszow [Jews] After the Holocaust Leah Moskop-Friedlander 486
The Tomashover Hilfs Commitet in New York 488
The Free Loan Society of the Tomaszow–Lubelski Émigrés Zusha Kawenczuk 489
    R' Abraham Goldschmid ז”ל 489
The Yizkor Book Commission in Israel Yaakov Herbstman 491
    Circular 493
The Assistance Committee Yaakov Laneil 495
The Tomaszow Free Loan Society in Israel Mordechai ben Ben-Zion Honigsfeld 496
Tomaszow People in B'nai Brak L. Wermuth 498
Cornerstone Laying Ceremony for Talmud Torah Kol Ary' 499
Memories of Tomaszow-Lubelski Shmuel Shiflinger 500
    A Theater Presentation 500
    Dr. Zawadski 501
    A Victim in Illegally Crossing the Border 501
The Common Folk Get A Place Y. Moskop 502
    A Protest Demonstration 502
    The Dispute of the Shokhtim and Election of the Spiritual Leader 503
Necrology 508
Memorials 527


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