The Book of Częstochowa
(Częstochowa, Poland)

50°48' / 19°07'

Translation of
Sefer Czenstochow


Edited by: M. Schutzman

Published: Jerusalem 1967-1968



Project Coordinator

Andrew Rajcher



Dave Horowitz-Larochette


This is a translation from: Sefer Czenstochow (The Book of Częstochowa),
edited by M. Schutzman, published in Jerusalem 1967-1968, Volumes: 2, Languages: H,Y

This material is made available by JewishGen, Inc. and the Yizkor Book Project for the purpose of
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See also The World Society of Częstochowa Jews and Their Descendants


Volume I

Introduction 9-20
Preface The Editorial Committee 21-24
On the “Monograph” That Was Never Written The Book Committee 25-28
Jewish Częstochowa and its History
The Jews in Częstochowa to World War I Dr. Yaakov Shatzki 33-72
The Jews in Częstochowa S. Śpiewak 73-106
A Little Page of History of the Częstochowa Jewish Community in the 19th century S. Śpiewak 106-110
The study‐hall after the destruction of our city V. H. 110-112
Częstochowa Jews Fight for Their Rights V. H. 112-116
The Jewish Community and the Municpal Institutions
Our Community and its Institutions in the Last Generation Before Its Destruction David Koniecpoler 121-134
Details of the Last Municipal Council Elections Ezriel Ben‐Moshe 133-136
The “Chevra Kadisha” M. Ch. Tiberg 135-140
The Częstochowa Jewish Community in 1856 Dr. W. Gliksman 139-142
The Rabbi of Częstochowa Makes Peace Cz. C. 143-148
Our New Mikvah A. G‐B 147-148
My Memories of the 1935 City Council Elections Israel Buchman 149-150
Movements and Currents in the Lives of Częstochowa Jews
From My Memories of the Zionist Organization in Częstochowa Dawid Koniecpoler 161-164
Documents on the History of Zionism in Częstochowa W. H. 163-174
On the First Steps of the Zionist Movement in Our City Excerpts From the Press 175-184
Zionist Organisation Events in Our City The Editors 183-188
A Bunch of Flowers Naftali Grabowski 189-192
Zionist Youth in Częstochowa Sz. Oderberg 193-196
The History of “Ha'Mizrachi” in Częstochowa Jakob Leslau 198-200
The “Tzeirei Ha'Mizrachi” Organisation in Częstochowa Jakob Leslau 201-206
A City and Mother in Israel! Sz. Z. Shragai 207-212
HaChalutz HaMizrachi” in Częstochowa Mojsze Chaim Tiberg 211-218
On Religious Zionist Youth in Częstochowa Izaak Kac 217-218
The “Religious Craftsmen's Centre” Branch in Częstochowa Pinchas [Pinkus] Michałowicz 219-220
The Poalei–Zion (Right) Party in Częstochowa Ezriel Ben–Moshe 221-224
The Zionist Labour Party “Hitachdut” in Częstochowa Ezriel Ben–Moshe 225-228
The Revisionist Zionist Movement in Częstochowa Ezriel Ben–Moshe 227-230
The State Party Movement Ezriel Ben–Moshe 231-232
The Trumpeldor Youth Alliance (Betar) in Częstochowa Chaim Landau 233-238
“Ha'Shomer Ha'Tzair” in Częstochowa Z. K. 237-244
The “Gordonia” Movement in Częstochowa Juda Cymerman 243-246
Agudas Yisroel” in Częstochowa Noach Edelist 247-250
The “Poalei Agudas Yisroel” Organisation Lipman Rajcher 249-250
Bnos Agudas Yisroel Lipman Rajcher 251-252
Częstochowa at the Time of the Opening of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem The Book Committee 253-256
“For Out of Zion Shall go Forth the Torah” Rabbi Nachum Asz z”l 257-262
Zionist news from Past Year The Book Committee 263-266
The Great 1925 “Keren Ha'Yesod” Fundraiser in Częstochowa The Book Committee 265-270
A “Keren Kayemeth Le'Israel” Forest in Memory of Marshall Józef Piłsudski The Book Committee 271-274
“The Craftsmen's Ha'Chalutz” in Częstochowa Abram Szymonowicz 275-278
The Formation of the National–Religious Movement in Częstochowa Jakub Chuna Plai (Filik) 277-284
Częstochowa Farewells Its Pioneers The Book Committee 285-288
The Horticultural Farm in Częstochowa E. Ben–Moshe 289-292
The “Poalei Zion” party in Częstochowa Abram Gotlib 291-298
A Bundle of Memories About the Left “Poalei Zion” in Częstochowa Abram Brum 299-306
Częstochowa Takes in Party Leaders Mojsze Oderberg 309-310
Party–Discipline and My Experiences in My Young Years Mojsze Oderberg 309-312
The Renaissance of the Jewish Worker in Częstochowa Majer Fajnrajch 311-316
The “S.S.” (Zionist Socialist Party) in Częstochowa Elkune Chrobołowski z”l 315-324
The Jewish Labour Party “Bund Abram Gotlib 323-332
Jews in the Communist Movement Adam Sztajnbrecher 333-348
Charitable Institutions
From a Notebook of Memoirs on the Expulsion at Zbąszyń Professor Ch. Z. Hirszberg 353-356
A Kitchen for Jewish Soldiers in the Polish army Dr Sz. Kaminski, z”l 355-360
Charitable Institutions in Our City The Book Committee 359-362
The “Dobroczynność” [Charity] Philanthropic Society The Book Committee 363-372
The Jewish Hospital's Financial Crisis Izrail Buchman 371-374
The “Tomchei Ani'im” [Supporters of the Poor] Society Godl Frajtag 373-376
The “Beis Lechem” [House of Bread] Institution The Book Committee 375-378
The “TOZ” Society The Book Committee 379-388
Gmilus Chassodim” Funds The Book Committee 385-386
The “Malbish Arumim” Society The Book Committee 387-388
The “Hachnoses Kallah” Society Sz. Niski 388-389
The “Linas Ha'Tzedek” Society The Book Committee 389-390
The “Ezra” Women's Society The Book Committee 391-392
The “Hachnoses Orchim” Society E. Ben–Moshe 391-394
Various Financial Institutions
Industry in Częstochowa – Its Creation and Development Jakób [Yaakov] Lewit 401-412
The Merchants and Manufacturers Union The Book Committee 415-418
The Boycott Instigated Against Jewish Commerce The Book Committee 417-422
Jews Conquer Zawodzie… T.C. 423-424
Banks in Częstochowa The Book Committee 423-428
The Craftsmen's Union and Its Guilds A. Gotlib 427-436
The Retailers' Union The Book Committee 435-438
Towarzystwo Kredytowe The Book Committee 437-440
The “Lira” Society of Music and Culture E. Ben–Moshe 445-448
Public Libraries and Reading Rooms The Book Committee 447-452
The Hebrew Gymnazijum [High School] Adv. Majer Horowicz 451-456
The “Beis Yaakov” School for Girls Lipman Rajcher 455-458
An Impressive Chanukah Evening at the Hebrew Gymnazijum The Book Committee 459-462
Dr Axer's Gymnazijum The Book Committee 463-466
A Celebration at the Zofja Wajnsztok School The Book Committee 465-468
The Crafts School A. Gotlib and M. Fajnrajch 467-474
Supplementary Courses at the Craftsmen Union's Trade School The Book Committee 473-476
The ORT Organisation The Book Committee 475-478
The Judaic Institute The Book Committee 477-480
I.L. Peretz Educational Institutions The Book Committee 479-484
The Jewish Society for Knowledge of the Country The Book Committee 483-486
Jewish Theatre Szeftel Zak 487-492
A Few Words About the Drama Circle Fiszel Blumenkranc 491-494
Our Jewish Press E. Ben–Moshe 493-500
Sport and Sportsmen Chaim Birnholc 501-520
Rabbis, Halachic Authorities & Religious Life
Rabbis, Judges and Shamoshim Jakób Chune Plai (Filik) 525-530
Rabbinical Judges Jakób Chune Plai (Filik) 531-532
Shamoshim The Book Committee 531-532
Synagogues, Study–Halls and Chassidic “Shtieblech The Book Committee 535-538
Beis Ha'Talmud” [The Talmud House] at the Study–Hall Z.D. Koplowicz 537-542
The Holy “Etz ChaimYeshivah at the Local Study–Hall The Book Committee 541-544
From the Memoirs of a Yeshivah Student Moshe Ben–Dov 543-546
Częstochowa – a Source of Charity and Goodwill! M.Ch. Badad 547-550
The “Machzikei Hadascheder Noach Edelist 549-554
Cheders, Melamdim and Their Pupils Mojsze Chaim Tiberg 555-560
Reb Mordka Jechiel Grin hy”d Ch.Z. Rozen 561
Reb Leizer Landsman hy”d Jakób Landsman 562
List of the Melamdim and Cheders The Book Committee 563-566
The “Little Yom Kippur The Book Committee 567-568
In Memoriam of the Rebbe, Reb Pinches Menachem Eluzor Justman ztz”l M.Sz. Geshuri 567-570
Reb Pinches Menachem Justman Mojsze Dawid Wajcman 569-572
Reb Chanoch Henech Gad Justman hy”d – the Rebbe of Pilica Izaak Zander 571-576
The Rebbe of Zhurik [Żarki] Reb Duwid Aron Twerski hy”d M. Sz. Geshuri 575-578
The Rebbe Reb Awigdor Szapira ztz”l M. Sz. Geshuri 577-580
Reb Szulim Rotenberg, the Rebbe of Wolbrom M. Sz. Geshuri 579-580
The Shtiebel of Aleksander Chassidim Ch.Z. Rozen 581-588
The Shtiebel of Otwock Chassidim Tzvi Józef Kaufman 587-588
The Shtieblech of the Ger Chassidim Z.D. Koplowicz 587-592
From My Memories of the Gerer Shtiebel Icchok Majer Katz 591-594
The Shtiebel of the Stryków Chassidim Mojsze Chaim Tiberg 593-598
The Shtiebel of Kromołów Chassidim Chaim Ben Shlomo 597-600
The Shtiebel of the Radomsko Chassidim Icchok Zander 599-602
The Shtiebel of the Radoszyce Chassidim Izaak Jakobi 603-606
The Shtiebel of the Szydłów Chassidim Jakób Chune Plai (Filik) 605-608
A List of Rabbis and Religious Dignitaries Until the Holocaust The Book Committee 607-610
A Few of the Rabbi Reb Nuchem Asz's Witticisms The Book Committee 609-614
Some Details Regarding Religious Life The Book Committee 609-614
Simchas Torah with the Rebbe of Żarki z”l Ezriel Ben–Moshe 619-622
The Gerer Shtiebel at ul. Nadrzeczna 36 E. Ben–Moshe (Jakubowicz) 621-624
Around the New Study–Hall Szmul Frank z”l 623-626
The “Machzikei Hadas” Cheder E. Ben–Moshe 627-636
Figures and Personalities
The Rabbi and Prodigy Reb Nuchem Asz z”l The Book Committee 643-646
Rabbi Meier Henoch Iszajewicz z”l The Book Committee 647-648
Rabbi Mojsze Halter hy”d A. G–B 648-649
Rabbi Józef Szymon Koblenz z”l The Book Committee 649-651
The Halachic Authority Reb Józef Prokosz z”l The Book Committee 651-652
Director Henryk Markusfeld T.K. 651-659
Reb Szmul Goldsztajn hy”d The Book Committee 659-660
Reb Chaim Weksler The Book Committee 660-661
Jakób Rozenberg The Book Committee 661-662
Bronisław Huberman The Book Committee 661-670
My Meeting with B. Huberman E. Ben–Moshe 670
Rabbi Jacob Samuel Zuri z”l Samuel Landman 669-677
Reb Abram Ber Birenbaum z”l M. Sz. Geshuri 681-684
Professor I. Zaks The Book Committee 684
Sculptor Arnold Monat The Book Committee 685
Natan Gerichter D.K. 685-686
Dr Arnold Bram hy”d E. Ben–Moshe 686
Abram Luzor Szajnfeld hy”d Z.D.K. 687-688
Felix (Fiszel) Szapira hy”d The Book Committee 688-689
Anczel Warszawski D.K. 689
Reb Abram Henech Finkelsztajn The Book Committee 690-693
Dr Mering hy”d D.K. 693
Ze'ev–Wolf Icek hy”d Yeshayahu [Szaja] Landau 693-694
Szmul Niemirowski hy”d D.K. 694-695
Professor Lauer hy”d Yeshayahu Landau 695
Dr Hipolit Gajsler hy”d Dawid Koniecpoler 695-696
Reb Icchok Majer Krel hy”d Hala Szapira 696-697
Reb Srul Częstochowski J.C. Plai 697-698
Reb Duwid Icchok Edelist N.E. 698-699
Maurycy Neufeld D.K. 699-702
Dr Józef Russ The Book Committee 702
Dr Ludwig Batawja The Book Committee 702
Engineer Assoro–Dobraj D.K. 703
Reb Icyk Menachem [Mendel] Epsztajn hy”d The Book Committee 703
Chaim Wajnsztok hy”d The Book Committee 703-704
Abram Dziaéowski D.K. 704
Dawid Filipowicz G.F. 705
Józef Goldberg D.K. 705
Salomea Sztarke hy”d The Book Committee 706-707
S.B. Helman Częstochower Zeitung 707
Dr Zaks hy”d D.K. 707-708
Dr Chaim Markowicz The Book Committee 708
Icek Rotholc (“Forfer”) The Book Committee 708-709
Reb Nachman Kryman The Book Committee 709
Reb Kasriel Lewenhof Zvi Józef Kaufman 709-710
Reb Dawid Pelc hy”d Yeshayahu Landau 710
Reb Mosze Izrael Zomper The Book Committee 710-711
Reb Mojsze Częstochowski J.Ch. Plai 711
Reb Juda Leib [Lewek] Kantor The Book Committee 711-712
Shoichet Reb Mojsze Zander Izaak Zander 712-713
Shoichet Reb Mojsze Szancer hy”d S.B. Szancer 713-714
Cantor Reb Zyskind [Ber] Rozental M.Sz.G. 714-715
Cantor Reb Abram Fiszel hy”d The Book Committee 715-716
The Cantor Józef Badasz The Book Committee 716
Cantor J. Cholewa hy”d The Book Committee 716-717
Reb Izaak Mendel Horowicz hy”d D. Koniecpoler 717-718
Zvi [Hersz] Granek A.B. 718
The “Trio” Which Once Was and Its Remnants Sz. Oderberg 719-720
Juda Leib Horowicz hy”d The Book Committee 720-721
Reb Berl Bocian The Book Committee 722
Editor Szmul Frank Ezriel Ben–Moshe (Jakubowicz) 722-724
A.Ch. Sziffer hy”d E. Ben–Moshe 724-725
Fiszel Blumenkranc hy”d E. Ben–Moshe 725-727
“Mister ” Zeligfeld hy”d E. Ben–Moshe 727
Abram Nuchem Sztencel J.Ch. Plai–Filik 729-730
Zvi Herszel Lipszyc hy”d Yeshayahu [Szaja] Landau 731
Gerszon Prentki hy”d The Book Committee 731
Józef Częstochowski G.P. 732
Mojsze Gotlib A. G–B. 732
Henoch Lapides and Emanuel Bajgele The Book Committee 732-733
Fiszele Chiap hy”d The Book Committee 733-734
The City's Public Figures The Book Committee 734
Częstochowa's Old Families
On Three of the City's Oldest Families M.Ch. 735-743
The Family of Reb Józef Dziubas z”l Z.D. Koplowicz 743-748
The Rotenberg Family in Częstochowa Yitzchak Alfasi 748-750
The Gotlib and Wargoń Families J.Ch. Plai–Filik 750-753
Reb Menachem Mendel Szlojme Gotlib z”l A. G–B 753-754
Five Generations of the Kohn Family Janina Schleicher 754-760
The Essence of Our City
The Pogrom of 20th May 1919 Ezriel Ben–Moshe 765-766
The Bloody Tragedy A. Chrobołowski z”l 767-772
The Three–Day Pogrom The Book Committee 771-774
The Events of Sorrowful Days M.Ch. Tiberg 773-774
The “Repentant Sinner” Ch.Z. Rozen 775-776
Our City's Characters Chaim Szymonowicz 775-778
Some “Regulations” of the Bygone “Tailors' Society” Mojsze Asz 777-782
The First Jewish Kehile Godl Frajtag 781-784
The Jewish Combatants' Union The Book Committee 783-784
Fragments of Jewish Life Chaim Szymonowicz 783-786
The First Concert Lipa Gutfrajnd 787-788
From My Memories Godl Frajtag 789-790
Simple Jews M.Ch.T. 790-796
The Shriek of the Bird Elkune Chrobolowski z”l 797-800
The Aleje [Avenues] of Częstochowa Zvi Rozenwajn 799-802
In Pusch's Courtyard Ester Rozental (Sznajderman) 801-804
The Miracle Ester Rozental (Sznajderman) 807-812
The Stary Rynek [Old Market] During the Day Ezriel Ben–Moshe (Jakubowicz) 811-818
A Courtyard on Ulica Warszawska I. Elchunon [Chune] Plai–Filik 817-820
Jewish Częstochowa – on the Eve of the Second World War Dawid Koniecpoler 819-834


Volume II

Introduction 1-8
From Generation to Generation The Editorial Committee 9-20
During the Holocaust
The Holocaust on European Jewry Zvi Wiernik 25-28
The Germans in Częstochowa Szlojme Waga 29-32
It Began Even Before the War Mojsze Konsens 33-36
Tearful Dates Dawid Koniecpoler z”l 37-46
The First Victims L. Bergman 47-48
Registration for Forced Labour Announcement   49-52
Looting and Sadism Szlojme Waga 51-58
Terror and Destruction Chaim Szymonowicz 57-62
Extermination Szlojme Waga 61-67
In the City of Good Hope Natan Eck 71-87
The Ruined Yom Kippur Szmul Niski 85-88
The Mass Grave on Ulica Kawia [Street] Czaryski Janusz 87-90
Men Killed for a Few Potatoes Chaim Birnholc 91-94
A Polish Woman's Good Deed Szmul Niski 93-94
The Workers Council in Częstochowa Zvi Rozenwajn 95-100
The Terror Increases Szlojme Waga 101-114
The Aleje After the Destruction Zvi Rozenwajn 113-116
The Fifth Akcja Szlojme Waga 115-122
After the Liquidation of the “Small Ghetto” J. Rużański 121-126
An Evening Service in the Daytime Chaim Szymonowicz 125
The “Kapo” Changed his Mind Zvi Majerowicz 127-128
Religious Jewry in the Holocaust Noach Edelist 129-132
Religious Life in “HASAG” The Book Committee 131-134
The Destruction of the New Synagogue W. Gliksman 135-138
Children in the Holocaust   139-140
The Gordonia Movement in the Holocaust Juda Cymerman 139-140
Hiding Inside a Machine Hela Wajnrach 141-142
All Israel is Responsible… Chaim Szymonowicz 143-144
The Use of Poison Yeshayahu Landau 144
The New Ghetto Szlojme Waga 145-156
On the Day of Liberation Chaim Szymonowicz 155-156
Częstochowa Jews in Treblinka
The Road to Treblinka Izaak Wiślicki 157-160
Nineteen Days in Treblinka Aron Gelbard 159-164
I Was Freed By the Revolt Arie Kudlik 165-170
The Revolt in Treblinka Szmul Willenberg z”l 169-174
Resistance and Rebellion
The Struggle of the Częstochowa Jews Szlojme (Stefan) Grajek 181-184
The Beacon of Fire in the Dead of Night Ajzik Diamant 185-188
Fortitude of Spirit Yeshayahu [Szaja] Landau 189-196
In the Struggle Against the Nazi Beast Zvi [Hersz; Jacek, Heniek] Wiernik 197-214
Conspiratorial Activities Jakób Alebarde 215-216
Ready for Battle Maciej (Mojsze) Krauze 217-220
Resistance in HASAG–Pelcery Adam Sztajnbrecher 221-230
The Hero Machel Birencwajg z”l Chunon Kiel 231-234
Sabotage with Delft Tiles for Cookers Jakób Leber 235
Members of “Freiheit” Create “Fives” Abram Wirsztel 236-237
The Chronicle of the Koniecpol Unit Bolek Gwircman 238-270
The Workshop at Aleja 14 Dawid Koniecpoler z”l 273-276
The Złoty Potok Group Zvi Wiernik 275-277
History of the Underground Group “66” Sara Edelist [née Gutgold] 277-282
The ŻOB in Pilica The Book Committee 283-284
Memorial Stones   285-326
In Memory of the Heroes   327-332
Before the Disaster
This is How I Remember my City Moshe Yishai 337-344
The Bygone Częstochowa Community Szaja Landau 343-352
The Glory and Radiance of Jewish Częstochowa Dr Zvi Kantor z”l 352-353
With the Harassed Folk of Częstochowa Izaak Wiszlicki 354-356
After the War
After the War   361-380
Murders – Already After Liberation Izaak Wiszlicki 381-382
How the Banners Were Concealed Majer Rotholc 381-384
Częstochowers in Israel
Dr Józef Kruk E. Ben–Moshe 389-392
Dr Józef Kruk Abram Zak 391-396
Reb Szlojme Zalman Shragai (originally Fajwlowicz) The Book Committee 395-398
Reb Jakób Leslau The Book Committee 399-402
Reb Jakób Lewit E. Ben–Moshe 401-404
Dr Elyahu [Eliasz] Horowicz E.B.M. 405-406
Abram J. Gotlib The Book Committee 407-410
Simcha Rajch The Book Committee 409
Isachar Szwarcbaum The Book Committee 410
Częstochowers in the “Brigade”   411-412
Uszer Ilan (Szwarcbaum) E.H. 411-414
Mojsze Klarman z”l Moshe 415-416
Captain Michael (Micha) Ron–Besserglik z”l The Book Committee 417-418
Dawid Gliksman z”l   419-420
Felix Beatus   419-422
Mordechai (Motek) Kusznir z”l E.B.M. 421-424
Reb Berisz Częstochowski z”l J.Ch. Plai (Filik) 423-424
Reb Srul Kamiński z”l D.Sz. Kamiński z”l 425-426
[Reb] Duwid Majer Granek z”l The Book Committee 427-428
Juda (Judl) Dancyger z”l Ezriel Ben–Moshe 429-430
Perec Lasker z”l E. Ben–Moshe 429-432
Dr Zvi Kantor z”l Tzemach Tzmarion 431-434
Izrael Tyberg z”l The Book Committee 433-434
Jakub Tyberg z”l The Book Committee 433-436
Juda Srebrnik The Book Committee 435-438
The Association of Częstochowa Jews in Israel Abram Gotlib 437-442
Religious Pioneers in Israel M.Ch. Tyberg 441-444
The Max Fein Vocational School in Tel–Aviv Adopts Jewish Częstochowa   445-446
A Glorious Chapter from the Near Past   447-454
Częstochowa Landsleit Fight and Build Godl Frajtag 453-456
Częstochowers in Jerusalem   455-456
Częstochowers in Haifa   457-458
Częstochowers in the Diaspora
“United Czenstochover Relief Committee” and “Ladies Auxiliary” in New York Karl Wargon 465-468
Opening Ceremony of the Kfar Saba Children's Home Ezriel ben–Moshe (Jakubowicz) 469-472
Rafał Federman E. Ben–Moshe 471-474
Federman Rafałn   473-474
Kune Chrobołowski The Book Committee 473-476
Professor Wolf Leslau   475-476
Józef Kaufman   477
Szmul Prokosz G.F. 478
Częstochower Society in Los Angeles Harry Grauman 479-480
Majer (Max) Fefer Abram Gotlib 481
Henry Grauman, Los Angeles Abram Gotlib 482
Częstochowa and Chicago Mojsze Krauze 483-484
Mojsze Ceszyński z”l The Book Committee 485-486
Czenstochover Society in Detroit Ruben Luks 487
Kalman Grosberg Ruben Luks 488
The Częstochower Landsmannschaft of Montreal Dr Benjamin Orenstein 489-490
The Częstochower Landsmannschaft of Toronto Mojsze Frank 491-494
The Częstochower Circle in Argentina Jakób L. Jakubowicz 497-502
The Częstochower Circle in Australia I. Gans (Gancwajch) z”l 497-502
Leibel Rayman [Rajman] The Book Committee 501
Izrael Leib Gancwajch z”l – Australia The Book Committee 502
Jews from Częstochowa in the Vicinity of Paris Dr Kurland 503-504
The “Friends of Częstochowa” Society in Paris Mojsze Wajnman 505-510
Localities around Częstochowa
Krzepice and the Surrounding Area   517-524
Amstov [Mstów] (Emes–Tov) [Truly Good] M.Sh. Geshuri 525-528
The “Twin Towns” of Pajęczno and Sulmierzyce Yehuda Kishon 527-530
Koniecpol Daniel Pagan 529-532
Bibliography   531-536

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