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[Pages 404-439]

Notes


Frontispiece
 
1 James Waller, Becoming Evil. How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass Killing (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), p.248. Return
2 Vasily Grossman, Everything Flows, (London: Harvill Secker, 2010), p.128. Return
 
Introduction
 
3 Michael Burleigh, Eugenic Utopias and the Genetic Present (Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions: Vol. 1, No. 1, 2000), p.62. Koltsov was a Russian biologist and geneticist. Following denunciation of his theories as “fascistic nonsense” by disciples of Stalin's favourite, the agronomist, supporter of the theory of the inheritance of acquired characters, and charlatan, Trofim Lysenko, Koltsov was allegedly poisoned by the NKVD in 1940. Under Stalin a complete ban on the practice and teaching of genetics, condemned as a “bourgeois perversion”, was imposed,. Return
4 Hugh Gallagher, What the Nazi “Euthanasia Program” Can Tell Us About Disability Oppression (Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Vol.12, No.2, 2001) 96-99, p.96. Return
5 Robert N Proctor, Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis (Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1989), pp. 10-13. Return
6 Richard Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler. Evolutionary Ethics, Eugenics, and Racism in Germany (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2004), pp 36-37. Return
7 Marius Turda, 'A New Religion'? Eugenics and Racial Scientism in Pre-First World War Hungary (Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions: Vol.7, No. 3, September 2006), p.308. Return
8 Ibid., p.308. Return
9 Ibid., p.309. Return
10 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p. 15. Return
11 Turda, 'A New Religion'?, p.324, note 46. Return
12 Ulf Schmidt, Karl Brandt: The Nazi Doctor – Medicine and Power in the Third Reich (London: Hambledon Continuum, 2007), p.362. Return
13 Most sources attribute first use of the word to Galton in his 1883 work “Human Faculty”, although the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary dates its first appearance to 1833. Return
14 Rachel Iredale, Eugenics and its Relevance to Contemporary Health Care, (Nursing Ethics, 7 (3), 2000), p.206. Return
15 Michael Burleigh, Ethics and extermination: Reflections on Nazi genocide, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), p.144. Return
16 Iredale, Eugenics and its Relevance to Contemporary Health Care, p.206. Return
17 Daniel J Kevles, In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986), p.291. Return
18 Reinhard Heydrich, who died on 4 June 1942 following an assassination attempt by Czechoslovakian patriots nine days earlier, held this position. Return
19 Philip Boobbyer, Moral Judgements and Moral Realism in History (Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2002), p.85. Return
20 Ibid., p.86. Return
21 Henry Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From `Euthanasia' to the Final Solution (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press,1995), p.xxii Return
 
Chapter 1. Towards Utopia
 
22 Michael W Perry, (ed), G K Chesterton - Eugenics and Other Evils: An Argument Against the Scientifically Organised State (Seattle: Inkling Books, 2001), p.124. A convert to Catholicism, Chesterton managed to be simultaneously both anti-eugenic and anti-Semitic, thus proving that one is not necessarily the prerequisite of the other. [Richard S Levy (ed), Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO Ltd, 2005), pp.115-116]. Return
23 Marius Turda and Paul J Weindling (eds.), “Blood and Homeland”. Eugenics and Racial Nationalism in Central and Southeast Europe, 1900-1940, (Budapest: Central European University Press, 2007), p.196. Return
24 There has been an enormous volume of literature published on this subject during the last 150 years posing arguments, some vehemently for, others equally vehemently against, Darwin's evolutionary principle, as well as the innumerable variations on specific issues raised by that topic. The concern of this text is primarily the impact and consequences of this debate on the development and implementation of specific Nazi policies derived from and subsequently endorsed by the then prevalent general eugenic theory. Return
25 Michael Burleigh, and Wolfgang Wipperman, The Racial State: Germany 1933-1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), p.28. Return
26 John W Dower, War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War (New York: Pantheon Books, 1986), pp. 153-154. Return
27 http://tinyurl.com/3yeronw (Accessed 21 August 2008). Return
28 Richard Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler. Evolutionary Ethics, Eugenics, and Racism in Germany (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2004), p.1. Return
29 The term first appeared in an 1879 article by Oscar Schmidt. Return
30 Sylvia Anne Hoskins, Nurses and National Socialism - a Moral Dilemma: One Historical Example of a Route to Euthanasia (Nursing Ethics, 12 (1), 2005), p.80. Return
31 Dennis Sewell, The Political Gene – How Darwin's Ideas Changed Politics (London: Picador, 2009), p.35. Return
32 Mike Hawkins, Social Darwinism in European and American Thought 1860-1945: Nature as model and nature as threat (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), p.7. Return
33 Henry Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From `Euthanasia' to the Final Solution (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995), p.4. Return
34 Rachel Iredale, Eugenics and its Relevance to Contemporary Health Care, (Nursing Ethics, 7 (3), 2000), p.206. Return
35 “Survival of the fittest”, perhaps the term most associated with Social Darwinism, is often incorrectly attributed to Darwin himself. In fact, Darwin wrote that “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is the most adaptable to change,” a doctrine which might be termed the “survival of the most adaptable”, a concept much more difficult to politicise than Spencer's dangerous interpretation of natural selection. Return
36 Marius Turda, 'A New Religion'? Eugenics and Racial Scientism in Pre-First World War Hungary (Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions: Vol.7, No. 3, September 2006), p.316. Return
37 William Graham Sumner, The Challenge of Facts and Other Essays, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1914).p.423. Return
38 David Masson, Macmillan's Magazine, Vol XII (London: Macmillan and Co, 1865). pp.324-325. Return
39 Richard Lynn, Eugenics: A Reassessment (Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2001), pp. 215-216. Return
40 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.78. Return
41 Darwin's view of natural selection through the struggle for existence was derived from Thomas Malthus' concept of an organism's tendency towards overpopulation, one consequence of which was the propensity of humans to reproduce faster than their food supply. Ergo, the racial hygienists concluded, the need of the stronger nation to expand its living space (Lebensraum) at the expense of the weaker, even as it bred allegedly superior stock to populate the living space gained and at the same time restricted the ability of its supposedly inferior stock to procreate. (Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.185). Malthus set out his argument in his 1798 treatise, Essay on the Principle of Population. Some consider Malthus a proto-eugenicist, going so far as to label him “the founding father of scientific racism.” [Patrick Brantlinger, Dark Vanishings: Discourse on the Extinction of Primitive Races, 1800-1930 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2003), p.17)]. Return
42 Robert N Proctor, Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis-(Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1989), p.342, note 30. Return
43 James W Trent, “Who shall say who is a useful person?” Abraham Myerson's opposition to the eugenic movement (History of Psychiatry, No. 12, 2001), p.42. Return
44 Turda, 'A New Religion'?, p.309. Return
45 http://tinyurl.com/27mf4wx (Accessed 16 November 2009). Return
46 Kathleen Wilson, The Island Race: Englishness, empire and gender in the eighteenth century (London: Routledge, 2003), P.54. Return
47 http://tinyurl.com/34nq7aj (Accessed 5 December 2009). Return
48 Mark Mazower, Hitler's Empire – Nazi Rule in Occupied Europe (London: Allen Lane, 2008), pp.182-183. Return
49 Turda and Weindling, “Blood and Homeland”, p.438. Return
50 Karl Pearson (ed), The Life, Letters and Labours of Francis Galton, Volume Three, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1930), p.321. Return
51 Karl Pearson (ed), The Life, Letters and Labours of Francis Galton, Volume Two, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1924). p.119. Return
52 Herbert Henry Goddard approvingly defined feeble-mindedness as a “state of mental defect existing from birth or from an early age and due to incomplete or abnormal development in consequence of which, the person affected is incapable of performing his duties as a member of society in the position of life to which he is born.” [Henry Herbert Goddard, Feeble-mindedness: Its Causes and Consequences (New York: Arno Press, 1973), p. 4)]. This could (and was) interpreted to mean almost anybody who did not fit a particular set of established parameters. Return
53 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p. 6. Return
54 Samuel Totten, William S Parsons, Israel W Charny (eds.), Century of Genocide: Eyewitness accounts and Critical Views (New York: Routledge, 2004), p. 213. Return
55 Daniel J Kevles, In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986), p.97. Return
56 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p. 8-9. More than 65,000 Americans were subject to involuntary sterilisation during the inter-war years. [Philip Zimbardo, The Lucifer Effect: How Good People Turn Evil (London: Rider Books, 2007), p.313]. Return
57 Sheila Faith Weiss, Race Hygiene and National Efficiency: The Eugenics of Wilhelm Schallmayer (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987), p.29. Return
58 King, Desmond, In the Name of Liberalism: Illiberal Social Policy in the United States and Britain, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), p.69, note 24. Return
59 H G Wells, Mankind in the Making, (Charleston: BiblioBazaar, 2006), p.35. Return
60 H G Wells, Anticipations, (Charleston: BiblioBazaar, 2007), pp.187-188. Return
61 In 1926 `Education' was dropped from the Society's title. (Sewell, The Political Gene, p.247, note 3). Return
62 Dan Stone, Breeding Superman: Nietzsche, Race and Eugenics in Edwardian and Interwar Britain (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2002), p.127. Return
63. Ibid., p.130. Return
64 Dan Stone, Race in British Eugenics (European History Quarterly, Vol.31, no.3, 2001), p. 399. Return
65 David Pilgrim, The Eugenic Legacy in Psychology and Psychiatry (International Journal of Social Psychiatry, Vol.54, No.3, 2008), p.274. Return
66 Stone, Race in British Eugenics, p. 400. Return
67. Ibid., p. 401. Return
68 Turda, 'A New Religion'?, p.312. Return
69 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.180. Return
70 Andrés Horacio Reggiani, God's Eugenicist: Alexis Carrel and the
Sociobiology of Decline, (New York: Berghahn Books, 2007), p.71. Return
71 Iredale, Eugenics and its Relevance to Contemporary Health Care, p.207. Return
 
Chapter 2. Racial Hygiene
 
72 Michael Burleigh and Wolfgang Wipperman, The Racial State: Germany 1933-1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), p.31. Return
73 Richard Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler. Evolutionary Ethics, Eugenics, and Racism in Germany (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2004), pp.12-13. Return
74 Haeckel sets out his theory in detail in The Riddle of the Universe: At the Close of the Nineteenth Century (Charleston: BiblioBazaar, 2009). For example: “Only thus can we attain a clear knowledge of the long scale of psychic development which runs unbroken from the lowest, unicellular forms of life up to the mammals, and to man at their head.” (p.103). Return
75 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.160. Return
76 Ibid., p.148. Return
77 Sheila Faith Weiss, Race Hygiene and National Efficiency: The Eugenics of Wilhelm Schallmayer (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987), pp.34-35 Return
78 Richard J Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich (London: Allen Lane, 2003), p. 36. Return
79 Mike Hawkins, Social Darwinism in European and American Thought 1860-1945: Nature as model and nature as threat (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), p.140. Return
80 http://tinyurl.com/32wwwm7 (accessed 21 March 2008). Return
81 Jonathan Peter Spiro, Defending the Master Race: Conservation, Eugenics, and the Legacy of Madison Grant, (Burlington: University of Vermont Press, 2008) , p.123. Return
82 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.70. Return
83 Daniel Gasman, The Scientific Origins of National Socialism (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2004), p.147. Return
84 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.70. Return
85 Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel, Freedom in Science and Teaching (Charleston: BiblioBazaar, 2009) , pp.90-91. Return
86 David Olusoga and Casper Erichsen, The Kaiser's Holocaust – Germany's Forgotten Genocide and the Colonial Roots of Nazism (London: Faber and Faber, 2010), pp.108-111. Return
87 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.15. Return
88 Forel was a founder member of the Monist League. Haeckel tried unsuccessfully to persuade him to become president of the organisation. (Bernhard Kuechenhoff, The psychiatrist August Forel and his attitude to eugenics (History of Psychiatry, No. 19(2), 2008), p.218). Return
89 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.86. Return
90 Kuechenhoff, The psychiatrist August Forel, p.220. Return
91 Robert N. Proctor, Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis (Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1989), p.96. Forel later wrote: “By 1885, without knowing the work of Galton, I had suggested negative eugenics, sometimes under the pretence of medical reasons, but in reality to prevent those disgusting species of mankind from reproducing.” (Kuechenhoff, The psychiatrist August Forel, p.220). Return
92 Houston Stewart Chamberlain, Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, Volume I (Port Chester: Adegi Graphics, 1977), p.290. Return
93 Kuechenhoff, The psychiatrist August Forel, pp.215-216. Return
94 Membership of the Society grew rapidly. In 1905 there were 32 members; by 1930 there were more than 1,300. The growth in the number of branches was equally impressive. By 1935 there were as many branches in Germany and Austria as there had initially been individual members. (Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.18). Return
95 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.93. Return
96 Marius Turda and Paul J Weindling (eds.), “Blood and Homeland”. Eugenics and Racial Nationalism in Central and Southeast Europe, 1900-1940, (Budapest: Central European University Press, 2007), p.290. Return
97 Burleigh and Wipperman, The Racial State, p.32. Return
98 István Apáthy defined racial hygiene in the following terms: “Public hygiene is concerned with the improvement of public life conditions and public health; racial hygiene fights against certain maladies which endanger not only the survival of isolated individuals but the survival of the entire species”. (Marius Turda, 'A New Religion'? Eugenics and Racial Scientism in Pre-First World War Hungary (Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions: Vol.7, No. 3, September 2006), p.315). Return
99 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.118. Return
100 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.21. Return
101 http://tinyurl.com/389f33p (Accessed 23 November 2008). Return
102 Burleigh and Wipperman, The Racial State, p.24 Return
103 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.179. Return
104 Olusoga and Erichsen, The Kaiser's Holocaust – pp.106-107. Return
105 Turda and Weindling, “Blood and Homeland”, p.283. Return
106 Henry Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995), p 6. Return
107 Daniel J Kevles, In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986), p.74. Return
108 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.119. Return
109 The term `anti-Semitism was coined by the Hamburg journalist, Wilhelm Marr, in 1879. The meaning ascribed to it was racial rather than religious, although baptism could, in some circumstances, make acceptance in academic and professional circles somewhat easier. Gustav Mahler, for example, famously converted from Judaism to Catholicism in 1897 in order to secure the position as director of the Vienna Court Opera (later renamed the Vienna State Opera). Return
110 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.152. Return
111 Robert Jay Lifton, The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide (London: Papermac, 1990), p.24. Return
112 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.152. Return
113 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.15 Return
114 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.177. Return
115 Ibid., p.169. Return
116 Margit Szöllösi-Janze (ed), Science in the Third Reich (Oxford: Berg, 2001), p.188. Return
117 Ibid., p.165 Return
118 Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, p.35. Return
119 Mark B Adams (ed), The Wellborn Science: Eugenics in Germany, France, Brazil, and Russia (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990), p.16. Return
120 Weiss, Race Hygiene and National Efficiency, pp.39-41 Return
121 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.15. Return
122 Ibid., p.16. Return
123 Ibid., p.51. Return
124 Burleigh and Wipperman, The Racial State, p.31. Return
125 Weiss, Race Hygiene and National Efficiency, p.44 Return
126 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.35. Return
127 Burleigh and Wipperman, The Racial State, p.93. Return
128 Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, p.36. Return
129 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, pp.18-19. Return
130 Burleigh and Wipperman, The Racial State, p.119. Return
131 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.177. Return
132 Ibid., p.205. Return
133 Dan Stone (ed), The Historiography of Genocide (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), p.325. Return
134 Jürgen Zimmerer, The Birth of the Ostland out of the Spirit of Colonialism: a Postcolonial Perspective on the Nazi policy of Conquest and Extermination, Patterns of Prejudice, Vol.39, No 2, 2005), p.205. Return
135 Ibid., p.206. Return
136 Ibid., p.207. Return
137 L H Gann and Peter Duignan, The Rulers of German Africa, 1884-1914 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1977), p.44. Return
138 Olusoga and Erichsen, The Kaiser's Holocaust, p. 112. Return
139 Zimmerer, The Birth of the Ostland out of the Spirit of Colonialism, p.209. Return
140 Stone, The Historiography of Genocide, p.326. Return
141 Isabel V Hull, Absolute Destruction – Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2006), p.135. Return
142 Stone, The Historiography of Genocide, p.326. Return
143 Zimmerer, The Birth of the Ostland out of the Spirit of Colonialism, p.209. Return
144 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.206 Return
145 Hull, Absolute Destruction, p.33. Return
146 Zimmerer, The Birth of the Ostland out of the Spirit of Colonialism, p.209. Return
147 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.206 Return
148 It has been suggested that Leutwein's policy of cultural genocide would ultimately have been as destructive as von Trotha's physical version. (Stone, The Historiography of Genocide, pp.323-343, particularly note 23). Return
149 Gann and Duignan, The Rulers of German Africa, p.75. Return
150 Olusoga and Erichsen, The Kaiser's Holocaust, p.360. Return
151 Stone, The Historiography of Genocide, p.327. Return
152 Olusoga and Erichsen, The Kaiser's Holocaust, p.226. Return
153 Benjamin Madley, From Africa to Auschwitz: How German South West Africa Incubated Ideas and Methods Adopted and Developed by the Nazis in Eastern Europe (European History Quarterly, Vol. 35 No.3, 2005), p.431 Return
154 Olusoga and Erichsen, The Kaiser's Holocaust, p.330. Return
155 Gann and Duignan, The Rulers of German Africa, p.41. Return
156 Zimmerer, The Birth of the Ostland out of the Spirit of Colonialism, p.217. Return
157 Marius Turda, 'A New Religion'? Eugenics and Racial Scientism in Pre- First World War Hungary (Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions: Vol.7, No. 3, September 2006), p.314. Return
158 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.37. Since he was Jewish, Lombroso was infrequently quoted by Nazi eugenicists, despite the fact that his views largely coincided with their own. (Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.202). Return
159 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.141. Return
160 Ibid., p.84. Return
161 Ibid., p.95 Return
162 Ibid, pp.110-111. Return
163 Ibid., p.139 Return
164 Ibid., p.151. Return
165 Ibid., p.155. Return
166 Dan Stone, Breeding Superman: Nietzsche, Race and Eugenics in Edwardian and Interwar Britain (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2002), p.128. Return
167 Julius Evola, Eros and the Mysteries of Love: The Metaphysics of Sex (Rochester: Inner Traditions International Ltd, 1991), p.9. Return
168 Joshua D Zimmerman, Jews in Italy Under Fascist and Nazi Rule, 1922-1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), p.139. Return
169 National eugenic societies, frequently involving physicians and psychiatrists, were established in Germany (1905), Great Britain (1907- 08), the USA (1910) and France in 1912. In that year an International Congress for Eugenics was also inaugurated. [Michael Burleigh, Eugenic Utopias and the Genetic Present (Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions: Vol. 1, No. 1, 2000), p.62)]. Other European countries formed eugenic societies in the years that followed [Turda and Weindling,“Blood and Homeland”, p.2-3]. The American Eugenics Society, founded in the United States in 1922, was one of the later arrivals on the scene. Return
170 See Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, pp 209-227 for a brief analysis of the origins of Hitler's ethic, if such it can be called. Return
171 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.121. Return
172 Burleigh and Wipperman, The Racial State, p.38. Return
173 Olusoga and Erichsen, The Kaiser's Holocaust, p.245. Return
174 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp.11-12 Return
175 Olusoga and Erichsen, The Kaiser's Holocaust, p.250. Return
176 The institution was founded in 1927, an important step in the scientific recognition of racial hygiene in Weimar Germany. (Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.39). Return
177 Zimmerer, The Birth of the Ostland out of the Spirit of Colonialism, p.213. Return
178 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.345, note 74. Return
179 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.121 Return
180 Turda and Weindling, “Blood and Homeland”, p.227. A copy of Lenz's jointly-authored book was presented to Hitler while he was imprisoned in Landsberg Prison in 1924 (Ibid., p.267), and is now housed in the US Library of congress. It bears a dedication to the Führer by the Nazi publisher, Julius Friedrich Lehmann. [Gretchen E.Schafft, From Racism to Genocide: Anthropology in the Third Reich (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004).pp 61-62]. In 1931 Lenz claimed that “many passages in it [the book] are mirrored in Hitler's expressions”. (Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.223). Whether Hitler actually read the book is a matter of conjecture, although Lenz's son, Widukind stated that his father was told that Hitler had read it whilst in Landsberg. (Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.352, note 51).
The question of the literary influences on Hitler's Weltanschauung is the subject of ongoing debate. It is reasonable to assume that he would certainly have read the crackpot racist writings of authors like Jörg Lanz, Artur Dinter, Willibald Hentschel and many others, all freely available in post-First World War Germany and Austria. (Burleigh and Wipperman, The Racial State, p.37). Return
181 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.223. Return
182 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, pp. 50-59. Return
183 Turda and Weindling, “Blood and Homeland”, p.24. Return
184 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p.23. Return
185 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.223. Return
186 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors p.24. Return
187 Lisa Pine, Nazi Family Policy 1933-1945 (Oxford: Berg, 1999), p.105. Return
188 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.143. Return
189 Ibid., p.223. Return
190 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.19. Return
191 Turda, 'A New Religion'?, p.320. Return
192 Michael Berenbaum, Witness to the Holocaust (New York: HarperCollins, 1997) p.110. Return
193 Jill Stephenson, Women in Nazi Germany (Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, 2001), p.39. Return
194 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p 124. Return
195 Turda and Weindling, “Blood and Homeland”, p.24. Return
196 Benno Müller-Hill, Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gypsies, and Others in Germany 1933-1945 (Woodbury: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1998), p.9. Return
197 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p 350, note 9. Return
198 Arthur L Caplan, (ed), When Medicine Went Mad: Bioethics and the Holocaust (Totowa: Humana Press, 1992, )p.331, note 2. Return
199 Enzo Traverso, The Origins of Nazi Violence (New York: The New Press, 2003), p.127. Return
200 Alan Bullock, Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives (London: Harper Collins, 1991), p.1083. Return
201 NSDAP = National Socialist German Workers Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), acronym `Nazi'. Return
202 See in particular Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, Hitler's Willing Executioners - Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust (London: Little, Brown and Company, 1996), where this thesis is explored at considerable length. For example: “Whatever else Germans thought about Hitler and the Nazi movement, however much they might have detested aspects of Nazism, the vast majority of them subscribed to the underlying model of Jews and in this sense (as the Nazis themselves understood) were `Nazified' in their views of Jews. It is, to risk understatement, no surprise that under Nazi dispensation the vast majority of Germans continued to remain anti-Semitic, that their anti-Semitism continued to be virulent and racially grounded, and that their socially shared `solution' to the `Jewish Problem' continued to be eliminationist.” (pp. 87-88). Such conclusions have been refuted by many distinguished scholars. One of these, Eberhard Jäckel, described Goldhagen's- book as “a failure of dissertation, faultily researched through and through…It is not state of the research, it does not live up even to mediocre standards, it is simply bad.” [Robert R Shandley (ed), Unwilling Germans – The Goldhagen Debate (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001), p.87].
This is not to say that there are not others who support Goldhagen's position. These ultra-intentionalists are typified by observations such as: “…indifference was more than acquiescence. It was a willed desire throughout the German population, for the elimination and extermination of persons of the Jewish race.” [James M Glass, “Life Unworthy of Life” – Racial Phobia and Mass Murder in Hitler's Germany, (New York: Basic Books, 1997], p.3. As the eminent historian, Julius H. Schoeps observed: “It is absurd to blame `the Germans' in their totality for Nazi crimes. The accusation of collective guilt, which was levelled immediately after the war…is no more insightful just for being taken up again in 1996.” (Shandley, Unwilling Germans, p.79). Return
203 James Waller, Becoming Evil. How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass Killing (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), pp 36-49. Return
204 Richard Lynn, and Satoshi Kanazawa, How to explain high Jewish achievement: The role of intelligence and values (Science Direct, Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 44, No.4, 2007, p.802). There were, of course, sound historical reasons for this ostensibly disproportionate number of Jews in certain professions, but then as now, the statistics provided useful propaganda for anti-Semites, something that could be used as evidence of an alleged `world-wide Jewish conspiracy' to dominate and control all of society, however preposterous that idea may have been (and is) in reality. Return
205 David S Wyman (ed), The World Reacts to the Holocaust (Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 1996), pp.476-477. Return
206 Saul Friedländer, The Years of Persecution: Nazi Germany and the Jews 1933-39 (London: Phoenix, 2007), pp.30-31. Return
207 Michael Burleigh (ed), Confronting the Past: New Debates on Modern German History (London: Collins & Brown Limited, 1996), p.100. Return
208 Even in the Weimar years advocates of positive eugenics were gradually losing the argument with the proponents of negative eugenics. (Friedländer, The Years of Persecution, p.39). Return
209 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.22-23. Return
210 Steven E Aschheim, The Nietzsche Legacy in Germany, 1890-1990 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992), p.243. Return
211 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, pp 48-49 Return
212 Ibid., p.46. Return
213 Michael Burleigh, The Third Reich: A New History (London: Pan Books, 2001), p.98. Return
214 Aschheim, The Nietzsche Legacy in Germany, p.237. Return
215 Ibid., pp.244-245. Return
216 Ernst Klee, “Euthanasie” im NS-Staat: Die “Vernichtung lebensunwerten Lebens” (Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1991), p.17. Return
217 Fred Bridgham, (ed), The First World War as a Clash of Cultures, (Rochester: Camden House, 2006), pp.215-218. Return
218 Although such genetic screening has generally fallen out of favour, it is practised in modern-day China. By 1914 it was also being enforced in 50 percent of U.S. states. (Burleigh, Eugenic Utopias and the Genetic Present, p.69.) Return
219 Horst Biesold, Crying Hands: Eugenics and Deaf People in Nazi Germany (Washington: Gallaudet University Press, 1999), pp.16-17. Return
220 Burleigh, Eugenic Utopias and the Genetic Present, p.69. Return
 
Chapter 3. “Euthanasia”
 
221 http://tinyurl.com/2wgqj6d (Accessed 17 October 2009). Return
222 Hugh Gregory Gallagher, By Trust Betrayed: Patients, Physicians, and the License to Kill in the Third Reich (St. Petersburg: Vandamere Press, 1995). Return
223 http://tinyurl.com/397y34n (Accessed 20 January 2007) For a broader summary of medical research and sources regarding end-of-life issues, see http://tinyurl.com/32do55u (Accessed 20 January 2007), amongst many others. Return
224 Rachel Iredale, Eugenics and its Relevance to Contemporary Health Care, (Nursing Ethics, 7 (3), 2000), p.206. Return
225 an Dowbiggin, A Concise History of Euthanasia: Life, Death, God, and Medicine (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007), p.93 Return
226 Dan Stone, Breeding Superman: Nietzsche, Race and Eugenics in Edwardian and Interwar Britain, (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2002), p.71. Return
227 Another to broach the subject of involuntary euthanasia for those suffering from incurable diseases was the American author W. Duncan McKim, who in his 1899 book Heredity and Human Progress, wrote that its application would additionally perform the eugenic function of “artificial selection”, thereby “improving the human race.” [Enzo Traverso, The Origins of Nazi Violence (New York: The New Press, 2003), p.122.] Return
228 Philip Zimbardo, The Lucifer Effect: How Good People Turn Evil (London: Rider Books, 2007), pp 284-285. Return
229 Götz Aly and Susanne Heim, Architects of Annihilation: Auschwitz and the Logic of Destruction (London: Phoenix, 2003), p.255. There is evidence that similar plans for massive resettlements in western Europe were also contemplated [Jürgen Zimmerer, The Birth of the Ostland out of the Spirit of Colonialism: a Postcolonial Perspective on the Nazi policy of Conquest and Extermination, Patterns of Prejudice, Vol.39, No 2, 2005, p.200, note 9]. Return
230 http://tinyurl.com/39cbhzk Return
231 Ingo Haar and Michael Fahlbusch, German Scholars and Ethnic Cleansing, 1919-1945, (New York: Berghahn Books, 2005), p.15. Return
232 Robert Jay Lifton, The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide (London: Papermac, 1990), p.46. Return
233 In Prussia alone an estimated 45,000 mental patients died, while in Bavaria the mortality rate in asylums reached 70 percent. [Dick de Mildt, In the Name of the People: Perpetrators of Genocide in the Reflection of Their Post-War Prosecution in West Germany. The `Euthanasia' and `Aktion Reinhard' Trial Cases (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1996), p.335, note 19]. In some institutions in Baden it was not until 1925 that the mortality rate returned to its pre-war level. [Bronwyn Rebekah McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany (Chichester: Princeton University Press), p.23]. Return
234 Michael Burleigh, Death and Deliverance : `Euthanasia' in Germany c. 1900-1945 (London: Pan Books, 2002), pp 11-12. Bonhoeffer also realised where the risk lay in rationalising such thinking, for he went on to say:
But in emphasising the right of the healthy to stay alive, which is an inevitable result of periods of necessity, there is also a danger of going too far: a danger that the self-sacrificing subordination of the strong to the needs of the helpless and ill, which lies at the heart of any true concern for the sick, will give ground to the demand of the healthy to live. (Ibid.)
Karl Bonhoeffer is today regarded by many with something less than approbation. He was the father of the founder of the Confessing Church, Dietrich Bonhoeffer. Return
235 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, p.35. Return
236 Götz Aly, Peter Chroust, Christian Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland: Nazi Medicine and Racial Hygiene (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1994) , p.157. Return
237 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, pp.36-38. Return
238 Ibid., p.64. Return
239 Mark P Mostert, Useless Eaters: Disability as Genocidal Marker in Nazi Germany (Journal of Special Education. Vol. 36, No. 3, 2002), p.156 Return
240 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, p.60. Return
241 Ibid., p.62. Return
242 Roderick Stackelberg, The Routledge Companion to Nazi Germany (London: Routledge, 2007), p.73. Return
243 Henry Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press), p.15. Return
244 Mostert, Useless Eaters, p.157. Return
245 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p 17. Binding also proposed euthanasia as a means of accelerating the death of the terminally ill or mortally wounded, as well as its application to the mentally healthy who, unconscious or in a coma, would have approved of their own euthanasia had they been able. Of necessity, the latter employment would have required a considerable degree of mind reading on the part of those administering euthanasia. Return
246 Ibid., p.16. Hoche was opposed to the Nazi “euthanasia” programme, although his own writings had been a major inspiration for the policy. Return
247 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.53. Return
248 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, p.65. Return
249 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p. 15. Return
250 Lamb, David, Down the Slippery Slope: Arguing in applied ethics (London: Routledge, 2003), p.2. Return
251 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.21. Return
252 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, p.66. Return
253 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.41. Return
254 The Ministry of the Interior defined “asocials” in the following terms:
Persons who through minor, but repeated, infractions of the law demonstrate that they will not adapt themselves to the natural discipline of the National Socialist state, e.g, beggars; tramps (Gypsies); alcoholics; whores with contagious diseases, particularly sexually transmitted diseases, who evade the measure taken by the health authorities.
A further category, the “work shy” were persons against whom it can be proven that on two occasions they have, without reasonable grounds, turned down jobs offered to them, or who, having taken a job, have given it up after a short while without a valid reason. [Saul Friedländer, The Years of Persecution: Nazi Germany and the Jews 1933-39 (London: Phoenix, 2007), pp.203-204.] Return
255 Richard J Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich (London: Allen Lane, 2003), pp. 144-145. Return
256 Leo Alexander, Medical Science Under Dictatorship (The New England Journal of Medicine 241, 1949), p.39. Return
257 Michael Burleigh, Ethics and extermination: Reflections on Nazi genocide, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), pp 114-117. Return
258 Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, p. 2 Return
259 There is an argument that the Versailles treaty can be viewed as being either too severe on Germany, or alternatively as not being severe enough – too harsh for Germany not to seek its revocation, yet not harsh enough to prevent its eventual emendation. [Donald Bloxham, The Final Solution: A Genocide (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), p.134]. Return
260 Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, p. 62. Return
261 Ibid., p.236. Return
262 James Waller, Becoming Evil. How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass Killing ((Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), p.256. Return
263 Harald Welzer, Mass murder and moral code: some thoughts on an easily misunderstood subject (History of the Human Sciences, Vol.17 Nos 2/3, 2004, p.17.) Return
264 Ibid., pp.22-23. Return
265 Susan Benedict, and Jochen Kuhla, Nurses' Participation in the Euthanasia Programs of Nazi Germany (Western Journal of Nursing Research, Vol. 21(2), 1999),p.258. Return
266 Welzer, Mass murder and moral code, p.29. Return
267 Jonathan Peter Spiro, Defending the Master Race: Conservation, Eugenics, and the Legacy of Madison Grant, (Burlington: University of Vermont Press, 2008), pp.103-106 Return
268 Paul Weindling, Health, Race, and German Politics between National Unification and Nazism, 1870-1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), p.108. Return
269 Richard S Levy (ed), Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO Ltd, 2005), pp. 113-115. Return
270 Stackelberg, The Routledge Companion to Nazi Germany, p.85. Return
271 Benno Müller-Hill, Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gypsies, and Others in Germany 1933-1945 (Woodbury: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1998), p. 23. Return
272 Victor Klemperer, The Language of the Third Reich: LTI – Lingua Tertii Imperii - A Philologist's Notebook (London, Continuum, 2006), p.163. Return
273 Robert N Proctor, Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis (Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1989), pp. 37-38. Return
274 Ibid., p. 149. Return
275 http://tinyurl.com/383ccnj (Accessed 1 September 2008). This website is an invaluable resource, consisting as it does of many examples of Nazi propaganda. Return
 
Chapter 4. A Marching Column
 
276 Leo Alexander, Medical Science Under Dictatorship (The New England Journal of Medicine 241, 1949), p.44. Return
277 Robert N Proctor, Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis (Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1989), p.55. Return
278 Henry Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995), p. 12. Return
279 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.64 Return
280 Saul Friedländer, The Years of Persecution: Nazi Germany and the Jews 1933-39 (London: Phoenix, 2007), p.226. Return
281 Michael Burleigh, Death and Deliverance : `Euthanasia' in Germany c. 1900-1945 (London: Pan Books, 2002), p.45. Return
282 Horst Biesold, Crying Hands: Eugenics and Deaf People in Nazi Germany (Washington: Gallaudet University Press, 1999), p. 15. Return
283 Wolfgang Uwe Eckart (ed), Man, Medicine, and the State: The Human Body as an Object of Government Sponsored Medical Research in the 20th Century (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2006), P.76. Return
284 http://tinyurl.com/2uywdc2 (Accessed 10 January 2007). Return
285 Robert Jay Lifton, The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide (London: Papermac, 1990), p.28. Return
286 Michael Burleigh, The Third Reich: A New History (London: Pan Books, 2001), p.356. In terms of physique, colouring and facial features, Heinrich Himmler was about as far removed from the Nordic ideal (a long skull, narrow forehead, blonde hair, blue eyes) as it was possible to be. [Peter Padfield, Himmler: Reichsführer-SS (London: Papermac, 1990), pp. 104-105]. Return
287 http://tinyurl.com/36gen3y (Accessed 25 January 2008). Bumke ignored his own prophetic remarks. Within a few years he had become an enthusiastic advocate of Nazi eugenic legislation. (Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.44.) Return
288 Michael H Kater, Doctors Under Hitler (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000), p. 135. Return
289 http://tinyurl.com/35lo4re (Accessed 25 January 2008). Return
290 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p 114. Return
291 Burleigh, The Third Reich, p. 382. Return
292 `The Inner Mission' was the principal Protestant health and welfare organisation. [Michael Burleigh, Ethics and extermination: Reflections on Nazi genocide, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), p.130]. Return
293 Ibid. Return
294 Dick de Mildt, In the Name of the People: Perpetrators of Genocide in the Reflection of Their Post-War Prosecution in West Germany. The `Euthanasia' and `Aktion Reinhard' Trial Cases (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1996), p.302. Emphasis in original. Return
295 Burleigh, Ethics and extermination, pp 130-141. Return
296 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.182. The films were Sünden der Väter (Sins of the Fathers, 1935); Abseits vom Wege (Off the Path,1935); Erbkrank (Hereditarily Ill, 1936); Alles Leben ist Kampf (All Life is a Struggle, 1937); Was du ererbt (What You Have Inherited, date unknown). Far from being concerned by these manifestations of National Socialist propaganda, American eugenicists organised screenings of an English-language version of Erbkrank at the Carnegie Institute, and the film was then distributed to churches and high schools. [Michael Burleigh, Eugenic Utopias and the Genetic Present (Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions: Vol. 1, No. 1, 2000), p.63.] Return
297 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p.48; Mark P Mostert, Useless Eaters: Disability as Genocidal Marker in Nazi Germany (Journal of Special Education. Vol. 36, No. 3, 2002), p.160. Return
298 Schweninger, a school friend of Viktor Brack, was employed by Gekrat (see below) as a transport leader, and had been involved in the deportation of thousands of patients from Southern Germany to killing centres. [Götz Aly, Peter Chroust, Christian Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland: Nazi Medicine and Racial Hygiene (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1994), p.27]. Return
299 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.207. Return
300 Mostert Useless Eaters, p.160. Return
301 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p.48 Return
302 SD= Sicherheitsdienst, Security Service, the intelligence arm of the SS. Return
303 Michael Burleigh, and Wolfgang Wipperman, The Racial State: Germany 1933-1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), p.157. Return
304 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p. 189 ff. Return
305 Burleigh and Wipperman, The Racial State, p.159. Return
306 Ibid., p.167 Return
307 Ulf Schmidt, Karl Brandt: The Nazi Doctor – Medicine and Power in the Third Reich (London: Hambledon Continuum, 2007), pp.189-190. This kind of `either-or 'reasoning was typical of Hitler, who only saw matters in terms of absolutes. It is not surprising to see it repeated in the pronouncements of his minions. Return
308 Michael Wildt, An Uncompromising Generation – The Nazi Leadership of the Reich Security Main Office (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2009), p.9. Return
309 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.51. Bernotat's sole interest was in making economies. When Dr Friedrich Mennecke, himself responsible for countless “euthanasia” deaths, protested about overcrowding in mental hospitals, Bernotat responded, “strike them all dead and then you'll have space.” (Ibid, p.53.) Return
310 Burleigh, Ethics and extermination, pp.117-118. Return
311 Michael Burleigh (ed), Confronting the Past: New Debates on Modern German History (London: Collins & Brown Limited, 1996), p.101. Return
312 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p. 47 ff. Return
313 Padfield, Himmler, p.261. Return
314 Robert E Conot, Justice at Nuremberg (New York: Harper & Row, 1983), p.204. Return
315 The legislation of 7 April 1933 was of fundamental importance, since it represented the first attempt by the Nazis to legally define a Jew. A “non-Aryan” was “anyone descended from non-Aryan, particularly Jewish, parents or grandparents. It suffices if one parent or grandparent is non-Aryan.” (Friedländer, The Years of Persecution, p.27). The requirement to produce evidence of `Aryan' ancestry had a long history in Germany. By the end of the nineteenth century, some organizations had introduced bylaws excluding Jews on the basis of “race”. The use of this so-called “Aryan paragraph” expanded exponentially after the First World Way. For example, in 1920 the nationalist student fraternities (Burschenschaften) adopted a rule that required prospective members to provide evidence of “Aryan” descent as far back as their grandparent's generation, and prohibited marriage to Jewish or “coloured” women. [Richard S Levy (ed), Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO Ltd, 2005), pp.39-40]. In this respect , as in so much else, the Nazis were unoriginal, simply more radical. Return
316 Bronwyn Rebekah McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany (Chichester: Princeton University Press, 1999), p.96. Return
317 Burleigh, Ethics and extermination, p.163. Return
318 Burleigh and Wipperman, The Racial State, pp.46-48. Return
319 Clarence Lusane, Hitler's Black Victims: The Historical Experiences of Afro-Germans, European Blacks, Africans, and African Americans in the Nazi Era (London: Routledge, 2003) p.134. Return
320 The law was further amended in 1935. According to Hans Heinrich Lammers, even at this early stage Hitler was contemplating the killing of mental patients (Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.99). Return
321 Alleged hereditary diseases were defined as including congenital mental deficiency, schizophrenia, manic-depressive insanity, hereditary epilepsy, Huntington's Chorea, hereditary blindness, hereditary deafness, and severe hereditary physical malformation. (Ibid., p.61) Return
322 In 1935 there were 205 lower courts and 31 higher courts. Although a much higher number of courts had been anticipated, it is unlikely that these figures were exceeded. (Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p 361, note 33). Return
323 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, pp.102-103. In June 1938 membership of the Heredity Health Court was expanded to include two laypersons “of German or related blood” who “have an understanding of family life.” (Ibid, p.116). Return
324 Burleigh and Wipperman, The Racial State, p.48. The new law even provided for the use of force in cases where this was considered necessary (Ibid, p.137). Return
325 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p 102. Return
326 Ibid., pp 106-107. Return
327 Ibid., pp 110-112. Hitler reputedly believed that Jews could be identified on the basis of whether the earlobes were or were not attached to the neck. (Ibid., p.150). Return
328 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, p.133. Return
329 Ibid., p.133-151. Return
330 Ibid., p.131. Return
331 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.50. Return
332 Burleigh, Ethics and extermination, p.119. Return
333 George Lachmann Mosse, Nazi Culture: Intellectual, Cultural and Social Life in the Third Reich (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2003), pp. 89-90. Return
334 David F Crew, (ed), Nazism and German Society, 1933-1945 (London: Routledge, 1994),p.120. Return
335 Mary D Lagerway, Nursing Ethics at Hadamar (Qualitative Health Research, Vol.9, No.6, 1999), p.764. Return
336 Ibid., p.765. Return
337 Mosse, Nazi Culture, p. 261. Return
338 Lagerwey, Nursing Ethics at Hadamar, p.767. Return
339 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.112. Return
340 Burleigh and Wipperman, The Racial State, pp.128-130. Return
341 http://tinyurl.com/33qp234 (Accessed 24 May 2008). Return
342 Burleigh, Eugenic Utopias, p.63. Return
343 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.360, note 9. Return
344 Ibid., p.295. Return
345 http://tinyurl.com/33xq6cw (Accessed 31 August 2008). Return
346 James W Trent, “Who shall say who is a useful person?” Abraham Myerson's opposition to the eugenic movement (History of Psychiatry, No. 12, 2001), p.33. Return
347 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.400, note 11. Return
348 http://tinyurl.com/4kx84 (Accessed 31 August 2008). Return
349 Stefan Kühl, The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002)., p.34. Return
350 Dennis Sewell, The Political Gene – How Darwin's Ideas Changed Politics (London: Picador, 2009), p.145. Return
351 Kühl, The Nazi Connection, p.35. Return
352 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, pp 97 - 101. Return
353 Kühl, The Nazi Connection, pp. 61-63. Return
354 Matthew Thomson, The Problem of Mental Deficiency: Eugenics, Democracy, and Social Policy in Britain, c.1870-1959 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), pp. 60-61. Return
355 Gunnar Broberg and Nils Roll-Hansen, Eugenics and the Welfare State: Sterilization Policy in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Finland (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2005), p.105 Return
356 Burleigh, Eugenic Utopias, pp 66-67. Return
357 Broberg and Roll-Hansen, Eugenics and the Welfare State, p.107. Return
358 http://tinyurl.com/2us9wq3 (Accessed 18 July 2010). The minister went on to say that the government was “anxious to show that similar policies were pursued in the US, Germany, Austria and Finland, among others.” – a classic example of tu quoque. Return
359 David S Wyman (ed), The World Reacts to the Holocaust (Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 1996), p.230. Return
360 Trent, “Who shall say who is a useful person?”, p.37. Return
361 Ibid., p.40. Return
362 Ibid., p.45. Return
363 Ibid., p.41. Return
364 Ibid., p.43. Return
365 Robert N Proctor, The Nazi War on Cancer (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), p.91. Return
366 The number was equally divided between males and females. The same source suggests a total of 320,000 sterilisations between 1934 and the outbreak of war.(Burleigh, Racial State, p.253). Return
367 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p. 25 ff. The total of 375,000 sterilised represented about 0.5 percent of the Reich's population – an extraordinarily high percentage. A total of 400,000 sterilisations is quoted in other sources, (for example Burleigh, Eugenic Utopias, p.70.) Even this was nowhere near the figure Fritz Lenz had in mind of 10-15 percent of the population. [George J Annas and Michael A Grodin, The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), p.21]. Return
368 Burleigh and Wipperman, The Racial State, p.253. Return
369 Proctor, The Nazi War on Cancer, pp.90-91. Return
370 Ina R Friedman, The Other Victims: First-Person Stories of Non-Jews Persecuted by the Nazis (New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1995) , pp.67-75. Return
371 Burleigh and Wipperman, The Racial State, pp.252-258. Return
372 Panikos Panayi (ed), Weimar and Nazi Germany: continuities and discontinuities (White Plains: Longman, 2000), p.206. Return
373 http://tinyurl.com/3xfen38 (Accessed 19 August 2008). Return
374 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p. 52 Return
375 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp. 23-24 Return
376 Burleigh and Wipperman, The Racial State, p.122. Return
377 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.30. Return
378 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, pp.121-123. Return
379 The `Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour' of 15 September 1935 began: “Imbued with the realisation that the purity of German blood is a prerequisite for the continued existence of the German people…” This was Nazi racist ideology in a nutshell. The law went on to ban marriage or sexual relations between Jews and “Aryans”, prohibit the employment in Jewish households of “Aryan” females under 45 years of age, and forbid Jews to fly the Reich flag. [Reinhard Rürup (ed), Topography of Terror: Gestapo, SS and Reichssicherheitshauptamt on the “Prinz-Albrecht-Terrain.” A Documentation (Berlin: Verlag Willmuth Arenhövel, 2000), pp. 114-116.] “ In Germany,” declared a 1936 publication, “ the Jewish question is simply the race question.” The first supplementary decree to the Law, issued on 14 November, broadened the prohibition on sexual relations and marriage to include not only those between Germans and Jews, but also those between Germans and persons of “alien blood”. Shortly thereafter “alien blood” was defined as that flowing through the veins of “Gypsies, Negroes, and their bastards”. [Friedländer, The Years of Persecution, pp.151-153]. Return
380 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p. 31. Return
381 Burleigh and Wipperman, The Racial State, p.49. Return
382 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.141. Return
383 Enzo Traverso, The Origins of Nazi Violence (New York: The New Press, 2003), pp.52-54. Return
384 Ibid., p.137. Return
385 Padfield, Himmler, p.103. Return
386 Ibid., p.104. Return
387 Pine, Lisa, Nazi Family Policy 1933-1945 (Oxford: Berg, 1999), p.88. Return
388 Ibid., p.91. Return
389 Ibid., p.101. Return
390 Burleigh and Wipperman, The Racial State, p.250. Return
391 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.224. Return
392 David Pilgrim, The Eugenic Legacy in Psychology and Psychiatry (International Journal of Social Psychiatry, Vol.54, No.3, 2008), p.276. Return
393 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.117. Return
394 Aart Vos, “Wegens bijzondere omstandigheden…” – s'Hertogenbosch in bezettingstijd 1940-1945 (Alphen aan de Maas: Uitgeverij Veerhuis, 2008), p.207. My thanks to the late Martin van Liempt for providing this information. Return
395 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.183. Return
396 Ibid., p.185. Return
397 Gabriel M Ronen, Brandon Meaney, Bernard Dan, Fritz Zimprich, Walter Stögmann, Wolfgang Neugebauer, From Eugenic Euthanasia to Habilitation of ``Disabled'' Children: Andreas Rett's Contribution (Journal of Child Neurology, Vol.24, No.1, 2009), p. 118. Return
398 Eugen Kogon, Hermann Langbein, Adalbert Rückerl (eds.), Nazi Mass Murder: A Documentary History of the Use of Poison Gas (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993), p.14. Hitler commented that in time of war it would be easier to “free the people from the burden of the mentally ill.” He is also reported as stating that “the food supply does not allow for the incurably ill to be dragged through the war.” (McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, p.211). Return
399 http://tinyurl.com/344joa2 (Accessed 1 September 2008). Return
400 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.54. Return
401 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, p.131. Return
402 Mostert Useless Eaters, p.160. Return
403 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp. 169-170; Burleigh, Ethics and extermination, pp.138-139; Gitta Sereny, Into That Darkness - From Mercy Killing to Mass Murder (London: Pimlico, 1995, pp.64-73 Return
404 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p. 170-171; Burleigh, Ethics and extermination, pp.138-139. Return
405 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp. 39-40. Hitler maintained four separate chancelleries. In addition to the KdF there was the Nazi Party Chancellery, based in Munich and headed by Martin Bormann, the Presidential Chancellery under Otto Meissner, and the Reich Chancellery headed by Hans Heinrich Lammers. (Ibid, p.40). Return
406 Browning, Christopher R, The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 – March 1942 (London: William Heinemann, 2004) p.185. The child's father had first approached Werner Catel to perform a Gnadentod, but Catel had refused on legal grounds – or so he claimed. [Michael S Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”: Nazi Euthanasia on Trial 1945-1953 (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2005). p.28]. Return
407 Schmidt, Karl Brandt, p.118. Return
408 http://tinyurl.com/38gz537 (Accessed 17 September 2009.) Return
409 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp. 97-99; Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp. 39-40. It has been suggested that Brandt personally carried out the killing of the `Knauer' child, which was indeed possible [Friedländer, The Years of Persecution, p. 331]. He certainly had no compunction about administering, together with Conti, the first lethal injections of adult “euthanasia” [Schmidt, Karl Brandt, p.122]. Return
410 Schmidt, Karl Brandt, pp.;117-122. Return
411 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p.35. Return
412 Schmidt, Karl Brandt, p.120. Return
413 Members of the committee included Karl Brandt, Helmut Unger, Carl Schneider, Ernst Wentzler, Hans Heinze, and Werner Catel. (Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.186). Return
414 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.44. The Committee's mailing address was a post office box. Return
415 Florian P Thomas, Alana Beres, Michael I Sheveli, “A Cold Wind Coming”: Heinrich Gross and Child Euthanasia in Vienna (Journal of Child Neurology, Vol.21, 2006), p.343. Return
416 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.188. Return
417 Hefelmann's doctorate was in agronomy, not medicine. (Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.269). Von Hegener was a former bank clerk (de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.67). Return
418 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp 103-104; Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p.190. Return
419 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp 39-61. Return
420 Meltzer's questionnaire, distributed to the male parents or guardians of 200 children residing in the Katharinenhof institution, posed four questions; the first three asked whether the recipient would give their consent to a “painless shortening of your child's life” in certain hypothetical circumstances. The fourth question asked for the recipients' wife's response to the first three questions. Of the 162 replies received, 73 percent contained at least one “yes” response. (Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, pp.29-30). Return
421 Götz Aly and Susanne Heim, Architects of Annihilation: Auschwitz and the Logic of Destruction (London: Phoenix, 2003), p.171. Meltzer concluded that people were glad to release both themselves and the child from the burden whilst not wishing to have their consciences troubled. [Ibid., p.330 note 29]. If his research contributed to the implementation of children's “euthanasia” (to which he was opposed), Meltzer lived to regret his efforts. The Katharinenhof institution was taken under state supervision, many children were killed with or without their parents' or guardians' consent, and Meltzer was forcibly retired. [Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, pp.30-31 footnote]. Return
422 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.194. Return
423 Aly and Heim, Architects of Annihilation, p.172-173. Return
424 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p. 92. Return
425 Friedländer, The Years of Persecution, pp.59-60. Return
426 Brandt, Bouhler, Conti, and Linden were also present at this meeting. (Browning, The Origins of the Final Solution, p.186.) Return
427 Padfield, Himmler, p.262. Return
428 Robert Gellately, Backing Hitler: Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), P.101. Return
429 Peter Longerich, The Unwritten Order: Hitler's Role in the Final Solution (Stroud: Tempus Publishing Limited, 2003), p.80. Return
430 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp.114-115. Return
431 Lucy S Dawidowicz, The War Against the Jews 1933-1945 (New York: Bantam Books, 1979), p.177. Return
432 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.188. Return
433 It has been suggested that the KdF was chosen by Hitler to administer the “euthanasia” programme simply because of the office's low profile, something that made it the perfect vehicle for such an important top secret project. [Donald Bloxham, The Final Solution: A Genocide (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), p.171]. Return
434 Schmidt, Karl Brandt, pp.;128-130. Return
435 Ibid., p.371. Return
436 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p. 115. Return
437 Gerald Reitlinger, The SS, Alibi of a Nation: 1922-1945 (New York: Viking Press, 1957), pp.272-273. Return
438 Aly and Heim, Architects of Annihilation, pp. 169 – 170. On 6 September 1940, Schlaich wrote to the Reich Minister of Justice, protesting against the “euthanasia” programme (Kogon, Langbein, Rückerl (eds.), Nazi Mass Murder, p.33.) Return
439 “Very often, and in many places, it has been the case that individuals, already in previous years, have waited for commands and orders. Unfortunately, that will probably also be so in future. Rather, however, it is the duty of every single person to attempt, in the spirit of the Führer, to work towards him. Anyone making mistakes will come to notice it soon enough. But the one who works correctly towards the Führer along his lines and towards his aim will in future as previously have the finest reward of one day suddenly attaining the legal confirmation of his work.” Werner Willikens, quoted in Ian Kershaw, Hitler 1889-36: Hubris (London: Allen Lane, The Penguin Press, 1998), p.529.] Return
440 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p. 63. It is possible that the document was created as late as winter 1939. (Schmidt, Karl Brandt, p.131). The authorization is frequently (and mistakenly) referred to as a decree, which implies a spurious legality. Return
441 Raul Hilberg, Perpetrators Victims Bystanders: The Jewish Catastrophe 1933-1945 (New York: Harper Collins, 1993), pp.15-16. Return
442 Schmidt, Karl Brandt, pp.131-132. Conti was also almost certainly involved in drafting the authorization, but was prepared to be the eminence grise in this endeavour. (Ibid). Others see the hand of de Crinis in the wording. [Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p.63 (footnote)]. Return
443 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p 78 – 85. No West German court ever accepted the authorization as a valid law (Ibid, p.38). Return
444 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, note 6. Return
445 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.338, note 73; Schmidt, Karl Brandt, pp.145-146; Friedlander, Nazi Genocide,p.120-121. Return
446 Schmidt, Karl Brandt, pp.132-133. Return
447 The 1940 `Law on Euthanasia for the Incurably Ill' was drafted, but never implemented. It included provision for both voluntary and involuntary euthanasia. (Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p. 26). The draft read in part:
Anyone suffering from an incurable illness that leads to strong debilitation of either oneself or others can, upon explicit request of the patient and with permission of a specially appointed physician, receive dying help from a physician.
A patient who, as a consequence of incurable mental illness requiring lifelong care, can, through medical intervention and without his knowledge, have his life terminated. (Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.193).
The planned euthanasia law contained provision for the creation of a central state office, which would take control of the various existing institutions. As part of the proposed eventual legislation, the new office of Reich Commissioner for Mental Hospitals was created by a statute of 23 October 1941; its first and only occupant was Herbert Linden. (Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, pp. 165-166). Return
448 Friedlander, Nazi Genocide, p.154; Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p. 166. It is probable that there were also other considerations. Hitler may have believed such a law would be unacceptable to the German people. He may also have felt any such law might restrict his options by defining potential victims too specifically. (Gellately, Backing Hitler, p.102). Return
449 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, p.9. Return
450 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p. 115. Return
451 http://tinyurl.com/2vk36w4 (Accessed 25 February 2008.) Return
452 Burleigh, The Racial State, p.250. Return
453 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p. 55. Return
454 This rather strange title described legislation amending the 1933 `Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring' (Burleigh, The Racial State, p.140). Return
455 Ibid., p.49. Return
456 Schmidt, Karl Brandt, pp.143-145. Return
457 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.80-81. Return
458 Ibid., p.26. Return
459 Dick van der Vat, The Good Nazi: The Life and Lies of Albert Speer (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1997), p.108. Return
460 Ibid., pp.129-130, passim. Sauckel, who joined the SA in 1922 and the Nazi party the following year, was appointed Commissioner-General for the Deployment of Labour in March 1942. [Ernst Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich - Wer war was vor und nach 1945 (Frankfurt am Main: S.Fischer, 2005), p.520]. Return
461 Paul Julian Weindling, Nazi Medicine and the Nuremberg Trials – From Medical War Crimes to Informed Consent (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), p.256. Return
462 Schmidt, Karl Brandt, p.250. Return
463 Albert Speer, Inside the Third Reich (London: Sphere Books Limited, London,1971), p.164. Return
464 Roderick Stackelberg, The Routledge Companion to Nazi Germany (London: Routledge, 2007), pp.122-124. Return
465 Ian Kershaw, The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation (London: Arnold, 1996), p.107. Return
466 David Welch, Hitler: Profile of a Dictator (London: Routledge, 2001), P.98. Return
467 Ibid., P.46. Return
468 Samuel Totten, William S Parsons, Israel W Charny (eds.), Century of Genocide: Eyewitness accounts and Critical Views (New York: Routledge, 2004), p. 206. Return
469 Thomas, Beres, Sheveli, “A Cold Wind Coming”, p.343. Return
470 Burleigh, Ethics and extermination, p.120. Return
471 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p.31. Return
 
Chapter 5. T4
 
472 Michael S Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”: Nazi Euthanasia on Trial 1945-1953 (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2005), p 103. Return
473 Robert N Proctor, Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis (Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1989), p.182. Return
474 Fredric Wertham, A Sign for Cain: An Exploration of Human Violence, (New York: Paperback Library, 1969, p.161. Return
475 Götz Aly, Peter Chroust, Christian Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland: Nazi Medicine and Racial Hygiene (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1994), p. 36. Return
476 Michael Burleigh, and Wolfgang Wipperman, The Racial State: Germany 1933-1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), p.148. Return
477 Eugen Kogon, Hermann Langbein, Adalbert Rückerl (eds.), Nazi Mass Murder: A Documentary History of the Use of Poison Gas (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993), p.17; Henry Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995), p.73. Return
478 http://tinyurl.com/3y99suz (Accessed 18 September 2009.) Return
479 Ulf Schmidt, Karl Brandt: The Nazi Doctor – Medicine and Power in the Third Reich (London: Hambledon Continuum, 2007), pp.133-134. Return
480 Aktion Reinhard was the code name given to the plan to exterminate the Jews of Poland, later extended to include the Jews of other European countries. Return
481 Schmidt, Karl Brandt, p.134. Return
482 Ibid., p.140. Return
483 Robin O'Neil, Belzec: Stepping Stone to Genocide (New York: JewishGen Inc, 2008), p.43. Return
484 Schmidt, Karl Brandt, pp.134-135. Return
485 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p. 28. Return
486 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.193. Return
487 http://tinyurl.com/2uctloc (Accessed 24 February 2008). Return
488 “Brack…saw everybody, including the chars [cleaners].” Allers to Sereny – [Gitta Sereny, Into That Darkness - From Mercy Killing to Mass Murder (London: Pimlico, 1995), p.81]. Return
489 SA = Sturmabteilung, or Storm Trooper. Return
490 Sereny, Into That Darkness, p.79. Return
491 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p. 43. Return
492 Return Ibid., p.62.
493 http://tinyurl.com/36oxq8v (accessed 5 November 2006). Return
494 Sereny, Into That Darkness, pp.48-53. Return
495 Ibid., p.57.
496 Return The Warthegau was part of western Poland incorporated into the Reich in October 1939. In a trade-off the same month, the Gauleiter of Pomerania, Franz Schwede-Coburg (nicknamed `Nero' by his constituents) agreed to allow the SS and Wehrmacht to use local asylums as barracks in return for first shooting the inmates. (Burleigh and Wipperman, The Racial State, p.148). Return
497 Bronwyn Rebekah McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany (Chichester: Princeton University Press, 1999), p.222. Return
498 Eimann, an unskilled labourer, joined the SS in 1932, rising to the rank of Sturmbannführer by 1939. He personally shot an unknown number of patients. In January 1941, the Eimann unit reported the killing of more than 3,000 victims to date. For these and other crimes, in 1968 Eimann received a sentence of four years imprisonment from a West German court. [Michael Burleigh, Death and Deliverance : `Euthanasia' in Germany c. 1900-1945 (London: Pan Books, 2002), pp. 128-129.] Return
499 Peter Padfield, Himmler: Reichsführer-SS (London: Papermac, 1990), p.262. Return
500 Israel Gutman (ed), Encyclopedia of the Holocaust (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1990), p.283. Return
501 Christopher R Browning, Fateful Months: Essays on the Emergence of the Final Solution (New York: Holmes & Meier, 1991), p.3. Return
502 Kogon, Langbein, Rückerl, Nazi Mass Murder, p.37ff. The first gassings of patients from the Owinska Mental Hospital at Fort VII in Poznan were terminated no later than 15 November 1939. Return
503 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p. 130.
504 Return Dr. Wilhelm Gustav Schueppe was ordered to the Kiev Pathological Institute in September 1941 to be, first deputy head, then head of a commando of approximately twenty persons, including about ten physicians, augmented by members of the SD dressed as medical personnel. At the Institute Schueppe's commando conducted a special operation he described as the “destruction of life unworthy of life.” This “unworthy life” included the handicapped as well as members of “inferior Races”, that is, “Jews, Gypsies, and so forth”. Schueppe estimated that during his service at the institute 110,000-140,000 victims were killed by means of lethal injection within the period of nine months between his arrival and March 1942. This was almost certainly an over-estimate. Subsequent research suggests a figure of 80,000 victims during Schueppe's stay in Kiev. Schueppe testified: “I believe in this system. It is comparable to pruning a tree, thereby removing the old undesirable branches in order to produce the highest yield. In a nation this system must be carried out to prevent decadence” (Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p. 142, p.347, note 33); http://tinyurl.com/32mpehf (Accessed 20 December 2007). Return
505 Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003), p.341. Return
506 Lucjan Dobroszycki, The Chronicle of the Lodz Ghetto (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984), p.67, note 79. Return
507 Ibid., pp. 67-69. Another account of this incident differs somewhat in detail. This source states that it was the Gestapo who ordered the compilation of the list of patients; these numbered 65, rather than 72, of whom 58 rather than 67 were killed. There is no mention of any medical commission, this being entirely a Gestapo inspired operation. [Alan Adelson and Robert Lapides, Lodz Ghetto: Inside a Community Under Siege (New York: Viking, 1989),pp.155-156]. Such confusion of detail is common in contemporary accounts. However, there can be no doubting the essentials of this matter. Return
508 Dick de Mildt, In the Name of the People: Perpetrators of Genocide in the Reflection of Their Post-War Prosecution in West Germany. The `Euthanasia' and `Aktion Reinhard' Trial Cases (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1996)., p.67. Return
509 This is the number of hospitals with children's killing wards that have been identified to date (April 2008). Return
510 Unlike adults, children were sometimes kept under observation in these hospitals for several weeks before being murdered. (Sereny, Into That Darkness, p.55 footnote). Return
511 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.146; Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.97-98; Kogon, Langbein, Rückerl, Nazi Mass Murder, Mass Murder, pp.27 -28; http://tinyurl.com/36h48sq Accessed 10 January 2007). Return
512 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance , p. 114. Von Hegener estimated that approximately 100,000 children's Meldebogen had been submitted by the war's end. About 20,000 of these had been forwarded to Heinze, Catel, and Wentzler, of which an estimated 5,200 had resulted in the murder of the child in question. Von Hegener, of course, had good reason to minimise the number of deaths in which he had been involved. (Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p.190). Return
513 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p 35. Return
514 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp 68-69. Return
515 Robert Jay Lifton, The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide (London: Papermac, 1990), p. 62. Return
516 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p 195. Return
517 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p. 229. Return
518 http://tinyurl.com/3ahwjtk (Accessed 14 May 2010). Return
519 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp. 75-77. A list of men who served as a T4 Gutachter at various times includes the names of forty physicians, of whom nine were university medical professors. The list also indicates the names of other doctors who were either serving at T4 head office, the killing centres, or were engaged in research at Görden or Heidelberg. Some names are included more than once under different headings [Ernst Klee, “Euthanasie” im NS-Staat: Die “Vernichtung lebensunwerten Lebens” (Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1991), p.228-229]. The forms were submitted to 54 selected psychiatrists, the elite of German psychiatry, university professors and hospital directors. [http://tinyurl.com/3ame5sa (Accessed 25 February 2008.)] A red plus or blue minus notation, similar to that employed in assessing children, was utilized on the forms to indicate death or life respectively. Doubtful cases were indicated with a question mark for review by senior evaluators (Obergutachter) [Burleigh and Wipperman, The Racial State, p.144]. Return
520 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.59. Return
521 Kogon, Langbein, Rückerl, Nazi Mass Murder, p.21-22. Return
522 Burleigh and Wipperman, The Racial State, p.146. Return
523 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.100. Return
524 Ibid., p.59. Return
525 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp. 107-108. Return
526 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p. 127. After a tortuous legal process lasting almost thirty years, on 28 May 1987 Bunke was convicted of having been an accessory to the murder of 11,000 individuals. For this he received a sentence of four years imprisonment. In December 1988, an appeal court reduced the assumed number of victims to 9,200, and cut the sentence proportionately to three years. [Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp. 279-280.] See the appendix to this manuscript for a brief biography of Bunke. Return
527 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p.34. Return
528 http://tinyurl.com/34txzeu (Accessed 5 November 2006). Return
529 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.57 Return
530 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, pp. 60-61. Return
531 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, pp 177-178. Return
532 de Mildt, In the Name of the People p.337, note 45. Return
533 Kogon, Langbein, Rückerl, Nazi Mass Murder, p.20. Return
534 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp. 58-59. Return
535 RSHA = Reichssucherheitshauptamt, the Central Office for Reich Security, created by Himmler in 1939 to unify the SIPO (Sicherheitspolizei – Security Police) with the SD (Sicherheitsdienst – Security Service of the SS). Return
536 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.131. Return
537 http://tinyurl.com/2w52z34 (accessed 20 December 2006) Return
538 Schmidt, Karl Brandt, p.137. Compare this incident with Arthur Nebe's remarkably similar alleged experience: “[Nebe] had come home drunk from a party one night and passed out in his garage with his car still running. The carbon monoxide from the exhaust nearly killed him…This near miss convinced him that gassing could be used effectively against the Jews and other Nazi enemies. Gas would be cheaper than bullets, and no Nazi would directly take a life.” [http://tinyurl.com/34jsolv (Accessed 19 January 2009)]. Return
539 Schmidt, Karl Brandt, p.138. In Widmann's version, it was Conti who had first proposed using gas (ibid). It is also possible that Brandt consulted individuals such as Ferdinand Flury, a professor of pharmacology at the University of Würzburg, and an expert on poison gas, before arriving at his decision. [Paul Julian Weindling, Nazi Medicine and the Nuremberg Trials – From Medical War Crimes to Informed Consent (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), p.183)]. Return
540 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp 142; Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.89. On 14 October 1939, Grafeneck Castle near Marbach in the Münsingen district was confiscated specifically for use as a “euthanasia” centre. At Brandenburg, close to Berlin, some of the buildings of the former prison/concentration camp were acquired by T4 in 1939 for the same purpose. A mental home was founded in 1875 at Bernburg, near Magdeburg and served as a T4 replacement for Brandenburg when the latter was closed in 1940. Originally a kind of half-way house for released prisoners, the Korrigenden-Anstalt at Hadamar, near Limburg-an-der-Lahn in Hesse, became a mental institution in 1906. Between November 1940 and January 1941 it was converted into a killing centre, superseding Grafeneck. Hartheim castle, situated in the village of Alkoven near Linz in Austria, and formerly a home for physically and mentally handicapped children, was similarly adapted between late 1939 and early 1940. Schloss Sonnenstein, located at Pirna near Dresden, had been used as a mental home since 1811. Between early 1940 and April of that year, the part of the castle located in buildings 1-3 at the front of the property was converted into a “euthanasia” killing centre.
See chapter six of this monograph for more comprehensive details of the six principal T4 killing centres. Return
541 Grafeneck 9,839, Brandenburg 9,772, Hartheim 18,269, Sonnenstein 13,720, Bernburg 8,601, Hadamar 10,072. (Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p. 109). Return
542 Schmidt, Karl Brandt, p.155. Return
543 Ibid., p.164. Return
544 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.99. Return
545 Ibid., pp 87-.88. Return
546 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p. 71. Return
547 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide , p. 210. Brandt and Brack had explicitly ordered that a doctor should operate the gas-tap, since the Führer authorization referred only to doctors. [de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.61]. However, this instruction was often ignored. Doctors frequently delegated the task to others, and merely supervised the killing. [Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p. 96]. Return
548 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp 131-132. Return
549 It has been suggested that postal vans were chosen because they would be relatively inconspicuous in more remote areas, and would also be easier to service and maintain nationwide. (Burleigh and Wipperman, The Racial State, p.148.) Return
550 http://tinyurl.com/34txzeu (Accessed 5 November 2006). Return
551 When Walter Heess, head of the KTI, was asked how one could justify using gas to kill human beings, he replied: “What are you talking about; after all, it works.” (Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.86.) Return
552 Kogon, Langbein, Rückerl, Nazi Mass Murder, pp.30-31. Some asylums, for example Hadamar, obtained supplies via local pharmacies. [Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p.83]. Return
553 http://tinyurl.com/34txzeu (accessed 5 November 2006). Return
554 Michael Burleigh, The Third Reich: A New History (London: Pan Books, 2001), p.393. Return
555 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.215. Having first undertaken the partial rebuilding and renovation of Tiergartenstrasse 4, the four killing centre gas chambers Lambert constructed were at Hartheim, Sonnenstein, Bernburg and Hadamar. He was also responsible for the building works and renovation of the T4 rest home, Haus Schoberstein, at Weissenbach am Attersee. Return
556 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.266-267. Return
557 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.88. Return
558 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.60. Return
559 Some gas chambers were later enlarged to accommodate as many as 75 victims. Sometimes the numbers gassed together were even greater. A Hartheim staff member stated: “Once 150 persons were gassed at one time. The gas chamber was so full that the people in it could scarcely fall down, and the corpses were therefore so jammed together that we could pry them apart only with great difficulty.” (Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp.96-97.) Return
560 It is probable that a department for the murder of children was established at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research in Berlin itself. (Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p.220). Return
561 Mostert Useless Eaters, p.165. Return
562 Notes taken at a meeting on 23 April 1941 of the leaders of the legal profession addressed by Werner Heyde make the methodology clear, and the cynicism even clearer: “Patient dies of fabricated causes; reason: Führer's call for secrecy. Death certificate. Date and cause of death incorrect. In addition, however, a true registry will be kept. Now the estate is carefully processed, which is generally most important to the relatives…” (Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p.44). Return
563 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.100 ff. Return
564 http://tinyurl.com/38gz537 (Accessed 18 September 2009.) Return
565 Burleigh and Wipperman, The Racial State, p.148. Return
566 Ibid., p.147. Return
567 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.146. Return
568 Horst Biesold, Crying Hands: Eugenics and Deaf People in Nazi Germany (Washington: Gallaudet University Press, 1999), p.102. Return
569 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, pp.40-41. Return
570 Not to be confused with August Becker, mentioned above. Return
571 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, pp.182-183. Return
572 Hugh Gallagher, What the Nazi “Euthanasia Program” Can Tell Us About Disability Oppression (Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Vol.12, No.2, 2001), p.97. Return
573 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, pp 49-50; Biesold Crying Hands, pp. 161-162. Return
 
Chapter 5. The Killing Centres
 
574 Claudia Koonz, The Nazi Conscience (Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2003), p.166. Return
575 Michael Burleigh, Death and Deliverance : `Euthanasia' in Germany c. 1900-1945 (London: Pan Books, 2002), p.273 Return
576 The reader will find an encyclopaedic list of the institutions from where victims were selected at http://tinyurl.com/2w5p594 (Accessed 19 August 2008). Return
577 Henry Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995), p.233. Return
578 Ibid., p.90. Return
579 Ibid., p.328, note19. Return
580 Ibid., p.59. Return
581 Götz Aly, Peter Chroust, Christian Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland: Nazi Medicine and Racial Hygiene (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1994), p.225. Return
582 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.130. Return
583 Ibid., p.106 Return
584 This statement was inaccurate - “About 4 inches above the floor, a pipe with a circumference of about one inch ran along the wall; in the pipe there were small holes through which the gas could enter the chamber.” (Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.87). The shower heads here and in other gas chambers were solely for the purpose of camouflage. Return
585 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.278. Return
586 Ibid. Return
587 Bronwyn Rebekah McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany (Chichester: Princeton University Press, 1999)., p.212. Return
588 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p. 92. Return
589 Ibid., p.94 Return
590 Ibid., p.233 Return
591 Ibid., p.110. Return
592 http://tinyurl.com/3xfu6az (Accessed 15 January 2008). Return
593 Gitta Sereny, Into That Darkness - From Mercy Killing to Mass Murder (London: Pimlico, 1995), p.77. Emphasis in original. Return
594 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p. 39 Return
595 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.101 Return
596 http://tinyurl.com/2uvfygj (Accessed 16 January 2008). Return
597 Ernst Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich - Wer war was vor und nach 1945 (Frankfurt am Main: S.Fischer, 2005), p.594. Return
598 Robert N Proctor, Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis (Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1989), pp.78-79. Return
599 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp.90-91. Return
600 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, p.219 Return
601 Eugen Kogon, Hermann Langbein, Adalbert Rückerl (eds.), Nazi Mass Murder: A Documentary History of the Use of Poison Gas (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993), p.28. Return
602 http://tinyurl.com/35mxb63 (Accessed 22 February 2009). Return
603 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.174 Return
604 Gutekunst's final paragraph is a variation of `ashes to ashes, dust to dust', difficult to translate precisely, but the general meaning is clear. Return
605 There is an alternative view that Grafeneck, like Brandenburg, was closed because both had completed their intended purpose and were scheduled to be shut down. (Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.336, note 140.)  Return
606 Kogon, Langbein, Rückerl, Nazi Mass Murder, p.18. Return
607 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp.119-120. Return
608 Kogon, Langbein, Rückerl, Nazi Mass Murder, p.19 Return
609 The number of victims for Grafeneck as recorded by Edmund Brandt (see chapter 7) was 9,839. However, the Tübingen court established that a further 815 individuals had been murdered there. (Kogon, Langbein, Rückerl, Nazi Mass Murder, p.37.) Return
610 http://tinyurl.com/36njnau (Accessed 12 December 2007). Return
611 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp.92-93. Return
612 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp.142-149. Return
613 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp.92-.93. Return
614 Alexander Mitscherlich, and Fred Mielke, Doctors of Infamy: The Story of the Nazi Medical Crimes (New York: Henry Schuman, 1949), p.102. Return
615 Robert Jay Lifton, The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide (London: Papermac, 1990), pp. 73-74. Return
616 Doris L Bergen, War & Genocide: A Concise History of the Holocaust (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003), p.127. Return
617 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.97. Return
618 Kogon, Langbein, Rückerl, Nazi Mass Murder, p.37 Return
619 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p.100 (footnote). Return
620 Leo Alexander, Medical Science Under Dictatorship (The New England Journal of Medicine 241, 1949), p.39. Alexander dates this document to December 1939, which is clearly not possible, since Hadamar only functioned as a killing centre between January and August 1941. The suggested use of hydro-cyanic acid gas (Zyklon B) is, of course, also incorrect. Return
621 Samuel Totten, William S Parsons, Israel W Charny (eds.), Century of Genocide: Eyewitness accounts and Critical Views (New York: Routledge, 2004), p.186. Return
622 Kogon, Langbein, Rückerl, Nazi Mass Murder, p.32 Return
623 Stackelberg, Roderick, and Winkle, Sally Anne, The Nazi Germany Sourcebook: An Anthology of Texts (London: Routledge, 2002), p.333. Return
624 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.149. Return
625 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p.143. Dieter Allers estimated the total number of T4 personnel sent to the Soviet Union in this operation at 400 (Sereny, Into That Darkness, p.84). Return
626 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp.239-238 Return
627 The German term for people of mixed race is Mischlinge, inevitably interpreted by the Nazis in a pejorative sense to mean `mongrel.' Return
628 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.295. Return
629 For convenience usually referred to as the first and second Hadamar trials. The first trial was conducted by the US military, the second by the West German government. Return
630 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.260. Return
631 Between August 1942 and March 1945 there were 4,422 recorded deaths at Hadamar. It is reasonable to assume that a minority of these were from natural causes. (Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.231.) Return
632 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.143. Return
633 http://tinyurl.com/3akaork (Accessed 21 January 2008). Return
634 http://tinyurl.com/324m8ya (Accessed 22 January 2008). Return
635 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.91. Return
636 Kogon, Langbein, Rückerl, Nazi Mass Murder, p.49. Return
637 Ibid. Return
638 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.91. Return
639 Ibid., p.96. This was because George Renno, assistant physician-in- charge, initially refused to operate the gas taps, considering such tasks beneath his dignity as a trained doctor. On one occasion when Renno was absent, Vallaster did not administer sufficient gas; when the chamber was opened, not all of the victims were dead. On his return Renno was furious, and for the next two months operated the gas taps himself before permitting Vallaster to perform the task again, now always under supervision. [Mireille Horsinga-Renno, Cher oncle Georg: La bouleversante enquête d'une femme sur un médecin de la mort impuni (Strasbourg : La Nuée Bleue, 2006), p.59]. Return
640 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.328, note 31. Return
641 Horsinga, Cher oncle Georg, pp 104-105 includes a photograph taken on just such an outing. Return
642 An electric bone crusher was in use at Hartheim. (Horsinga, Cher oncle Georg, p.66). Return
643 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.233-234. Return
644 http://tinyurl.com/38gz537 (Accessed 17 September 2009.) Return
645 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.109. The transit period at Niedernhart was usually of 8-10 days duration. Lonauer also killed a number of patients at Niedernhart by means of lethal injection.(Horsinga, Cher oncle Georg, p.83). Return
646 http://tinyurl.com/36llbkw (Accessed 24 August 2008). Return
647 Estimates of the total number of victims at Hartheim range from 20,000 (Georg Renno, sometime director of the institution) to 400,000 (Franz Ziereis, former commandant of Mauthausen concentration camp.) The latter figure is clearly impossible. The generally accepted figure is 30,000 fatalities. (Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p.142.) Return
648 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p. 138. Return
649 Kogon, Langbein, Rückerl, Nazi Mass Murder, p.47. Return
650 http://tinyurl.com/38jyw5e (Accessed 1 February 2008). Return
651 Kogon, Langbein, Rückerl, Nazi Mass Murder, p.49. Return
652 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.150. Return
653 Dick de Mildt, In the Name of the People: Perpetrators of Genocide in the Reflection of Their Post-War Prosecution in West Germany. The `Euthanasia' and `Aktion Reinhard' Trial Cases (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1996), p.78. Return
654 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.154. This was the Brandt report referred to in chapter 7. Return
655 http://tinyurl.com/34kc2gp (Accessed 12 January 2008). Return
656 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp. 91-92. Return
657 Kogon, Langbein, Rückerl, Nazi Mass Murder, p.37. Return
658 Ibid., p.19. Return
659 Ibid., p.45, p.51. Return
660 Ibid., p.46. Return
661 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.98. Return
662 http://tinyurl.com/3ahkamx (Accessed 21 January 2008). Return
663 http://tinyurl.com/2una9x8 (Accessed 22 January 2008). Return
664 Mark P Mostert, Useless Eaters: Disability as Genocidal Marker in Nazi Germany (Journal of Special Education. Vol. 36, No. 3, 2002, p.165. Return
665 Marius Turda and Paul J Weindling (eds.), “Blood and Homeland”. Eugenics and Racial Nationalism in Central and Southeast Europe, 1900-1940, (Budapest: Central European University Press, 2007), p.329.
To date, killing wards for children have been identified in the following 31 locations: Ansbach, Berlin – Wiesengrund, Brandenburg-Görden, Breslau, Dortmund Applerbeck, Egelfing – Haar, Eichberg bei Eltville, Graz, Grossschweidnitz bei Löbau, Hamburg – Langenhorn, Hamburg – Rotenburgsort, Kalmenhof-Idstein, Kaufbeuren, Königsberg, Konradstein, Leipzig – Dösen, Leipzig – Universitätskinderklinik, Loben/ Oberschlesien, Lüneburg, Niedermarsberg, Sachsenberg bei Schwerin, Schleswig, Stadtrhoda in Türingen, Stuttgart, Tiegenhof/Gnesen, Uchtspringe, Ueckermünde, Waldniel, Wien, Wiesengrund bei Pilsnen, Wiesloch bei Heidelberg. [http://tinyurl.com/3x8p824 (Accessed 27 February 2008.)] Return
666 Susan Benedict, Arthur Caplan, Traute Lafrenz Page, Duty and `Euthanasia': the Nurses of Meseritz-Obrawalde (Nursing Ethics, Vol. 14(6), 2007), p.783 Return
667 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, p.17. Return
668 Susan Benedict, and Tessa Chelouche, Meseritz-Obrawalde: a `wild euthanasia' hospital of Nazi Germany (History of Psychiatry, Vol. 19 (1), 2008), p.70. Return
669 Benedict, Caplan, Lafrenz, Duty and `Euthanasia', p.783 Return
670 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, p.213. Return
671 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.160. Return
672 Benedict, Chelouche, Meseritz-Obrawalde, pp.70-71. Return
673 Benedict, Caplan, Lafrenz, Duty and `Euthanasia', p.783 Return
674 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, p.215. Return
675 Benedict, Chelouche, Meseritz-Obrawalde, p.71. Return
676 Benedict, Caplan, Lafrenz, Duty and `Euthanasia', p.783 Return
677 Michael S Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”: Nazi Euthanasia on Trial 1945-1953 (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2005), p 118. A former salesman, Grabowski, described as an “unbearable person and an absolute despot”, was rumoured to have been involved in the murder of Jews in Kalisch before his appointment at Meseritz- Obrawalde. (McFarland-Icke, Nurses, p.214). Return
678 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, p.249. Return
679 Ibid., pp.242-245. Return
680 Benedict, Caplan, Lafrenz, Duty and `Euthanasia', p.78. Return
681 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.160. Return
682 Benedict, Caplan, Lafrenz, Duty and `Euthanasia', p.783. Return
683 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, p.213. Return
684 Benedict, Caplan, Lafrenz, Duty and `Euthanasia', p.783. Return
685 Ibid., p.784. Return
686 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, p.214. Return
687 Susan Benedict, and Jochen Kuhla, Nurses' Participation in the Euthanasia Programs of Nazi Germany (Western Journal of Nursing Research, Vol. 21(2), 1999), p.253. Return
688 Benedict, Caplan, Lafrenz, Duty and `Euthanasia', p.784 Return
689 Benedict, Chelouche, Meseritz-Obrawalde, p.72. Return
690 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp.257-258. This may have been an over-estimate. 30 patients murdered daily would amount to nearly 11,000 victims per annum, which in the two years that “euthanasia” was practised at Meseritz-Obrawalde would give a total of about 22,000 fatalities. Either the estimated size of the batches was incorrect, or killing did not occur every day. But this is really to split hairs. Return
691 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p.91. Return
692 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp.160-161. Return
693 A second Soviet investigation discovered part of the hospital's death register in which the final entry (dated 30 January 1945) listed death number 18,232 (de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.65). Return
694 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p.78. Return
695 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p 52. Return
696 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, p.214. Return
697 Ibid., p.234. Return
698 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.166. Return
699 Benedict, Benedict, Caplan, Lafrenz, Duty and `Euthanasia', p.783. Return
700 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, p.16. Return
701 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.109. Return
702 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p.51. Return
703 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, p.226. Return
704 Ibid., p.224. Return
705 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p.123. Return
706 Ibid., p.121. Return
707 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p.97 (footnote). Return
708 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, p.217. Return
709 Ibid., p.228. Return
710 Ibid., p.229. Return
711 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.51. Return
712 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp 54-55. Return
713 Ibid., p.75. It is sickening to contrast Mennecke's well recorded gluttony with the starvation of his patients at Eichberg. See Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p. 238ff. Return
714 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp.248-251. Return
715 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, p. 215. Return
716 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.156-157. Return
717 Ibid., p.131. Return
718 http://tinyurl.com/37oncrz (Accessed 22 February 2008). Return
719 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p.125 Return
720 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.110. Return
721 Ibid., p.245, and p.337 (notes 85 and 86.) Return
722 Ibid., pp.248 – 251. Return
723 Ibid., p.62. Return
724 http://tinyurl.com/367sfg7 (accessed 23 February 2008.); Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp. 273-274. Return
725 http://tinyurl.com/2vxfp8y (Accessed 25 February 2008.) Return
726 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp 273-274. Return
727 Between 1933 and 1939, over 21,000 people were treated to a tour of Eglfing-Haar. Almost 6,000 of them were members of the SS. (Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.47.) Return
728 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.49. Return
729 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.53. Return
730 Friedlander,The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp. 49-50. Return
731 http://tinyurl.com/34ac9by (Accessed 23 February 2008). Return
732 The World Medical Association (WMA) was created in late 1946. In September 1947, shortly after the final judgment at the Nuremberg Medical Trial, the first official meeting of the WMA was held in Paris. The WMA formulated a new physician's oath to promote and serve the health of humanity. One of the first issues discussed by the 1947 general assembly was the German “betrayal of the traditions of medicine.” The assembly asked, why did these doctors lack moral or professional conscience and forget or ignore the humanitarian motives and ideals of medical service, and how can a repetition of such crimes be averted? The “widespread criminal conduct of the German medical profession since 1933” was acknowledged. The WMA endorsed “the judicial action taken to punish those members of the medical profession who shared in the crimes” and it “solemnly condemned the crimes and inhumanity committed by doctors in Germany and elsewhere against human beings.” The assembly continued: “We undertake to expel from our organization those members who have been personally guilty of the crimes.... We will exact from all our members a standard of conduct that recognizes the sanctity, moral liberty and personal dignity of every human being.” Sewering had been a German delegate to the WMA since 1959 and its treasurer for twenty years. [John J Michalczyk (ed), Medicine, Ethics, and the Third Reich: Historical and Contemporary Issues (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 1994), pp.202-206]; Return
733 Michael A Grodin, George J Annas, Leonard H Glantz, Medicine and Human Rights: A Proposal for International Action (The Hastings Center Report, Vol. 23, Issue 4, 1993), pp.8-12. Return
734 In March 2001, Sewering was still practicing medicine. Return
735 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.51. Return
736 Ibid., pp.166-167 Return
737 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, pp.98-99. Return
738 Ibid., p.51. Return
739 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp.61-62. Return
740 http://tinyurl.com/2vxfp8y (Accessed 25 February 2008.) Return
741 Ibid. Return
742 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, p. 220. Return
743 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp.229-230. Return
744 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p.98. Return
745 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p. 230. Return
746 http://tinyurl.com/3ame5sa (Accessed 25 February 2008). Return
747 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.231. Return
748 Ibid., p.244. Return
749 http://tinyurl.com/2vxfp8y (accessed 25 February 2008). This authoritative source states that in 1943, 1944 and 1945, a total of 1,808 patients died in Kaufbeuren:
The free beds were immediately filled by patients from other psychiatric clinics which were cleared to be used for different purposes, and also by so-called “eastern workers” (Ostarbeiter), Russian, Polish and Baltic forced labourers, who had become mentally ill in the camps where they had been interned. A directive from Berlin expected… the directors to stop any treatment if the patient was unable to return to work within four weeks. This meant death. [Ibid].
The life or death decision was thus no longer in the hands of a doctor, but was made by the Central Clearing Office for Mental institutions on the basis a report submitted by the hospital. [Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p.184]. Return
750 http://tinyurl.com/2vxfp8y (Accessed 24 February 2008). Return
751 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p.91. Return
752 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp 51-52. Return
753 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, pp.192-193. Return
754 http://tinyurl.com/2vxfp8y (Accessed 25 February 2008.) Return
755 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp 162-163. Return
756 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.189-190. Return
757 http://tinyurl.com/39rxf5n (Accessed 27 February 2008). Return
758 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.100. Return
759 http://tinyurl.com/39rxf5n (Accessed 26 February 2008.) Return
760 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p 173. Return
761 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.52. Return
762 http://tinyurl.com/39rxf5n (Accessed 28 February 2008.) One other child allegedly died of natural causes. Return
763 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p 173 Return
764 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.99. Return
765 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p 173 Return
766 Ibid., p 170 Return
767 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.104 Return
768 Ibid., p.105. Return
769 Sprauer threatened Dr Viktor Mathes of the Emmendingen hospital that “one could be sent to Grafeneck oneself.” (de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.347, note 40.) Return
770 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, pp. 170-171. Return
771 Whether Möckel 's memory failed him, or he deliberately offered incorrect dating, the fact was that 6,300 Jews from Baden were dumped in unoccupied France in October 1940. They were subsequently interned in camps at Gurs, Rivesaltes, Le Vernet, Les Milles and elsewhere; many died, either in these camps or after transportation to Auschwitz or Sobibor. Included in this expulsion were the Jews of the Saar-Palatinate. Both provinces had been earmarked for incorporation into the Reich, which were thus to be first rendered `Judenrein' [`Jew- free']. [Hilberg, Destruction of European Jews, pp. 651 and 665-666; Saul Friedländer, The Years of Extermination: Nazi Germany and the Jews, 1939-1945 (New York: HarperCollins, 2007), pp.93-94.] Return
772 http://tinyurl.com/39rxf5n (Accessed 28 February 2008). Return
773 Ibid. Return

 

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