The Jews in Bessarabia;
Between the World Wars 1914-1940

Translation of
Bessarabia he-yehudit be-ma'aroteha;
ben shtei milhamot ha-olam 1914-1940

Edited by: David Vinitzky

Published in Jerusalem-Tel Aviv 1973


This is a translation from:
Bessarabia he-yehudit be-ma'aroteha; ben shtei milhamot ha-olam 1914-1940,
The Jews in Bessarabia; between the world wars 1914-1940,
ed: David Vinitzky, Jerusalem-Tel Aviv 1973 (2 Volumes, 728 pages, H, E)

Note: The original book can be seen online at the NY Public Library site: Bessarabia (1973)

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Translated by Yocheved Klausner


Volume A
First pages  
Acknowledgements 13
Foreword 14
In the Beginning 17–57
During the First World War – 1914–1917
The Expulsion of the Jewish farmers from Khotin County (Russian Bucovina)
The Dazzling days of the February 1917 Revolution
The Seventh Congress of the Russian Zionists (Petersburg, 1917)
The Elections to the All – Russian Constituent Assembly
The Preparations for the All–Russian Jewish Congress  
“Between the hammer and the anvil” – The Separation from Russia and the Annexation to Romania
The Independence of the Zionist Federation
The First Zionist Congress in Bessarabia, 1920
Step by step – forward
Aid and support – The Central American Distribution Committee, “the Joint”
The Relief Committee for the Ukrainian refugees
The Consolidation of the Jewish Cooperatives
National Press 53–70
The Building of Eretz Israel 71–136
The Jewish National Fund (Keren Kayement Le–Israel)
Women's International Zionist Organization (WIZO)
The Keren Hayesod Fund
Bank Hapoalim
The National Library in Jerusalem campaign
The Zionist Centre in Kishinev 137–174
The Zionist Centre House
The Hapoel Motorcyclists visit in Kishinev
Dr. Jacob Bernstein–Cohen
Engineer Mordechai (Mark) Yilich Gottlieb
Shlomo Meir Berliand
Nachum M. Roitman
The Chief Rabbi Yehudah Leib Tzirelson and Zionism
A United Countrywide Zionist Organization
Participation at the Zionist Congresses
Personalities and leaders visits
The Hechalutz organization 175–189
First Steps
The Beginnings
Delays and Breakthroughs in Immigration
The Deterioration of the Legal Situation of the Ukraine Halutzim
The Romanian (Regat) Zionists Come to Help
First Congresses and Councils 190–202
The First Congress  
The First Congress“He–Halutz Week” and “Friends of He–Halutz”  
The Second Congress
IV He–Halutz Ideology
V Physical training
VII Immigration
VIII Organization of He–Halutz
The Second Council
The Third Congress
Reorganizing the System 203–211
The Biliceni Farm
Brit Ha–Noar–The Youth Alliance
Bnei Israel Organization
The Development of the Bilicheni Farm
The Jassy Farm
The Fourth Congress and the following Councils 212–219
The Third Council
The Fourth Council
The Fifth Council
Kibbutz Joseph Bussel
The Sixth Council
Visits by Eliezer Kaplan and Dr. Chaim Weitzmann at the Jassy Farm 220
The Fifth Congress 222
A Difference in Opinion between the World He–Halutz and the Local Branches 225
The fight for survival 227–231
Massada – an alternative to Billicheni
The Seventh Council
Group 33 breaks the immigration blockade 232
Councils and Congresses 233–244
The Eighth Council
A Pioneer Seminar
The establishment of the Sochnut (The Jewish Agency) and the August 1929 riots
Tarbut comes to the aid of He–Halutz  
The Ninth Council
The Labor Congress in Berlin
The Sixth Congress
The Tenth Council
The Establishment of “Beitar He–Halutz” 245
The He–Halutz Week fundraiser proceeds on Pessah 5690 (1930) by localities 246–260
Financial difficulties of the training farms
The Eleventh Council
Absorption of the Immigrants
Intensification of the Aliyah
The Immigration certificates (permits) and Beitar
The Seventh Congress
Ha–Oved (The Labourer)
Absorption of the Aliyah and the decline in training
New Training Farms 262–267
The Floreasca Farm
The Hertza Farm
The Beitar Zeev Jabotinsky Farm at Zastawna
The Galatz Farm
The Orphanage farm in Kishinev
The Twelfth Council 268–275
The Twelfth Council
The Eighth Congress
The 1938 Discrimination Laws 276–281
The Order to dismantle He–Halutz
Training underground
“Immigrant Training” replaces He–Halutz
The Annexation of Bessarabia and Bucovina to the USSR; was this the end? 282
The income of He–Halutz Week and special fundraisers of Friends of He–Halutz during 5682–5696 (1922–1936) 284
The Legal and Illegal immigration (Aliyah and Ha–Apalah) 287–318
Farmers' hope
The Barshad Cooperative
The Vinograd Cooperative
First Ha–Apalah (Illegal immigration) attempt
Feelings of unfairness in the allotment of Certificates (Permits)
Students Aliyah
Youth Aliyah
The Illegal Aliyah
Beginning of WWII
Veteran Zionists'Aliyah
Summary of the Aliyah
The Eretz Israel Bureau (Palestine Bureau)
Appendices 319–364
Certificates and documents
Memorandum A of the Hechalutz management, I Adar 5681 [1921]
The Hechalutz by – laws
Hechalutz activity dates
Hechalutz Activists in the years 1920-40
On the Dniester Crossings – Nachman Tardyon 365
With Chaim Schorer on the Dniester Crossing – Akiva Govrin 370
Table of Documents 373–374
Volume B
List of Photographs 381–386
Jewish Population Figures 387–410
The Struggle for the Rights of National Minorities 411
Organization of the Communities 411–441
Beginning of the Organization
Struggle with the Orthodox
Minister of Religion collides with the unity of the community
Struggle by the Jewish communities against Anti-Semitism
Elections in 1934
Union of the communities
In the municipal councils 442–450
The elections to the City “Duma” in 1917 in Kishinev and provincial towns
Cancellation of the councils by Romanian authorities
The Jewish bloc and the United democrats
The democratic arrangement conquers the city
Dispersion of the council and calling of new elections
Removing the base for a national representation
Representation in Parliament 451–494
The first elections in 1920 and the success of the Jewish list
The 1922 elections and internal disputes
The 1926 elections; the election of Dr. Meir Ebner and Rabbi Tzirelsohn
The murder of the student David Falik and the query in the Senate
As a protest, Rabbi Tzirelsohn resigns from the Senate
The bloc of the Zionist Organization and the “National Farmers” partry in the 1928 elections
The election of 4 Jewish representatives
The Jewish parliamentary party in action
The query to the foreign minister concerning the discrimination against Jewish Aliya and the ways of realizing the conditions of the British Mandate
The riots of the students
The Jewish Party in independent campaigns in 1931 and 1932
The queries in Parliament: the hostile attitude toward the national school, the murder in Soroca, the torture of Shimshon Bronstein from Yadenetz
The harassment of the Jewish Party in the 1933 & 1937 elections
The rise of the Anti – Semitic government of Cuza and Goga
National Education 495–500
Before the revolution of 1917 and right after it
The establishment of an educational Jewish committee in the Education Directorate
The first joint Yiddishists – Hebraists Teachers Congress
Nationalization of the Jewish schools and the take – over by the Yiddishists
The annexation of Bessarabia to Romania and the recognition of the right of the Jewish minority to education in his national language
The second Teachers Congress in 1918 and the “Language Dispute”
The Establishment of the Hebrew School 501–551
The decline of the Yiddish school and the rise of the Hebrew schools
Teacher training
The Institute for Female Teachers and Educators Training in Kishinev
The growth and development of the Hebrew School
The legal basis to the existence of the National School
The first Tarbut congress
Cultural events
The forceful Romanization and urgent meetings
The second Tarbut congress
The “Private Education Bill” in Parliament
Differences of viewpoint among the Jews concerning the teaching – language
The daring struggle in the Parliament and the speeches of the Jewish representatives against the Anghelescu scheming
Victory in theory; in fact – the persecution continues
Hopes and Disappointments 552–574
The hope for changes in the law by the “National Farmers Party” and the disappointment
Lights and shadows
The Third Tarbut Congress
The query of M. Landau to the new minister Constachescu
Bill – proposals by parliamentary initiative
A Proposal to the Zionist Congress to Create a “World Cultural Fund” 575–580
The “Joint” and its Attitude toward the Hebrew School 581–582
The Activities of the Tarbut Center 583–590
Publication of school books
Inspection and training
The “Food Project” for school children
Summer camps for teachers
The Literature Project for pupils and adults
Cultural Projects by Individuals 591–593
Aid from Abroad: Brit Ivrit Olamit (World Hebrew Alliance), Yitzhak Grinboim 593–594
N. Sokolov Visit at the “Magen David” High – School 594–596
The History of the Hebrew High School in Beltz (Bălţi) 596–597
The Tarbut – School libel in Soroca 597–599
Teachers Congresses in 1932 and 1935 599–603
A Festive Commemoration of the First Decade of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem 603
A Threefold Council and the Creation of New School – Curricula 604–608
Fluctuations in the Jewish Educational System in the 22 Years of its Existence 609–612
On the organization of the communities – speeches in the Senate and Parliament by Dr. Meir Ebner and Michael Landau 613–624
Representation in Parliament – the speeches of Rabbi Tzirelsohn, Dr. Meir Ebner, Dr. Theodore Fischer and Dr. Sami Singer 625–635
On the National Education – a Memorandum from the Tarbut – Center to the Government, the speeches of Rabbi Tzirelsohn, Nathan Lerner, Dr. Adolf Stern, Dr. Yakov Pistiner and Att. Meir Landau 636–659
The Proclamation of the Zionist Organizations Calling to Rescue the Hebrew School fron its financial distress 660–661
Certificates and other Documents 662–674
Milestones in the History of the Tarbut Movement 675–682
Table of Certificates and Documents 683
List of Names and Topics 685–713
Bibliography 715–719
Errata 720
Table of Contents (English) 722–728
Separate page – numbering of photographs on chromo paper – 80 pages


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