The Jews in Bessarabia;
Between the World Wars 1914-1940

Translation of
Bessarabia he-yehudit be-ma'aroteha;
ben shtei milhamot ha-olam 1914-1940

Edited by: David Vinitzky

Published in Jerusalem-Tel Aviv 1973

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This is a translation from:
Bessarabia he-yehudit be-ma'aroteha; ben shtei milhamot ha-olam 1914-1940,
The Jews in Bessarabia; between the world wars 1914-1940,
ed: David Vinitzky, Jerusalem-Tel Aviv 1973 (2 Volumes, 728 pages, H, E)

Note: The original book can be seen online at the NY Public Library site: Bessarabia (1973)

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Translated by Yocheved Klausner


Volume A
By the author 13
Foreword 14
In the Beginning 17–57
During the First World War – 1914–1917
The expulsion of the Jewish farmers from Hotin county
The bright days of the February revolution, 1917
The Seventh Congress of the Russian Zionists
The elections to the All – Russian Constitutive Assembly
The preparations for the All – Russian Jewish Congress  
“Between the hammer and the anvil”
The separation from Russia and the annexation to Romania
The independence of the Zionist Federation
The first congress of the Bessarabia Zionists, 1920
Step by step – forward
Aid and support – The American Committee, the Joint
An aid committee for the Ukrainian refugees
The consolidation of the Jewish Cooperation
The National Press 53–70
Stages in the building of Eretz Israel 71–136
The Jewish National Fund [Keren Kayemet LeIsrael]
The Keren Hayesod fund
For “The Working Eretz Israel” – Bank Hapo'alim
For the National Library in Jerusalem
The Zionist Center in Kishinev 137–174
The House of the Zionist Center
A quick visit of the Hapoel motorcyclists
Dr. Yakov Bernstein – Cohen
Mordechai A. Gottlieb
Shlomo – Meir Berlyand
Nachum M. Roitman
Rabbi Yehuda – Leib Tzirelsohn and Zionism
A Unified Countrywide Zionist Organization
Participation in the Zionist Congresses
Visits of personalities and leaders
The Hechalutz organization 175–189
First steps
The beginning of the activities
The setbacks in the Aliya and the breakthrough
The deterioration of the legal status of the Ukrainian Chalutzim
The Romanian [Regat] Zionists come to their aid
First Congresses amd Councils 190–202
The First Congress  
“The Hechalutz Week”  
“Friends of Hechalutz
The Second Congress
The training locations
The Second Council
The Third Congress
Reorganizing the System 203–211
The acquisition of the farm in Biliciani [Bilichany]
The Youth Alliance [Brit Hanoar]
The Benei Israel Organization
The development of Biliciani
The establishment of the farm in Iaşi
The Fourth Congress and the Following Councils 212–219
The Third Council
Summary of the Aliya of Pioneers until Passover 5686 (1926)
The Fourth anf Fifth Councils
Establishment of the kibbutz in memory of Yosef Bussel
The Sixth Council
The visits of Eliezer Kaplan and Dr. Chaim Weizmann in Iaşi 220
The Fifth Congress with the participation of Z. Sheffer & Ch. Shorer 222
A Difference in Opinion between the Country – and the World – Chalutz 225
Guarding the existing assets 227–231
The income of “The Hechalutz Week” by localities
Instead of Bilichany – “Massada”
The Seventh Council and the Council of the Agricultural Experts
The Group of 23 Breaks Through the Aliya Blockade 232
Councils and Congresses 233–244
The Eighth Council
A Pioneer Seminar
The establishment of the Sochnut and the August 1929 riots
Tarbut comes to the aid of Hechalutz  
“The Preparation Groups”
The Ninth Council
The Labor Congress in Berlin
The Sixth Congress, the members of the various movements
The Tenth Council
The Establishment of the “Beitar – Hechalutz” 245
The income of “The Hechalutz Week” in 1930, by localities 246–260
The financial difficulties
The Eleventh Council, the approval of the internal by – laws
The absorption of the Aliya, followed by its intensification
Beitar and the certificates
The Seventh Congress
Ha'oved [the laborer]
The absorption of the Aliya; moderation of training
New Training Farms 261–267
The 12th Council and the Expansion of Training 268–275
The Eighth (and last) Congress
The 1938 Discrimination Laws 276–281
The dismantling of the Hechalutz
Training underground
Instead of Hechalutz – Immigrant Training
The Annexation of Bessarabia & Bukovina to the USSR; was this the end? 282
The income of “The Hechalutz Week” ; Special Fundraising 1922–1936 284
Aliya [immigration to Eretz Israel] and Illegal Aliya 287–318
The hope of the farmers
The Barshad Cooperative
The Vinograd Cooperative
The first attempt to illegal immigration in 1933
A feeling of unfairness in the allotment of Certificates
Aliya of farmers through the authorizations of the “Farmers Union”
Students Aliya
Youth Aliya
Illegal Aliya
Aliya of veteran Zionists
Summary of the Aliya
The Eretz – Israel Bureau [” The Palestinian Bureau” ]
Appendices 319–364
Certificates and documents
Memorandum A of the Hechalutz management, I Adar 5681 [1921]
The Hechalutz by – laws
Hechalutz activity dates
List of Hechalutz activists
On the Dniester Crossings – Nachman Tradyon 365
With Chaim Schorer on the Dniester Crossing – Akiva Govrin 370
Table of Documents 373–374
Volume B
Photographs 381–386
The Jewish Population in Numbers 387–410
The Struggle for the Rights of the National Minority 411
The Organization of the Communities 411–441
The beginning
The struggle with the Orthodox Jews
The first elections in Kishinev in 1929
The Minister of Religion interferes against the unity of the Community
The struggle of the Association of Communities against Anti – Semitism
The elections in Kishinev in 1934
The elections in Beltz (Bălţi), Bondar and other communities
In the Town Councils 442–450
The elections to the City “Duma” in 1917 in Kishinev and provincial towns
The Romanian government dissolves the Councils
The establishment of the wall – to – wall “Jewish Bloc”
The victory of “The United Democracy” (Jews and non – Jews) in Kishinev in 1926
Dissolving the Council in 1929
The elections in 1930 and the success of the Independent Jewish – National list
The elections in Akerman, Beltz, Bondar, Lyova, Soroca, Calaraşi and Kilia
Dismantling the political parties and annullment of the national representation
Representation in Parliament 451–494
The first elections in 1920 and the success of the Jewish list
The 1922 elections and internal disputes
The 1926 elections; the election of Dr. Meir Ebner and Rabbi Tzirelsohn
The murder of the student David Falik and the query in the Senate
As a protest, Rabbi Tzirelsohn resigns from the Senate
The bloc of the Zionist Organization and the “National Farmers” partry in the 1928 elections
The election of 4 Jewish representatives
The Jewish parliamentary party in action
The query to the foreign minister concerning the discrimination against Jewish Aliya and the ways of realizing the conditions of the British Mandate
The riots of the students
The Jewish Party in independent campaigns in 1931 and 1932
The queries in Parliament: the hostile attitude toward the national school, the murder in Soroca, the torture of Shimshon Bronstein from Yadenetz
The harassment of the Jewish Party in the 1933 & 1937 elections
The rise of the Anti – Semitic government of Cuza and Goga
National Education 495–500
Before the revolution of 1917 and right after it
The establishment of an educational Jewish committee in the Education Directorate
The first joint Yiddishists – Hebraists Teachers Congress
Nationalization of the Jewish schools and the take – over by the Yiddishists
The annexation of Bessarabia to Romania and the recognition of the right of the Jewish minority to education in his national language
The second Teachers Congress in 1918 and the “Language Dispute”
The Establishment of the Hebrew School 501–551
The decline of the Yiddish school and the rise of the Hebrew schools
Teacher training
The Institute for Female Teachers and Educators Training in Kishinev
The growth and development of the Hebrew School
The legal basis to the existence of the National School
The first Tarbut congress
Cultural events
The forceful Romanization and urgent meetings
The second Tarbut congress
The “Private Education Bill” in Parliament
Differences of viewpoint among the Jews concerning the teaching – language
The daring struggle in the Parliament and the speeches of the Jewish representatives against the Anghelescu scheming
Victory in theory; in fact – the persecution continues
Hopes and Disappointments 552–574
The hope for changes in the law by the “National Farmers Party” and the disappointment
Lights and shadows
The Third Tarbut Congress
The query of M. Landau to the new minister Constachescu
Bill – proposals by parliamentary initiative
A Proposal to the Zionist Congress to Create a “World Cultural Fund” 575–580
The “Joint” and its Attitude toward the Hebrew School 581–582
The Activities of the Tarbut Center 583–590
Publication of school books
Inspection and training
The “Food Project” for school children
Summer camps for teachers
The Literature Project for pupils and adults
Cultural Projects by Individuals 591–593
Aid from Abroad: Brit Ivrit Olamit (World Hebrew Alliance), Yitzhak Grinboim 593–594
N. Sokolov Visit at the “Magen David” High – School 594–596
The History of the Hebrew High School in Beltz (Bălţi) 596–597
The Tarbut – School libel in Soroca 597–599
Teachers Congresses in 1932 and 1935 599–603
A Festive Commemoration of the First Decade of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem 603
A Threefold Council and the Creation of New School – Curricula 604–608
Fluctuations in the Jewish Educational System in the 22 Years of its Existence 609–612
On the organization of the communities – speeches in the Senate and Parliament by Dr. Meir Ebner and Michael Landau 613–624
Representation in Parliament – the speeches of Rabbi Tzirelsohn, Dr. Meir Ebner, Dr. Theodore Fischer and Dr. Sami Singer 625–635
On the National Education – a Memorandum from the Tarbut – Center to the Government, the speeches of Rabbi Tzirelsohn, Nathan Lerner, Dr. Adolf Stern, Dr. Yakov Pistiner and Att. Meir Landau 636–659
The Proclamation of the Zionist Organizations Calling to Rescue the Hebrew School fron its financial distress 660–661
Certificates and other Documents 662–674
Milestones in the History of the Tarbut Movement 675–682
Table of Certificates and Documents 683
List of Names and Topics 685–713
Bibliography 715–719
Errata 720
Table of Contents (English) 722–728
Separate page – numbering of photographs on chromo paper – 80 pages


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