In the spring of 1931 Beitar decided to leave the General HeHalutz and to start the National HeHalutz which later became the Beitar HeHalutz. It took advantage of the Pessah holiday to start a separate parallel fundraising campaign.
This decision created a lot of conflict between the organizations and damaged the traditional fundraising campaigns. In 1930 the fund reached 249,617 lei, while in 1931 it dropped to 206,169 Lei.
|Total: 224,847 Lei|
In Bessarabia the proceeds were 161,609 Lei, in Bucovina 10,900 Lei and in Regat (Romania) 33,660 Lei while the Beitar fundraising champagne raised 44,651 in Bessarabia alone.
After the Beitar split from HeHalutz, in the summer of 1931, there were 42 members left (34 in factories in Jassy and 8 in Beltz) compared to 350 members of the General HeHalutz as reported by the National Office in Bucharest on 5 July, 1931.
In order to ease the financial difficulties of the Massada farm, a professional was hired to run the farm. He decided to pay 13 Lei per day to 16 people in the winter and 20 Lei per day to 50 people in the summer. These measures curbed the cultural and educational activities and caused a lot of unhappiness among the trainees.
The Jassy farm hired a professional manager who worked as a volunteer and hired an instructor at minimal wage. The trainees received 40 lei per day in the winter and 30 Lei per day in the summer. All plans for expansion were cancelled, but at the end of the year the farm had a 50,000 Lei gain.
The financial situation of Massada improved in the summer of 1932 when the Government passed the Conversion Law and made it possible for the farmers to postpone loan payments or repay them with no interest over long periods. Despite these measures, Massada had to give up 2030 hectares, hire the halutzim to work for minimum wages and sell the produce cheaply. In 1946 Massada gave up all its lands.
This Council took place on 78 Sivan 5692 (1112 June 1932) in Kishinev in a very gloomy atmosphere. The Council took the following decision:
The Council draw written bylaws to replace to oral tradition in the organization.
The following list, signed off by Dov Frank and Yeshayahu Volvitch from 9 September 1932, shows the HeHalutz immigrants and their settlement locations from April to September 1932.
Gordonia Aleph and the Group Bet core in Hedera
Core of the Shomer HaTzair Kibbutz in Haifa
Shomer HaTzair Kibbutz in Magdiel
Shomer HaTzair Group Gimel in Haifa
Place of absorption unknown
The increase in the Schedule for immigration permits at the beginning of 5693 (1933) (October 1932March 1933) came as great news for the HeHalutz organization at a time when immigration to Eretz Israel was an escape from the rising antiSemitism in Romania. It became clear that the training can't be diminished at this moment. After the summer seasonal work on the fields and in the vineyards finished, HeHalutz organized urban working groups in various factories. This saved the youth from being idle and also gave them a good income such as 5080 Lei per hour in factories in Beltz. In Galatz they received work in factories and in the port and the community and the Friends of HeHalutz collected money to set up a training farm (it set up only in 1935). For the first time, a training group was organized in Transylvania in a factory in Targul Mures and the trainees were promised permanent work for the entire year. This group organized 25 people from the Shomer HaTzair for Group Aliyah 2. In the spring of 1934 more than 1,000 people waiting for immigration were placed in training.
In the spring of 1934 the group Brissiyah of college youth from Transylvania joined HeHalutz and for the first time HeHalutz set up a special training group for Tzeirei Zion in Yenautz in Bessarabia.
Maccabi in Bessarabia was successful in strengthening its ties with the rest of the country's Maccabi and secured training placements for its members. Influenced by this growth, the members of Dror became eager to participate in training.
In the spring training season 1,600 joined HeHalutz. Despite being short of staff since 1933, HeHalutz managed to place 1,000 people and by July 1933 the number of trainees reached 1,532 (organized in 46 groups). By harvest season the numbers grew even more.
From the beginning the organization of the training groups was based on the members' affiliation with the objective being group immigration. This is the first time in the history of the HeHalutz in Romania that the training has achieved such a big outreach. HeAtid (The Future), issue 45 of 28 Av 5693 (1933) published this table:
|HaShomer HaTzair||432 members|
|Poalei Zion||168 members|
|Tzeirei Zion||12 members|
|Placement of the halutzim:|
|Independent farms (Massada, Jassy)||64 members|
|Permanent training groups||118 members|
|Seasonal training groups||1,350 members|
The following figures show the development of the Halutz movement in Romania:
|To: 15 October 1927||496 members|
|To: 15 September 1930||3,932 members|
|To: 15 July 1933||8,200 members|
The number of trainees in Romania grew mainly at the end of the summer during harvest time in the orchards and vineyards. The numbers at the end of September 1933 shown in the table below were used in the Schedule for the immigration permits.
|HeHalutz Clal Zioni||10||422||12.0|
|Halutzei Agudat Israel||4||139||4.0|
The distribution of permits from the Schedule of AprilSeptember 1934 was made according to the results from the summer before. This table shows the distribution of the 195 permits according to affiliation:
The growth in training changed the geographical composition of the membership. In 5691(1931), 60% of the trainees were from Bessarabia, but in the spring of 5693 (1933) the percentage dropped to 50% and in the summer of 1933 it reached only 40%. There are no numbers regarding the halutzim from Bucovina, the Regat and Transylvania.
Beitar did not approve of the method of distribution of immigration permits according to membership numbers in each group. During the distribution of the certificates from the 1933 Schedulein Bucharest, the Beitar delegation stormed out in protest from the meeting with the director of the Immigration Department, H. Barlas. They also protested at the offices of the HeHalutz Centre in Bucharest, at the Gordonia office in, at the Shomer HaTzair office in Jassy and even turned to violence, destroying furniture and documents.
The conflict continued during the HeHalutz Week over the Pessah holiday in 1934 when the Bender branch of Beitar published a very malicious pamphlet which upset the entire Jewish community. Further to that, on October 1933, Beitar issued a secret order forbidding its members from using the permits issued directly by the government. Beitar preferred to distribute the permits by itself and did not answer the calls from the Jewish Agency to cooperate and cancel the order that undermined the position of the Agency with the Mandatory Government.
The Agency was forced to reverse the rights of Beitar to receive the group immigration permits and decided that permits will be given to individuals if they graduated from the training.
The reaction of Beitar's membership to this decision was reported at the Zionist Congress of 5697 (1937). In the summer of 1938, Beitar's executive, A. Profess, tried to negotiate a remedy to this problem and came to an arrangement with the Headquarters in Bucharest:
Before the Congress the factions organized the candidate lists and alliances. Gordonia ran on the same ticket with Tzeirei Zion, HaShomer HaTzair, Poalei Zion and Maccabi.
The Congress was scheduled to take place on 13 December, 1933, but
in the evening of the opening the Prime Minister of Romania, Duca was assassinated and the opening was cancelled. A new permit was obtained in Kishinev for the 35 January 1934, but only for half days.
When the numerical equality was achieved by Gordonia and Shomer HaTzair within the HeHalutz the following resolutions were approved:
Among the participants were: Zeev Feinshtein (Shefer) from the International Centre of HeHalutz, I. Reznichenku (Araz), and the representatives from Eretz Israel Ben Zion Gafni, Itzchack Givoni, Moshe Horowitz, Aharon Cohen, Zeev Meshi and Menachem Shadmi.
From right to left sitting: Shmuel Kushnir, Dov Pertmuter, Elkana Margalit, Menachem Rolel, Tzwi Yotam
Standing: Tzwi Butnik, Sheftel Tzukerman (Naamani), Meier Zaitz (Zait), Tzwi Pinkenzon (Gershoni) D. Haimovich
From right to left sitting: Krasiuk, Akiva Greenberg, P. Levon, M. Oved, B. Milgrom, Standing: David Beit Din, Yaffe, Aharon Krasiuk, Advocate Gendler, Tzwi Akerman (Ekroni)
From right to left sitting: Dov Shafrir, Shimshon Shechter, Zeev Meshi, Zeev Bloch, Standing: I. Kaplan, Sincha Barski, Abraham Bronshtein, M. Shoshani, Schreibman, Joseph Finkelshtein
From right to left sitting: Aharon Cohen, M. Gafni, Zeev Meshi, Zeev Shafer, Yitzchak Givoni, Moshe Horovitz (from Eretz Israel)
Standing: Yacov Sharf, Joseph Shitz (Magen) Tzwi Pinkenzon (Gershoni), Simcha Linder, Chana Shdemi, Z. Chiut, Menachem Shdemi (representative), Z. Maimon, Unknown, Moshe Gertzberg
From right to left: Grisha Leivant (Tzwi Lavie), Tzwi Schwartzman (Shahori), I. Givoni, Moniya Rotshtein, David Solomon (Hadeni), Nusiya Friedel (Natan Peled)
From right to left sitting: Joseph Shinder, Joseph Shitz (Magen), H. Goldman, Israel Samt, Buziya Baruch Lemberg
Standing: Fuks, Mordechai Faierman (Rashpi), Shechter
From bottom to top from right to left sitting: I. Portnoi, Unknown, Shteinshluger, M. Buzinian, Gandelman, Sh. Lichtman, Dushker
Second row, sitting: I. Sofer, M. Portnoi, I. Kiprenky, I. Weisman, B. Lemberg, D. Munder, S. Buzinian, H. Portnoi, Unknown
Third row, standing: Unknown, L. Meizler, 2 Unknowns
Upper row: I. Kolik, Unknown, A. Balan, LIkudriatz, S. Fudman, Ab. Portnoi, Shteinshluger, Pilersky, S. Hanenis, B. Buzinian
(From the book: D. Sinai Orgheiev bebnina vehurbana, (Orgheiev, its Building and Destruction, Tel Aviv, 5719, 1959)
HeHaluth Tzeirei Mizrachi, Romania, Camina, 5690, 1931
Second row, middle from left to right, sitting: 1. BenZion Vilkir, 2. Unknown, 3. Hanoch Yorev , 4. Meshulam Kamin, 5. Rozenthal, 67. Unknown
First row top, 5th in the middle: Aharon Weisman
From bottom to top: First row, from right to left: 1. Chaim Boyer, 2. BenZion Vilkir, 3. Unknown, 4. Joseph Lutvak, 5. Hanoch Yorev, 6. Joseph Appel, 7. Unknown, 8. Ytzchack Volonov, 9. Shapira
Second row: 1. Unknown. 2. Israel Schechter, 3. David Katz, 4. Israel Zinger, 5. Rabbi Baruch Hager, 6. Abraham Boyer, 7. Simcha Smoliar, 8. Abraham Kopelman
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