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National Press

Translated by Sheli Fain

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Blank

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First efforts

After the separation from Russia, there were efforts to establish an independent Jewish newspaper. The beginnings were full of failures, because the Jews of Kishinev did not have any roots in public activism (Der Morgen –The Morning– in 1919) and did not have a definite national tone (Dos Bassaraber Leben – Bessarabia Life – 1919 and Dos Vort – The Word – 1921).

These newspapers were short–lived; the moment they appeared they had to fold. There were also special editions issued by the various party factions with the occasion of special events, but these did not reach a wide public.

What we do have are the central newspapers established by the joint forces of the public institutions or central parties for the entire Bessarabia. The Jewish community public wars for rights were fought by the press, which was also an important factor in shaping the national and spiritual character of the people. They reflected the resolve and the ideology of the majority for national loyalty.

This nationalism was expressed by:

  1. community institutions, the educational and cultural institutions and the social assistance organization
  2. civic life – in the municipal councils and tribunals
  3. concern for the building of Eretz Israel
There are a lot of inconsistencies regarding the Jewish press and the reader should be aware of them [1]

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1. Der Yidd (The Jew) – daily newspaper

First issue 26 April 1920, in Kishinev. It was published by a private publisher with the assistance of the Zionists. The editor was Moshe Postman, one of the founders of Tzeirei Zion in the period after the First World War. Advocate Michael Landau, one of the leaders of the Tzeirei Zion in Romania, who transferred to Kishinev, was appointed

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secretary of the editorial board and then to general manager. In the winter of 1921, when Postman left for London, the editors were Yeshayahu Klinov, Yoseph Shechter and after that the editor was the writer Zalman Rosenthal. The secretary of the editorial board was Herman (Gershon) Swat. In February 1922 during the Parliamentary elections the newspaper abandoned its “nationalistic” tendencies and became a tool for the “liberal” propaganda. The majority of the editorial board resigned. The Tzeirei Zion declared a boycott against the paper and the majority of the Jewish public complied. The newspaper closed not long after that. Only 600 issues appeared. Issue 576 from 19 April 1922 was the last one.

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Notwithstanding the problems in the last month of its appearance, this newspaper played an important role in the Jewish community during the fists months of the Annexation of Bessarabia to Romania. It was a faithful guide, shed light and provided security. It was an important source of news from Eretz Israel. It appeared in the days of the First Zionist Congress and it accompanied the movement in all its future developments.

 

2. Erd und Arbeit (Land and Work)

This newspaper was the organ of the Tzeirei Zion (Union) Party. The name served as a symbol of the platform of the party. It was a continuation of the newspaper of the Tzirei Zion which started in Kharkov in February 1918. It first appeared in Kishinev on 24 Kislev 5681 (December 12, 1920), as a biweekly folio size journal of 16–20 pages. Starting with issue number 13 it became a weekly quarto size paper of 4 pages. The editorial board comprised of Moshe Postman, Asher Koralnik (editor in chief of the first 2 issues and issues 11–39, Chaim Shorer and Leib Glantz (editor in chief for issues 3–10).

In March 1922, the Tzeirei Zion decided to publish a daily paper (Undzer Tzeit/Our Time), the Erd und Arbeit ceased publication with issue number 39 in July 5, 1922.

Two years after, there was a conflict between the Central Committee of Tzeirei Zion and the general manager of Undzer Tzeit, advocate Michael Landau and his friend Shmuel Yasky about the influence of the party over the newspaper and as a result, Erd und Arbeit appeared again in January 9, 1925. This time the editor in chief was Leib Glantz and the editorial board included: Advocate Tzvi Heinichs (who came from Beltz to Kishinev), Israel Skwirsky and Shimshon Shechter (who came from Chernovits to manage the He–Halutz).

When Glantz and Heinichs left Kishinev Tzvi Akerman (Ekroni) and Isar Rabinovich joined the editorial board. In the spring of 1929 until the end of 1933, Erd und Arbeit did not appear regularly because of financial difficulties. Last issue was no. 25 of 30 Nissan 5689 (1929). In total there were

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213 issues, plus 4 special issues publish with the occasion of “Party Day” on Lag b'Omer (33 Omer) 5681 (1921), 5682 (1922), 5683 (1923) and 5684 (1924) to a total of 217 numbers.

With the exception of one special edition published by the Union of Eretz Israel Workers in June 1, 1931,

no other issues of the Erd und Arbeit, published between the spring of 1929 and December 1933, were found in libraries or archives.

Erd und Arbeit appeared again, sporadically in December 15, 1933. Until its 15th anniversary, in December 20, 1935, 22 issues were published. In this period the editors were: Dr. M. Kotik, Isar Rabinovich and Advocate Itzchak Koren (starting with issue no. 3 of February 1934). The anniversary issue of 22 pages appeared one month before the United Congress of Tzeirei Zion and Poalei Zion. With this last issue Erd und Arbeit had approximately 250–260 issues.

After the amalgamation of the two parties and until the party published its bi–weekly “Tribune” (Bucharest March 1, 1937) instead of Erd und Arbeit, a onetime publication “Noch der farainingung” (After the Amalgamation) was published. The editors were B.I. Duchovny (Michali), B. Milgrom, Sh. Parish and Dr. M. Kotik.

The first issues of Erd und Arbeit dedicated a series of theoretical articles entitled “Programming Materials” in order to clarify the platform of the popular faction Tzeirei Zion, which became since then an independent party. Some of these articles were written by Moshe Postman, before he left Bessarabia for London.

The newspaper did not publish daily news, but provided editorials related to the Zionist socialist activities. Some editorials dealt with critical topics such as: The false illusions of the Zionist politics; The speculation with lands in Eretz Israel; The contempt for the Jewish work; The Activities of the Public and Zionist organizations in Romania; The hold of the “Korobka [2]” on the Jewish street; The fight for the organization of Jewish communities; The Political parties in Romania, etc.

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Erd und Arbeit helped with the Halutziut (Pioneering) in Eretz Israel. It fought for Jewish education in the Diaspora and for the rights for the general Hebrew school.

This newspaper had great financial difficulties because of the deteriorating economic situation of the Jewish communities, but it fulfilled its national designs in accordance with its principles regarding the working Eretz Israel.

 

3. Undzer Tzeit (Our Time)

Daily newspaper established as a “share” by the Central Committee of the Tzirei Zion (100 Lei per share) and distributed all over Bessarabia started in August 16, 1922. The manager was Advocate Michael Landau. Nachum M. Roitman, chairman of the Council of the Cooperatives in Bessarabia and secretary of the Zionist Post Bureau in Galil, was appointed chairman. Chaim Weissadler was the vice–chairman. The editorial board had the following members: Eliyahu Ortenberg, Tzvi Torkanovsky, Shmuel Yasky and David Polianer. Starting in 1925, the editors were Zalman Rosenthal and Shimon Ortenberg.

The editor in chief was Itzchak Isaak Weisman (Bar–Levi). When Weisman went to Eretz Israel in 1924 the writer Zalman Rosenthal became the editor and served until the newspaper folded. At the beginning of 1938 the following people worked there: Advocate Michael Landau, advocate Yoseph Lerner (Liron), Israel Weinshtein (“Idel Melamed”), the writers Abraham Epshtein, Yacov Botoshansky, Mordechai Goldenberg, Shlomo Hilleles, Itzik Manger, Yacov Fichman (who was

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the literary editor), Yacov Kutsher, M. Sheikovich and Eliezer Shteinman. The following writers published their works in the newspaper: Shniur Avrus, the poet Efraim Averbuch, Tzvi Akerman (Ekroni), V. Gamerman (Hamerman), Efraim Davidson, Tzvi Cholodenko, Moshe Pintchevsky, M. Fridman, Chaim Rabinzon, Beni Shneider, and the publicist Dr. Abraham Koralnik.

In the first years, members of the Zionist committee – Leib Glantz, Nachman Huberman, Yacov Wasserman, Nachum Tultchinsky (Tal), Dr. Yoseph Sapir, Asher Koralnik, M Yakinson, David Rablesky and others contributed regularly without pay to the paper. In the 1930s among the columnists were: B. I. Duchovny (Michali), David Vinitzky, Yeshayahu Vinitzky, Meir Kotik, Leib Kupershtein, Itzchak Koren, Isar Rabinovich and others.

Among the regular foreign correspondents were: Sh. I. Dorfzon, Herman Swat, Sh. Piker and Yeshayahu Klonger. Z. Goldstein served as writer in residence in Bucharest for the last two years.

For the 15 years of existence, Undzer Tzeit was the loyal herald of the Jews of Bessarabia and Romania, and supported them in times of tragedy and distress, fought for the equal rights of the Jewish minority, served as instrument for expression for all the Zionist movement factions and fought for the national idea and building of Eretz Israel. It united the Jewish public from all sectors to keep and defend all its positive qualities and not give in to the “angels of destruction.”

When Hitler rose to power the first decree was to ban all progressive newspapers and especially the papers written in the minority languages. The last issue of Undzer Tzeit, Number 4585, appeared on February 18, 1938.

Instantly, one of the most trusted source of information disappeared and with that the connection between the large cities and the rest of the country.

The connection was re–established by bulletins printed by the Zionist Central Committee in Kishinev, but they were unable to fulfill the thirst of the public for daily news about the Jewish world events.

 

4. Children's journals

Farn Yiddishen Kind” (For the Jewish Child) – children's magazine. It appeared for the first time on Passover eve 5685 (1925) as an irregular supplement of the daily Undzer Tzeit. It had about 8–20 pages.

Until the middle

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of 1928 when it stopped appearing there were 18 issues. It started publishing again in August 1935, but it ceased publication with issue 11–12 (29–30) in July 1936. The editor was Zalman Rosenthal. Mordechai Goldenberg and Mendel (Mendik) Fridman were regular collaborators. Fridman was also the graphic editor. The magazine dealt with national, social and cultural issues.

 

5. The Zionist press

Zionist Federation of Bessarabia News” – the official publication of the Central Committee of the Zionist Federation. It was printed on quarto size paper and had 4–8 pages. The first issue was published on 29 Tamuz 5682 (July 25, 1922). The editor was Tzvi Bonfeld, the secretary of the Zionist Federation. The last issue was number 4, of 10 Tevet, 5683 (December 29, 1922). This issue and issue number 3 had 8 pages each, 4 pages being dedicated to Keren Kayemet l'Israel.

This publication did not deal with local news (for local news, people depended on Undzer Tzeit) and the majority of the content dealt with Eretz Israel news, which did not get enough exposure in the local papers.

The Zionist Federation also published occasional bulletins – especially during the Congresses: “Folk und Land” (People and Land) in 1933 and the Bulletin of the Zionist Federation in Bessarabia issued during the 21st Zionist Congress. Unfortunately none of these bulletins was saved.

 

6. The Press of the Revisionist Zionist Alliance

The Revisionist Zionist Alliance did not have a publication with a permanent title. During 5687–5693 (1927–1933) it published a series of newsletters, each time with a different title:

  1. Oif der Vach” (On Guard). The first issue appeared in Kishinev on 27 Shvat 5687 (January 30, 1927). It was printed on quarto size paper and had 16 pages. The editor was Michael Yachinsky and the manager was B. Dubinsky. The last issue the author consulted was Number 7 of 11 Shvat 5690 (1930), printed on folio paper and containing 4 pages.
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  1. Undzer Kampf” (Our Struggle). First number appeared on June 14, 1933 and the second on June 27, 1933. Both had 2 pages each and were dedicated to the elections for the Zionist Congress.
  2. Bessarabie haint” (Bessarabia Today). This daily published on folio size paper had 2 pages. It was published in Kishinev starting on July 7, 1933. Last issue reviewed was number 9 from July 22, 1933. It was solely dedicated to the election for the Zionist Congress. The catalogue of M. Beit David (Davidson) indicates that Bessarabie Haint was a weekly and it was published in Beltz in 1934. Last issue has number 18 and it is not clear if this weekly was the continuation of the daily that appeared in Kishinev or it is a new publication.

 

7. Publication of the National Funds (Keren Kayemet and Keren Hayesod)

The national office of the Keren Kayemet l'Israel published each year special illustrated issues with the occasion of the holiday of Lag b'Omer (33 Omer) and 20 Tamuz. Some were supplements to the “Undzer Tzait” and “Erd un Arbeit” and some were special publicity brochures. They published articles by the leaders of the World movement, by leaders of the national movement and leaders of the youth organizations.

The Office of the Keren Hayesod published special bulletins with the occasion of their fundraising campaign during the Rosh HaShana (Jewish New Year) holiday when people had money from the harvest and were inclined to generously donate to the fund.

More than 50 special bulletins and publicity pamphlets were published from 5681 (1921) until 5698 (1938), when the authorities banned the publications in Hebrew and Yiddish.

In order to cover the empty void left by the publication ban in 1938, the two funds were forced to publish together their bulletins to be sent to the activists and to donors. These bulletins were published monthly from March 20, 1939 to June 11, 1940. Each bulletin had about 8 to 12 pages. Officially these bulletins were called circulars of the Zionist Federation, whose activities

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were encouraged by the authorities, because the money collected was also allocated to help the Jews leave Romania.

In total 10 bulletins were published, 9 of them were edited by Dr. Pinchas Beltzen. When Beltzen went to Eretz Israel, Zalman Rosenthal took over and edited the last bulletin.

 

8. Publications of the Central Committee of Tarbut
  1. Tarbut” (Culture) – Official publication of the Central Committee of the Tarbut organization in Kishinev. It had about 16 to 32 pages. During 5682 – 5688 (1922–1928) 4 issues were published with the occasion of the Congresses and the “Culture Months”. With the occasion of special cultural events and at the beginning of the school year, they published supplements in the Yiddish newspapers. These publications were instrumental in the struggle against the government's racist policies against the Hebrew schools and fought for the survival of the Hebrew schools.
    The editor was Nachum Tultchinsky (Tal) for pamphlet 1–3 and David Vinitzky for pamphlet 4.
  2. Eshkolot” (Collections) – was a monthly illustrated children's magazine published by Tarbut in cooperation with Undzer Tzeit. It had 32 pages. During 1927– 1929 6 issues were published, first on 1 Nisan 5687 (1927) and the last one on Adar/Nisan 5689 (1929). The editor was Zalman Rosenthal and the permanent contributors were I. Pinchas and I. Kutsher. The graphic editor was Mendel (Mendik) Fridman. This magazine became known for its exceptional literary and esthetic qualities and was praised around the Jewish world.
  3. Prudot” (Fragments) – a collection of literary and educational articles – appeared first time in 5694 (1934). It contained 686 pages. The editors were Yacov Kotshar and Zalman Rosenthal. Almost the entire group of Hebrew writers in Romania collaborated; among them many writers who came from Bessarabia. There were special editions dedicated to translations of Romanian writers, detailed surveys of the Hebrew education situation in Bessarabia, Bucovina and Transylvania.
    Because of the grim financial situation, the Tarbut organization was not able to continue this publication. In 5699 (1939) “Prudot” was replaced with the magazine “Min Ha–Tzad” (On the Side).
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  1. Min ha–Tzad” (On the Side) –was published by the Central Committee for education, culture and literature of the Tarbut organization and it contained about 60 pages on double columns. The first magazine appeared in the spring of 5699 (1939), the second one appeared on 22 Sivan 5700 (June 28, 1940), the day the Russian Red Army marched into Kishinev, and Bessarabia was annexed to the Soviet Union. This issue remained at the printer and Tarbut could not deliver it. No one knows if it was ever sent and registered by a library in the Soviet Union. The editors were K. A. Bertini, David Vinitzky and Zalman Rosenthal.
    This magazine reflected the enormous efforts of the working class in general and the teachers in particular to maintain the Hebrew schools despite the difficult legal situation created by Romania in her increased cooperation with the Nazis. The magazine also published literary works by the Hebrew writers in Bessarabia and Romania.
    In the same time in Beltz, Tarbut published “Shurot” (Lines) edited by Leib Kupershtein. It had about 32 pages and was dedicated to the Hebrew education and literature. The first issue appeared on Shvat 5695 (1935) and the last one, number 22, appeared on Kislev 5698 (December 1937). After the Hebrew and Yiddish press was banned, Kupershtein published at the beginning of 5699 (1939) a collection entitled “Odim” (Firebrand). Only two issues of a total 182 pages were published. The persistence of Kupershtein in publishing the magazine shows that the Hebrew language played an important role in the expression of nationalism and also in the education of the young Jewish generation in Romania.
    The following people were regular contributors to “Shurot” and “Odim:” K.A. Bertini, Mordechai Goldenberg, Chaim Huchman, B. I. Duchovny (Michali) and Zalman Rosenthal.
    Duchovny (Michali) participated in the publication of “Shurot” and in the publication of the first issue of “Odim,” after which he left the magazine.

 

9. Publications of the “He–Halutz”
  1. Shavuah He–Halutz” (The He–Halutz Week) – a special annual Yiddish publication published in Kishinev around Passover time. It had 4 pages,
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    and was a free supplement of the daily “Undzer Tzeit” and “Erd und Arbeit.” It first appeared on Passover 5682 (1922) and was entitled “He–Halutz,” after that it appeared under the name “Shavuah He–Halutz.”
    The last issue we have was from Passover 5697 (1937). No issues from 5695 and 5696 (1935 and 1936) were found in Israel. It is possible that there were 15 issues published all together. This journal was dedicated to the He–Halutz movement and the traditional annual fundraising campaign. The journal had a variety of articles that provided a summary of all the movement's activities during the year and editorials written by the leaders of differant factions; the history of the movement, a review of the training farms (the Hahsharah), the situation of the Kibbutz and workshops training, the status of immigration and the groups of immigrants of that year, etc.
    Combined, these publications present a wide picture of He–Halutz history and activities in Romania.
  1. Alim” (Leaves): Internal publication of the Central Committee of He–Halutz in Kishinev. It had 16–32 folio size pages. It was first published on demand in 5685 (1925). The last issue, number 31, appeared on Tamuz 5690 (July 1930). Issue number 3 (we think that the numbering started again at the beginning of 1931) is dated February– March 1932 and issue number 7 is dated May 1933. It's safe to assume that the total number of issues were close to 40. This magazine had a treasure of detailed information about the divers He–Halutz activities such as training/ qualification, visits from representatives from Eretz Israel, and the local instructors, education and social life, immigration and about the youth organizations in the general Pioneer movement. Many articles dealt with details of the everyday life at the Hahsharah centres, the work conditions, the assistance given by the “Friends of He–Halutz” and the situation of the individual in the community, etc.
  2. Ha–Noar” (The Youth) was the monthly journal of the United Youth Committee of He–Halutz and the Keren Kayemet Le'Israel. It was published in Hebrew and Yiddish. It had about 12 pages with double columns. The first issue was published on Kislev 5686 (1925). The editor of the first issue was Sh. Givoni (Kfar Gilaadi), representative of the Keren Kayemet. The last issue was published in March 1926. The regular contributors were: Hirsh (Tzvi) Akerman,
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    (Ekroni), Mordechai Goldenberg, Haim Lerner (Lior), Yakov Kotshar and Shmuel Shapira.
  1. Leket” (Compilation), a magazine of about 12–24 pages contained collections of articles from the Hebrew and Yiddish press. It started publishing monthly during the summer of 1934, probably as a replacement for the “Alim.” Its scope was to provide summaries of news to all those who did not have time to read the numerous journals published at the time. The issue number 11 which is held at the library of the Beit Lohamei ha–Getaot (The Ghetto Fighters' Museum) is dated April 1935.
  2. Information Bulletin” (Hebrew) started publishing on May 1935 and had about 24–32 pages. In the first issue it was explained that the scope of the Bulletin was to fill in the gaps left by the “Leket” and bring more information to the readers. This bulletin did not last too long; the last issue was published in March 1936.
  3. Shorashim” (Roots). This magazine had an intellectual ideological tendency. It was published in Hebrew and Yiddish and had about 18–28 pages. Its scope was to help people who were preparing for the life in Eretz Israel, understand the roots of the Jewish philosophy from the Renaissance to the Haskalah and Hasidism until the Labour movement in Eretz Israel. It strived to awaken the interest in the original sources and books and to familiarize the people with the thinkers and writers of the “Rebirth Movement.” The first issue was published on Sivan 5697 (1937) and the last issue, number 5 in Tishrei 5698 (1938).
    During the 1930s the movement spread to the Romanian “Regat” and Transylvania where the youth was not fluent in Yiddish or Hebrew it became necessary to publish some journals in Romanian and Hungarian.
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10.“Tzeit Fragen” (Current Questions)

Tzeit Fragen was a bi–monthly publication of the “Binian ha–Aretz” (Homeland Building) organization which was the new name of the united organization of Tzeirei Zion and Poalei Tzion in Kishinev. This journal had about 34–76 pages and started on September 1938. The last issue (number 12) was published in May 1940 about a month before the annexation of Bessarabia to Soviet Russia. It served the public after the press in Yiddish and Hebrew ended. In order to hide from censorship it had a small format and had to change the name from time to time. It appeared under the names: Tzeit Fragen (Current Questions), Actualen Fragen (Present Questions), Zionistishe Problemen (Zionist Issues). It contained editorials and stories with Eretz Israel topics. Berl Milgrom, Yitzkhak Korn and Zalman Rosenthal were the editors and Tzvi Weisenberg and Isar Rabinovich were members of the editorial board. Z. Egres (Igret), K.A. Bertini, H. Hochman, D. Vinitzky, Dr. M. Kotik and L. Kupershtein were among the regular contributors.

 

11. The Religious Press
  1. Der Fonk” (The Spark) – was a “weekly non–affiliated social–political and sports magazine.” It was published in Kishinev by Nakhman Huberman and contained 10–18 pages. Its slogan was: “to defend the interest of the people and its religious–national and social–cultural needs; to pay attention to the religious–national and social–cultural activities of all Jewish parties.”
    The first issue (number 1–2) was published on 22 Av 5684 (22 August 1924). The last issue, the number 5, was published on 13 Elul 5684 (12 September 1924). This weekly had only 5 issues.
  2. Di Voch” (The Week) – the organ of the religious patriotic Jewry in Bessarabia was a weekly, edited by Joseph Appelboim, secretary of the Agudat Israel in Bessarabia. It had about 4 pages and the first issue appeared on 25 Tamuz 5688 (13 July 1928) which was the last year of the struggle between
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    the religious and the secular people for elections for the Constituent Assembly. The scope of the publication was to defend the image of the future community, which will be strictly religious without voting rights for the women and for men under 21 and to prepare the people for the first election (November 1928).
    In 1928 they published 10 issues (1–10) and in 1929, 53 (11–64). The last issue, number 92, was dated 7 Menachem–Av 5690 (1 August 1930). This paper had many financial difficulties and even stopped publication for three months, from 7 Adar to 25 Yiar 5690 (issues 82–83). In issue 92 Rabbi Tzirelson published an appeal to all readers to come together and save the journal from collapse.

 

12. The Social Press

Dos Cooperative Vort” (The Cooperative Word) was the monthly official publication of the Jewish Cooperative Union of Bessarabia. The editorial board had the following members: I. Pagis, N.M. Roitman and I. Radoliansky, the chief editor for the first two years and after that M. Sharand took over the paper. It had 16–20 pages. The first 12 issues, from July 1925 to June 1926, were supplements for the daily “Undzer Tzeit” in Kishinev. From June 1926 it became an independent paper. In the first years, it had a circulation of 2,000–3,000 copies and in 1931 it reached a circulation of 7,500 copies. When the situation in Bessarabia worsened, the circulation dropped to 4,000–4,500 copies.

The best activists from the cooperative movement such as Prof. V. Tatamiantz, the economist S. Sokolovsky, the agronomist Chaim Feigin, Dr. I. Bikhen, a known activist, M. Zabarsky, the poet Mordechai Goldberg (aka Zlatogorsky) and Moshe Altman contributed regularly to this publication.

The scope of this journal was to instill in the public the ideals of solidarity and cooperation and reflected the activities of the 41 credit unions from across Bessarabia (by the way, 13 credit unions had libraries and two had reading rooms set up to serve the cultural needs of the population. The journal

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also circulated among the 24 credit unions in the Regat (Romania) and the 11 credit unions in Bucovina and starting in 1933 it published a supplement in Romanian. It replaced on the masthead the word Bessarabia with the word Romania. It served the cooperative movement in Romania for more than 13 years.

Last issue consulted by the author (number 11–12 /149–150) was from December 1937.

With the raise to power of the anti–Semitic party of Goga–Cuza at the end of December 1937 all publications in the minority languages closed down in February 1938.


Footnotes:

  1. A list of newspapers in Romania arranged by Shlomo Solomon Roman (from Roman, Romania) appears in “Philologishe Shriften,” (Writings in Philology), Vol 3, Vilna, 5689 (1929). Unfortunately, the author did not make the effort to receive the titles and information about the newspapers in Bessarabia from first hand sources. He also did not try to contact the publishers of the newspapers, which would have given him the necessary information. It is very sad, because at that time he could have had the information even about the newspapers that ceased to exist. Also the information in the book “Yiddishe Literatur in Romenie, Kronologishe Iberblik” (Yiddish Literature in Romania – Chronological Survey) by Natan Mark, Haifa 5731 (1971) is very sketchy sometimes. The esteemed author could have received more details in the libraries and archives in Israel. Here are some examples from Natan Mark's book:
    1. Page 81 – 1925: Entry 4: “Ha–Noar” (The Youth). Kishinev. No. 1 – December. 5: “Forn Yiddishe Kind” (For the Jewish Child), Kishinev, No. 1 – April 1. There is no mention when this journal ceased to exist and how many issues of Ha–Noar were published. Entry 7: “Erd und Arbet” (Earth and Work), Kishinev; Official publication of the Tzeirei Zion Party in Bessarabia, published until 1933. It is a known fact that the first issue of this journal appeared in 5681, 20 December 1920, as a bi–weekly. The date of publication was 1925 but the author entered it as 1933.
    2. Page 83 – 1927: Entry 5: “Oif der Vach” (On Guard), Kishinev. The author guesses that it lasted two years. The dates could have been easily checked, no guesses were necessary.
    3. Page 97 – 1933: Entry 6: Undzer Veg (Our Road), Kishinev. No other information is given.
    4. Pages 112 – 113 – 1937: Entry 7: Tribune – bi weekly, Bucharest. No. 1 – 14 March – No information about the number of issues and when it ceased to exist.
    5. Page 116 – 1938: Tzeit Frage (Questions of our Time) – a 50 page journal of the Zionist Union in Bessarabia. In the first issue it is noted that the journal was published by the Zionist Union Binian Ha–Aretz (Homeland Building), the name of the united Tzeirei Zion and Poalei Zion Parties. The first issue of 34 pages appeared in September 1938, the second one of 50 pages appeared in December 1938.
    6. Page 116 – 1939: Entry 25: Aktuale Problemen (Current Issues). Binian Ha–Aretz Publisher, Kishinev. The author did not mention that the journal had 76 pages. Binian Ha–Aretz was the name of the party and not the name of the publisher. The author did not mention that 5 booklets with the same name were published in 1939, and other 4 booklets with the same name appeared in 1940.
    7. Page 171 – Entry 92: – Israel Weinshtein, born in 27 December 1891, died in Transnistria. It is a known fact that Israel Weinshtein was arrested in July 1941 and was exiled to Siberia. He got sick on the difficult journey to Siberia and died in Irkutsk, Siberia.
    8. Same page, entry 94. Michael Yachinzon, born in 1894 in Kishinev – died in Transnistria. He is still alive and works at a journal in Israel.
    The bibliography of the book “The Bessarabia Jewry” by Yoseph I. Cohen, The World Union of Bessarabia Jewry and the Encyclopedia of the Diaspora, Jerusalem – Tel Aviv, 5731 (1971) is not complete and lacks many details. Return
  2. Korobka means a fund – it refers to public funds collected from the taxes on Kosher beef. The Korobka was established in the second half of the 19th century to replace the Agricultural councils closed by the authorities. The Korobka funds were intended to pay the debts of the Jewish Community to the government for the taxes and special mortgages. The remaining of the revenue was used to pay the rabbis and ritual slaughterers and to cover the government expenses to maintain the local schools and social institutions. In general, these funds were ruled by the “strongest” in the community without being elected. The term korobka was used in the cities while in smaller communities they were called “taxes.” Return

 

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