After the separation from Russia, there were efforts to establish an independent Jewish newspaper. The beginnings were full of failures, because the Jews of Kishinev did not have any roots in public activism (Der Morgen The Morning in 1919) and did not have a definite national tone (Dos Bassaraber Leben Bessarabia Life 1919 and Dos Vort The Word 1921).
These newspapers were shortlived; the moment they appeared they had to fold. There were also special editions issued by the various party factions with the occasion of special events, but these did not reach a wide public.
What we do have are the central newspapers established by the joint forces of the public institutions or central parties for the entire Bessarabia. The Jewish community public wars for rights were fought by the press, which was also an important factor in shaping the national and spiritual character of the people. They reflected the resolve and the ideology of the majority for national loyalty.
This nationalism was expressed by:
1. Der Yidd (The Jew) daily newspaper
First issue 26 April 1920, in Kishinev. It was published by a private publisher with the assistance of the Zionists. The editor was Moshe Postman, one of the founders of Tzeirei Zion in the period after the First World War. Advocate Michael Landau, one of the leaders of the Tzeirei Zion in Romania, who transferred to Kishinev, was appointed
secretary of the editorial board and then to general manager. In the winter of 1921, when Postman left for London, the editors were Yeshayahu Klinov, Yoseph Shechter and after that the editor was the writer Zalman Rosenthal. The secretary of the editorial board was Herman (Gershon) Swat. In February 1922 during the Parliamentary elections the newspaper abandoned its nationalistic tendencies and became a tool for the liberal propaganda. The majority of the editorial board resigned. The Tzeirei Zion declared a boycott against the paper and the majority of the Jewish public complied. The newspaper closed not long after that. Only 600 issues appeared. Issue 576 from 19 April 1922 was the last one.
Notwithstanding the problems in the last month of its appearance, this newspaper played an important role in the Jewish community during the fists months of the Annexation of Bessarabia to Romania. It was a faithful guide, shed light and provided security. It was an important source of news from Eretz Israel. It appeared in the days of the First Zionist Congress and it accompanied the movement in all its future developments.
2. Erd und Arbeit (Land and Work)
This newspaper was the organ of the Tzeirei Zion (Union) Party. The name served as a symbol of the platform of the party. It was a continuation of the newspaper of the Tzirei Zion which started in Kharkov in February 1918. It first appeared in Kishinev on 24 Kislev 5681 (December 12, 1920), as a biweekly folio size journal of 1620 pages. Starting with issue number 13 it became a weekly quarto size paper of 4 pages. The editorial board comprised of Moshe Postman, Asher Koralnik (editor in chief of the first 2 issues and issues 1139, Chaim Shorer and Leib Glantz (editor in chief for issues 310).
In March 1922, the Tzeirei Zion decided to publish a daily paper (Undzer Tzeit/Our Time), the Erd und Arbeit ceased publication with issue number 39 in July 5, 1922.
Two years after, there was a conflict between the Central Committee of Tzeirei Zion and the general manager of Undzer Tzeit, advocate Michael Landau and his friend Shmuel Yasky about the influence of the party over the newspaper and as a result, Erd und Arbeit appeared again in January 9, 1925. This time the editor in chief was Leib Glantz and the editorial board included: Advocate Tzvi Heinichs (who came from Beltz to Kishinev), Israel Skwirsky and Shimshon Shechter (who came from Chernovits to manage the HeHalutz).
When Glantz and Heinichs left Kishinev Tzvi Akerman (Ekroni) and Isar Rabinovich joined the editorial board. In the spring of 1929 until the end of 1933, Erd und Arbeit did not appear regularly because of financial difficulties. Last issue was no. 25 of 30 Nissan 5689 (1929). In total there were
213 issues, plus 4 special issues publish with the occasion of Party Day on Lag b'Omer (33 Omer) 5681 (1921), 5682 (1922), 5683 (1923) and 5684 (1924) to a total of 217 numbers.
With the exception of one special edition published by the Union of Eretz Israel Workers in June 1, 1931,
no other issues of the Erd und Arbeit, published between the spring of 1929 and December 1933, were found in libraries or archives.
Erd und Arbeit appeared again, sporadically in December 15, 1933. Until its 15th anniversary, in December 20, 1935, 22 issues were published. In this period the editors were: Dr. M. Kotik, Isar Rabinovich and Advocate Itzchak Koren (starting with issue no. 3 of February 1934). The anniversary issue of 22 pages appeared one month before the United Congress of Tzeirei Zion and Poalei Zion. With this last issue Erd und Arbeit had approximately 250260 issues.
After the amalgamation of the two parties and until the party published its biweekly Tribune (Bucharest March 1, 1937) instead of Erd und Arbeit, a onetime publication Noch der farainingung (After the Amalgamation) was published. The editors were B.I. Duchovny (Michali), B. Milgrom, Sh. Parish and Dr. M. Kotik.
The first issues of Erd und Arbeit dedicated a series of theoretical articles entitled Programming Materials in order to clarify the platform of the popular faction Tzeirei Zion, which became since then an independent party. Some of these articles were written by Moshe Postman, before he left Bessarabia for London.
The newspaper did not publish daily news, but provided editorials related to the Zionist socialist activities. Some editorials dealt with critical topics such as: The false illusions of the Zionist politics; The speculation with lands in Eretz Israel; The contempt for the Jewish work; The Activities of the Public and Zionist organizations in Romania; The hold of the Korobka  on the Jewish street; The fight for the organization of Jewish communities; The Political parties in Romania, etc.
Erd und Arbeit helped with the Halutziut (Pioneering) in Eretz Israel. It fought for Jewish education in the Diaspora and for the rights for the general Hebrew school.
This newspaper had great financial difficulties because of the deteriorating economic situation of the Jewish communities, but it fulfilled its national designs in accordance with its principles regarding the working Eretz Israel.
3. Undzer Tzeit (Our Time)
Daily newspaper established as a share by the Central Committee of the Tzirei Zion (100 Lei per share) and distributed all over Bessarabia started in August 16, 1922. The manager was Advocate Michael Landau. Nachum M. Roitman, chairman of the Council of the Cooperatives in Bessarabia and secretary of the Zionist Post Bureau in Galil, was appointed chairman. Chaim Weissadler was the vicechairman. The editorial board had the following members: Eliyahu Ortenberg, Tzvi Torkanovsky, Shmuel Yasky and David Polianer. Starting in 1925, the editors were Zalman Rosenthal and Shimon Ortenberg.
The editor in chief was Itzchak Isaak Weisman (BarLevi). When Weisman went to Eretz Israel in 1924 the writer Zalman Rosenthal became the editor and served until the newspaper folded. At the beginning of 1938 the following people worked there: Advocate Michael Landau, advocate Yoseph Lerner (Liron), Israel Weinshtein (Idel Melamed), the writers Abraham Epshtein, Yacov Botoshansky, Mordechai Goldenberg, Shlomo Hilleles, Itzik Manger, Yacov Fichman (who was
the literary editor), Yacov Kutsher, M. Sheikovich and Eliezer Shteinman. The following writers published their works in the newspaper: Shniur Avrus, the poet Efraim Averbuch, Tzvi Akerman (Ekroni), V. Gamerman (Hamerman), Efraim Davidson, Tzvi Cholodenko, Moshe Pintchevsky, M. Fridman, Chaim Rabinzon, Beni Shneider, and the publicist Dr. Abraham Koralnik.
In the first years, members of the Zionist committee Leib Glantz, Nachman Huberman, Yacov Wasserman, Nachum Tultchinsky (Tal), Dr. Yoseph Sapir, Asher Koralnik, M Yakinson, David Rablesky and others contributed regularly without pay to the paper. In the 1930s among the columnists were: B. I. Duchovny (Michali), David Vinitzky, Yeshayahu Vinitzky, Meir Kotik, Leib Kupershtein, Itzchak Koren, Isar Rabinovich and others.
Among the regular foreign correspondents were: Sh. I. Dorfzon, Herman Swat, Sh. Piker and Yeshayahu Klonger. Z. Goldstein served as writer in residence in Bucharest for the last two years.
For the 15 years of existence, Undzer Tzeit was the loyal herald of the Jews of Bessarabia and Romania, and supported them in times of tragedy and distress, fought for the equal rights of the Jewish minority, served as instrument for expression for all the Zionist movement factions and fought for the national idea and building of Eretz Israel. It united the Jewish public from all sectors to keep and defend all its positive qualities and not give in to the angels of destruction.
When Hitler rose to power the first decree was to ban all progressive newspapers and especially the papers written in the minority languages. The last issue of Undzer Tzeit, Number 4585, appeared on February 18, 1938.
Instantly, one of the most trusted source of information disappeared and with that the connection between the large cities and the rest of the country.
The connection was reestablished by bulletins printed by the Zionist Central Committee in Kishinev, but they were unable to fulfill the thirst of the public for daily news about the Jewish world events.
4. Children's journals
Farn Yiddishen Kind (For the Jewish Child) children's magazine. It appeared for the first time on Passover eve 5685 (1925) as an irregular supplement of the daily Undzer Tzeit. It had about 820 pages.
Until the middle
of 1928 when it stopped appearing there were 18 issues. It started publishing again in August 1935, but it ceased publication with issue 1112 (2930) in July 1936. The editor was Zalman Rosenthal. Mordechai Goldenberg and Mendel (Mendik) Fridman were regular collaborators. Fridman was also the graphic editor. The magazine dealt with national, social and cultural issues.
5. The Zionist press
Zionist Federation of Bessarabia News the official publication of the Central Committee of the Zionist Federation. It was printed on quarto size paper and had 48 pages. The first issue was published on 29 Tamuz 5682 (July 25, 1922). The editor was Tzvi Bonfeld, the secretary of the Zionist Federation. The last issue was number 4, of 10 Tevet, 5683 (December 29, 1922). This issue and issue number 3 had 8 pages each, 4 pages being dedicated to Keren Kayemet l'Israel.
This publication did not deal with local news (for local news, people depended on Undzer Tzeit) and the majority of the content dealt with Eretz Israel news, which did not get enough exposure in the local papers.
The Zionist Federation also published occasional bulletins especially during the Congresses: Folk und Land (People and Land) in 1933 and the Bulletin of the Zionist Federation in Bessarabia issued during the 21st Zionist Congress. Unfortunately none of these bulletins was saved.
6. The Press of the Revisionist Zionist Alliance
The Revisionist Zionist Alliance did not have a publication with a permanent title. During 56875693 (19271933) it published a series of newsletters, each time with a different title:
7. Publication of the National Funds (Keren Kayemet and Keren Hayesod)
The national office of the Keren Kayemet l'Israel published each year special illustrated issues with the occasion of the holiday of Lag b'Omer (33 Omer) and 20 Tamuz. Some were supplements to the Undzer Tzait and Erd un Arbeit and some were special publicity brochures. They published articles by the leaders of the World movement, by leaders of the national movement and leaders of the youth organizations.
The Office of the Keren Hayesod published special bulletins with the occasion of their fundraising campaign during the Rosh HaShana (Jewish New Year) holiday when people had money from the harvest and were inclined to generously donate to the fund.
More than 50 special bulletins and publicity pamphlets were published from 5681 (1921) until 5698 (1938), when the authorities banned the publications in Hebrew and Yiddish.
In order to cover the empty void left by the publication ban in 1938, the two funds were forced to publish together their bulletins to be sent to the activists and to donors. These bulletins were published monthly from March 20, 1939 to June 11, 1940. Each bulletin had about 8 to 12 pages. Officially these bulletins were called circulars of the Zionist Federation, whose activities
were encouraged by the authorities, because the money collected was also allocated to help the Jews leave Romania.
In total 10 bulletins were published, 9 of them were edited by Dr. Pinchas Beltzen. When Beltzen went to Eretz Israel, Zalman Rosenthal took over and edited the last bulletin.
8. Publications of the Central Committee of Tarbut
9. Publications of the HeHalutz
10.Tzeit Fragen (Current Questions)
Tzeit Fragen was a bimonthly publication of the Binian haAretz (Homeland Building) organization which was the new name of the united organization of Tzeirei Zion and Poalei Tzion in Kishinev. This journal had about 3476 pages and started on September 1938. The last issue (number 12) was published in May 1940 about a month before the annexation of Bessarabia to Soviet Russia. It served the public after the press in Yiddish and Hebrew ended. In order to hide from censorship it had a small format and had to change the name from time to time. It appeared under the names: Tzeit Fragen (Current Questions), Actualen Fragen (Present Questions), Zionistishe Problemen (Zionist Issues). It contained editorials and stories with Eretz Israel topics. Berl Milgrom, Yitzkhak Korn and Zalman Rosenthal were the editors and Tzvi Weisenberg and Isar Rabinovich were members of the editorial board. Z. Egres (Igret), K.A. Bertini, H. Hochman, D. Vinitzky, Dr. M. Kotik and L. Kupershtein were among the regular contributors.
11. The Religious Press
12. The Social Press
Dos Cooperative Vort (The Cooperative Word) was the monthly official publication of the Jewish Cooperative Union of Bessarabia. The editorial board had the following members: I. Pagis, N.M. Roitman and I. Radoliansky, the chief editor for the first two years and after that M. Sharand took over the paper. It had 1620 pages. The first 12 issues, from July 1925 to June 1926, were supplements for the daily Undzer Tzeit in Kishinev. From June 1926 it became an independent paper. In the first years, it had a circulation of 2,0003,000 copies and in 1931 it reached a circulation of 7,500 copies. When the situation in Bessarabia worsened, the circulation dropped to 4,0004,500 copies.
The best activists from the cooperative movement such as Prof. V. Tatamiantz, the economist S. Sokolovsky, the agronomist Chaim Feigin, Dr. I. Bikhen, a known activist, M. Zabarsky, the poet Mordechai Goldberg (aka Zlatogorsky) and Moshe Altman contributed regularly to this publication.
The scope of this journal was to instill in the public the ideals of solidarity and cooperation and reflected the activities of the 41 credit unions from across Bessarabia (by the way, 13 credit unions had libraries and two had reading rooms set up to serve the cultural needs of the population. The journal
also circulated among the 24 credit unions in the Regat (Romania) and the 11 credit unions in Bucovina and starting in 1933 it published a supplement in Romanian. It replaced on the masthead the word Bessarabia with the word Romania. It served the cooperative movement in Romania for more than 13 years.
Last issue consulted by the author (number 1112 /149150) was from December 1937.
With the raise to power of the antiSemitic party of GogaCuza at the end of December 1937 all publications in the minority languages closed down in February 1938.
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