Yad l'Yedinitz; memorial book
for the Jewish community of Yedintzi, Bessarabia

(Edineţ, Moldova)

48°10' / 27°19'

Translation of
Yad le-Yedinits; sefer zikaron le-yehudei Yedinits-Bessarabia

Edited by: Mordehkai Reicher and Yosel Magen-Shitz

Published by: Yedinitz Society in Tel Aviv, 1973




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Acknowledgments

Project Coordinator

Eric Schwartzman

This is a translation from: Yad le-Yedinits; sefer zikaron le-yehudei Yedinits-Bessarabia:
Yad l'Yedinitz; memorial book for the Jewish community of Yedintzi, Bessarabia,
ed. by Mordehkai Reicher and Yosel Magen-Shitz, Yedinitz Society, Tel Aviv, 1973 (H, Y)


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Translation Notes:

Translator David Goldman's Note:

Please note that wherever it is stated that an article is a version of another article in the other language, it doesn't necessarily mean it is an identical article, but that it could be an article covering the same subject with some differences

Coordinator Eric Schwartzman's Notes:

  1. Please note that for the sections translated by David Goldman the translations presented are only a translation of each article's introductory paragraph (unless noted otherwise) and that as funds are raised translations of the entire article's text will be posted.
  2. The articles translated by Miriam Dashkin Beckerman are full article translations.


Cover Page (Y) Bet

[Yiddish]

Editors:

Mordechai Reicher Yosef Magen-Shitz
Who started the project Who completed the book

[Stamp:]
University of Tel Aviv
Surasky Library

Tel Aviv 5733 – 1973
Published by the Association of Yedinitz Emigrés


Table of Contents

(H) = Hebrew; (Y) = Yiddish

Cover Page (H)

Aleph

Cover Page (Y)

Bet

Map Page

Vav

INTRODUCTORY SECTION
Introductions - Blessings Upon Completion of Yizkor Book (H) by Yosef Magen-Shitz

1

My Hometown of Yedinitz (H), by Yisrael Zemura (A brief introduction including memoirs)

9

Introductions - Blessings Upon Completion of Yizkor Book (Y) by Yosef Magen-Shitz

19

Discussion Regarding Formation of Yizkor Book Committee (Y)

25

SECTION ONE: YEDINITZ - A CUT OFF SHTETL
or alternatively THE DESTRUCTION OF A SHTETL (H, Y)
  • Founding and History
  • Between the Two World Wars
  • The Shimshon Bronstein Affair
33

 

YEDINITZ – A DESTROYED COMMUNITY

35

 

The Joy of Our Town and of its Jewish Community (H) by Yosef Magen-Shitz

35

   
Landscape and People in Town (H) by Pinchas Mann-Meidelmann  
   –    What are memories for? 43
   –    The town's landscape: Fragrance of Gardens, spirit of synagogues, and frightening bells 45
   –    The Gendarme Regime  
   –    Concern of the youth about their future

46

   –    Zionist Youth

48

   
Jews and Christians: The Relationship Between Neighbors (H) by Mordechai Reicher

49

   
The History of Yedinitz until World War II (H) by Chaim Horvitz 

53

   –    The Beginning of the Food Oil Industry

54

   –    Government leaders and the Jewish Representatives  
   –    Social Groupings 57
   –    Synagogues and Charity Institutions

58

   –    World War I

59

   –    The Arrival of the Romanians

59

   –    Civilian Government and Administrative Structure

61

   –    The Anti-Semitic Kuza-Goga Party Comes to Power

64

   
Jewish Community Leaders [Text of Insert Box] (H, Y) by Chaim Horowitz

62

   
World War I, Revolution and Pogroms (H) by Eliyahu Naor-Bitchutsky

67

   –   The Pogrom

68

   –   Under the Romanian Government

71

   
Riots and More Riots (H) by David Vinitsky 73
   –   The end of the Russian regime, and the beginning of the Romanian regime after World War I  
   –   The start of the Romanian conquest  
   –   The Seventh Day of Passover, 1918

77

   
Where Are You, Jews of Yedinitz? How Were We Bereave? (H) by Aryeh Barad

81

Yedinitz in the Encyclopedia Judaica, Jerusalem 1972 (H,Y, English)

85

Yedinitz in Yizkor Books (Y)

87

   
The Joy of Our Town and of its Jewish Community (Y) by Yosef Magen-Shitz
[Yiddish Version of Article at Page 35]
89–90
   –   Statistics

91–96

   
Landscape and People in Town (Y) by Pinchas Mann-Meidelmann
[Yiddish Version of Article at Page 46 with some additions]

97–104

Poem by Shimshon Meltzer (H, Y)

97

Picture of Gathering Point of Ukraine Refugees 1920-21

103

Jews and Christians: The Relationship Between Neighbors (Y) by Mordechai Reicher
[Yiddish version of article at Page 49]
105
On the Brink of Events (Y) by Yosy Lande

109

   
World War I, Revolution and Pogroms (Y) by Eliyahu Naor-Bitchutsky [Yiddish Version of article at Page 67] 115
   –   Self Defense [Sub-heading using Russian word not provided in Hebrew Version)

118

   
Three Coffins - The Bloody Events of the Seventh day of Passover 1918 (Y) by Moshe Kofit
[Yiddish Version of Hebrew Article on Page 77]
121
A. The Execution of the Forty (Y) by Golda Gutman-Krimer

126

B. Martyrdom (Sanctification of G-d's Name) at the River (Y) by Golda Gutman-Krimer 127
   
Memoirs and Episodes (Y) by Yosef Helfgott-Azariah

129

   –   Time doesn't stand still

129

   –   The Pogrom

136

   –   The Romanian Occupation

137

   
Boxed Article Inset: A word from a Yedinitz Émigré in Brazil (Y)

131

Boxed Article Inset: Once Upon a Time in Yedintz…(Y) by Gedaliah Grozman

133

   
A Life That Will Never Return…(Y) by Moshe Shuster

139

   –   In Brief

141

   
Boxed Inset Article (Y) 141
   –   My Hometown Belz  
   –   Assistance Bank [Bank Ezra]  
   –   Yedinitz Helped

142

   
I Knew No Other Town (Y) by Sender Harrari-Hochberg

143

   
Once Upon A Time There Was a Town…(Y) by Yosef Magan-Shitz
[Different article than that presented on Page 133]
145
   –   Reports of Riots against Jews in 1887 (Y, H)

147

   –   Stories of Long Ago 

147

   –   Religious Schools

150

   –   World War I 

153

   –   Revolution and Pogroms

155

   –   The Romanians Arrived

160

   –   Jewish Life

162

   
The Shimshon Bronstein Affair (H)

165

Shimshon: The Man and the Activist (H) by Yosef Magen-Shitz

165

Shimshon Bronstein -Biographical Details (H)

167

   
Inquisitorial Oppression (H) by David Vinitsky

175

   –   Sources on the Shimshon Bronstein Affair

180

   
Who Shimshon Was (H) by Ephraim Shvartsman-Sharon

177

The Shimshon Bronstein Affair (Y) [Yiddish Version of Article on Page 165)

181

Terror Against the Poalei Zion [Workers of Zion] Movement in Romania (Y)

183



SECTION TWO: ECONOMIC, INTELLECTUAL, AND SPIRITUAL LIFE IN YEDINITZ (H,Y)

  • Domestic Economics, Society and Social Services

  • Health Care Institutions

  • Education, Culture and Theater

  • Teachers, Schools and the Gymnazia High School

  • Intellectuals / Spiritual Persons Religion
CHART: Status of Jewish Loan and Savings Fund in Yedinitz - as of 1/1/1929 191
   
ECONOMICS, SOCIETY and SOCIAL SERVICES 192
   
Jewish Occupations by Shalom Caspi-Serebrenick 192
Growing Tobacco in our City by Aharon Chachmovitch 197
Image….Image…..Stand up again……[Boxed Section Lower Left] 199
Agricultural Workers, Field and Forest Contractors by Shmuel Kurmansky 211
Social Assistance Institutions by Mordechai Reicher 213
Boxed Insert: Aid for the Poor by Menashe Halpern 215
   
HEALTH INSTITUTIONS IN YEDINITZ 219
   
Early Health Institutions by Shmuel Kafri 219
Boxed Insert: Grannies and Midwives 219
The Yaakov Shimon Kaufman Hospital by Mordechai Reicher 221
The Shmuel and Chava Loibman Jewish Hospital by Sheindel Sadovnik-Berezin 223
The Sheindel Baum Organization by Mordechai Reicher 229
Popular Medicine and Faith in Prayer by Mordechai Reicher 231
The Death of R. Shmuel Loibman (11 Sivan 5689) - Boxed Inset 233
Chassidim Against the Enlightened at the End of the 19th Century 235
   
EDUCATION AND CULTURE 237
   
Documents re The Establishment of the Talmud Torah Public School 237
The Establishment of the Talmud Torah Public School for Children 241
The Cheder School in Yedinitz at the End of the 19th Century by Yosef Diamant 243
Elementary Education Teachers and Talmud Teachers by Shmuel Kafri 249
This is How they Taught by Ephraim Schwartzman-Sharon 251
My Religious and Secular Teachers by Dov Duri (Berl Dondushansky) 253
The Teacher and Writer Aryeh-Leib Yagolnitzer by Achinoam Yagolnitzer 255
The Teacher Yaakov Kizhner 259
The Public High School of R. Baruch Kutcher by Leah Fuchs-Kutcher 261
My Father and Teacher, R. Moshe Leiderman (from Zamkhov) and his Family by Yitzchak Bar-Samcha 263
The Teacher Noach Leiderman by Ephraim Sharon 267
Hillel Dubrow - Highlights of his Life by Shimshon Nachmani 269
A Devoted and Friendly Person by Shimshon Bronstein 271
An Article about the Death of the Kindergarten Teacher, Zippora Dubrow 272
The Teacher by Mordechai Reicher 273
Outstanding Personality by Eliyahu Naor-Bitchutsky 275
The Teacher Baruch Yashchikman by Yosef Magen-Shitz 277
Echoes from the Past (boxed newspaper article reprints) 279
The Researcher and Linguist Yisrael Toporovsky by Yisrael Zamora 281
The Gymnasia High School – Its Beginning And End 285
The Beginning of the Gymnasia by Chaim Horvitz 287
Studies, Discipline and General Spirit by Attorney Meir Weissman 289
Gymnasia Teachers by Yosef Magen and Mordechai Reicher 291
Jewish Teachers 295
The End of the Gymnasia by Frieda Meital-Kuzminer 297
Kindergarten in Yedinitiz 299
Public Libraries by Mordechai Reicher 301
Maccabi and Sports Activities by Meir Weissman 303
Newspapers appearing in Yedinitz 305
Student Organizations Concerned with Social and Cultural Affairs by Levi Leon Trachtenbroit 307
Theater performances on behalf of the poor in 1901 311
Theater 1901-1940: An article about the performance by the Vilna Troupe in Yedinitz 311
   
THEATER ENTHUSIASTS IN YEDINITZ 313
   
Theater Activities in Yedinitz by Pinchas Mann (H) 313
Theater Activity in Yedinitz: A summary of the Hebrew article by Pinchas Mann-Meidelman (Y) 315
Amateur Theater: The Evening is Shot by Mendel Shitz 323
The "Troublemaker" Drama Club by Avraham Gold 329
   
WRITERS AND INTELLECTUALS 331
   
People Who Make Us Proud* by Alexander Meilechson 331
Yehuda Steinberg in Yedinitz by Mordechai Reicher 337
Yehuda Steinberg, Menashe Halpern and Ezriel Adelman 339
My Years in Yedinitz by Menashe Halpern 341
Biographical Notes on Menashe Halpern 343
Eliezer Steinberg in Yedinitz by Asher Goldberg 345
Yehuda-Leib Grozman by Alexander Meilechson 347
Biographical Notes on Y. L. Grozman 349
After the Performance (Memories of my Leibele with sadness and pain) by Gedaliah Grozman 352
   
RELIGION, SYNAGOGUES AND TEACHERS 353
   
The Great Synagogue by Mordechai Reicher (H) 353
The Great Synagogue by Mordechai Reicher (Y) 357
Correspondence in the Warsaw Hatsefira of November 14/26, 1878 about the establishment of the Yedinitz synagogue. 359
The Kinska Synagogue by Mordechai Reicher 363
The Old Kloiz Synagogue by Moshe Furman 365
A Unique Document About the Jews of Yedinitz (1913) by Baruch Blank at the school of Yaakov Lerner 367
Report on Contributions From Yom Kippur Eve 1913 369
Cantors in and from Yedinitz 371
Synagogues in Yedinitz 373
Rabbi Yechiel Michel Burstein by Mordechai Reicher 375
R. Shmuel the Rabbinal Judge by Ephraim Schwartzman 380
The Community by Yosef Magen-Shitz and Mordechai Reicher 381
Boxed Newspaper Reprint: Claims and strife regarding the “Korovka” (1929) 383

 

SECTION THREE: LIFE IN YEDINITZ (H, Y)
  • Personalities and Families
  • Tales and Folklore
  • Jews in the Surrounding Villages

385

WAY OF LIFE / PERSONALITIES AND FAMILIES 389
   
People, Facts and Events by Yosef Magen-Shitz 389
   –   Nations and Ethnic Groups 389
   –   Shepsn 389
   –   Soslavies 390
   –   Turks and Bulgarians 391
   –   Chevrat Ephraim 392
   –   Areleh Enikus 394
   –   Avraham Shweitzer 395
   –   Mishugayim (crazy ones) 396
   –   The Lamed-Vovnik (one of the 36 just men) 397
   –   Butchers & Slaughterers of Treyf 398
   –   Water Carriers and Wagoners 400
   –   The Rov and the Rebbitzin 402
   –   The “Gazetchik” 405
   –   The “Limenik” 405
   –   Chavaleh (Eve) 406
   –   Language 407
   –   Such a Scandal 407
   –   You Remember our House? 408
   –   A Perfect Carpenter 410
   
Three Families - Three Great Arbitrators by Asher Goldberg 411
Two In-Laws and All Their Families Under One Roof by Asher Goldberg 419
Proclamations by Pinchas Mann (H) 421
The Palm Reader of Yedinitz by Yosef Diamand 423
A True Story …. by Moshe Furman 425
There Were Also These Types by Pinchas Mann (H) 431
Proclamations by Pinchas Mann (Y) 435
There Were Also These Types by Pinchas Mann (Y) 437
Wagon Drivers, Electricity and Water Carriers by Natanel Shachar 441
Stories of Life (Excerpted from the book, Yedinitz, My Home, Buenos Aires, 1946) by Golda Gutman-Krimmer 447
A Wedding in Town by Golda Gutman-Krimmer (Boxed) 447
The Beilis Trial in Yedinitz 451
There Was a Jew in Town (Stories From The Past) by Moshe Furman 453
Nicknames in Yedinitz 455
   
VILLAGE JEWS IN THE AREA 459
   
Zobrichan and its Jews by Eliezer Ro'i-Reich 459
The Home of the Ritual Slaughterer Lerner in Zabrichan by Tsadkanit Horovitz (formerly Fradya Lerner) 463
The Jews from the Villages of Golian and Russen 465
The Rebbe of Stepanst – a Guest in the Village of Golian by Yosef Diamant 467

SECTION FOUR: IDEOLOGICAL CURRENTS (H, Y)
  • Zionism Political Parties and the Youth
  • The Left and the Communists
  • In the Eyes of Visitors
469

ZIONISM  
   
Illustrative Numbers by David Vinitsky 471
   –   Nationalist Appeals  
   
Zionism in Yedinitz 473
   –   Zionist Youth in Yedinitz  
   –   Zionist Groups in Yedinitz at the End of the 19th Century 476
The Zionist Movement in Yedinitz (Organizations, Events and Activists) by Mordechai Reicher 477
   –   Sha'arei Zion and Youth of Zion [Tse'irei Zion] by Moshe Forman 480
   –   After World War I 483
   –   Women, Youth, Elections to Congress 489
   –   Tidbits from the Election 490
Yedinitz in the Newspapers 491
Zionist Women's Movement in Yedinitz 493
   
The 1931 Dunam Project 495
Ze'irei Zion in Yedinitz by Yitzchak Bar-Zion –Borochin 499
   
Poalei Zion in Yedinitz by Moshe Magen-Shitz 501
Before World War I (Boxed Insert) 504
Arrivals from Yedinitz in Argentina (Boxed Article) 507
Reorganization of the Poalei Zion (Signed by Shimshon Bronstein) 508
   
The Halutz Movement and the First Pioneers from Yedinitz by Mordechai Reicher 509
Meetings With Pioneers by Mordechai Reicher 517
   
ZIONIST YOUTH GROUPS  
   
Early Youth Organizations by Eliyahu Naor-Bitchutsky 523
Fifteen Year-Old Delegates at the Kishinev Conference (Episodes of the Hagibor [The Hero] Youth Organization) by Mordechai Reicher 525
   –   Maintaining the Clubhouse - A “Newspaper” with just two copies - A Fence as a Contribution to the Jewish National Fund - A Delegation to Kishinev  
The Hatechiya Youth Organization by Ephraim Schwartzman-Sharon 529
Attempts to Establish a Branch of Hashomer Hatsa'ir by Eliezer Ro'i-Reich 533
Hachaver - Beginnings of Gordonia by Dov Dori-Dondushansky 539
Gordonia – Activities, Activits and Trifles by Reuven Gertzman 543
Ten Years of Gordonia by Pinchas Mann 549
   
AN OBLIGATION FULFILLED  
   
Poalei Zion and Dror Youth by Yosef Magen-Shitz 553
   
THE LEFT AND THE COMMUNISTS IN YEDINITZ  
   
The Illegal Progressive Workers' Groups by Moshe Shuster 561
Revolutionary Poems in Old Yedinitz 569
   –   The Railroads Build Me 569
   –   Woe to You, Romania 569
Emigres from Yedinitz in Paris by Moshe Shuster 571
   
AS SEEN BY VISITORS  
   
A Visit to Yedinitz – An Unforgettable Experience by Rabbi Dov Burstein 575
Yedinitz – An Unforgettable Town by Dr. Michael Landau 577
Reports of the 1929 riots in Palestine. 579
A Town Permeated with Judaism and Zionism by Meir Zeit 581

SECTION FIVE: IN MEMORY OF THE FALLEN (H, Y)
  • Israel's War Dead
  • The Fortunate Who Got to the Land of Israel
  • Personalities, Images, and Stories
585

SECTION SIX: THE SHOAH OR HOLOCAUST (H, Y)
  • The Martyrology of the Yedintz Jews
  • Death, Forced Marches, and Survival
  • Yedinitz after the Shoah
725

The Martyrology of the Yedinitz Jews: A General Overview According to Witnesses
- Compiled By Mordecai Reicher
749
   –   The Russians Arrive 749
   –   Gatherings….Gatherings… 753
   –   New Economical Conditions 754
   –   The Bitter Situation of the Zionists 755
   
The Outbreak of War 755
   –   "The Fascists Won't Put a Foot In" 758
   –   The Rumanians Return 758
   –   The First Days 759
   
Robbery, Murder & Atrocities 761
   –   The Goyim of the Place Participated in the Pogrom 763
   –   Four Gallows in Yedinitz 763
   –   The Rumanian Ruler Returns 767
   –   Heroic Deeds 768
   
The Expulsion 771
   –   Those Who Ran Away To Securan 773
   –   A Drop of Menshlechkeit 776
   –   The Jews from the Surrounding Villages 777
   
The Road of Tribulation 777
   –   Tragic Stations 780
   –   In the Clothes of a Woman 781
   –   Those Driven Out of Chernowitz 781
   –   In Kaseuz Forest 782
   –   In the Lager Camp of Vertuzn 783
   –   Yom Kipur in the Forest Lager 785
   –   In Kaseuz Forest 786
   –   The Arrival at Otek 788
   
Crossing the Dniester 790
   –   Back in Otek 791
   –   Water… Water … 793
   –   Exceptional Cases of "Menshlechkeyt" 794
   –   The Fur Coat 795
   –   The First Stop in Transnistria 796
   –   The Station Molochneh 797
   –   Conscience Or Galoshes? 797
   –   "A Lengthy Boredom" 799
   –   The "New Wind" 801
   –   In the Ghetto of Securan 802
   
In The Ghettos of Transnistria 803
   –   Apathy and Resignation 804
   –   Bershad 805
   –   A Search for Lice 806
   –   The Typhus Epidemic 807
   –   The Tragedy With the Children of Salvadore 808
   –   This is How Yenkl Fradis Perished 809
   
Mohilov (Mogilov) 809
   –   Exceptional Cases 814
   –   The Death Circle Around the Family of Advocate David Lerner 815
   –   "You Still Think You're Something" 816
   –   The Burial in the Moonshine 816
   –   Women Guard Their Honor 817
   –   In God's Image 818
   –   The Shattered Pot 818
   –   Bread Arrived 819
   
How Did The Remnants Survive 819
   –   A Home 821
   –   Traders, Partisans, Goyim 821
   –   Back in Yedinitz 823
   
Editorial Comment 825
   
The Years Following the Shoah:  
   
Discussions with New Arrivals in Israel - What is Life Like in Yedintz Now? 827-834
Yiddishkeit in Yedinitz under the Soviets 835-846
Yedinitz Community Workers and Personalities in South America 847-868

SECTION SEVEN: MEMORIAL PAGES
  • Relatives Memorialize their Dead
869



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