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The Landsmanschaft of Rakishok


M. Rotholz-Kur

Translated by Gloria Berkenstat Freund

This work was written on the basis of record books, excerpts from minutes, information, materials and notices which were given to me by Yerakhmiel Arons – Arsh, the landsleit [people from the same town] worker; Yitzhak Ginzburg, Ahron Noach – Noachmanovitch and Shlomo Rubin. Thanks to the material provided, I was able to assemble this documented treatise about the Rakishoker Landsmanschaft [society of people from the same town].

A. Activities of the Society

The Rakishoker Landsmanschaft has been in existence for over 40 years and those from the neighboring shtetlekh, Abel [Obelial], Kamay [Kamajai], Svidoshc, Ponedel, Tibat, Skopishak, Poneminok, Sevenishak, Anushishok, Novo-Aleksandrovski=Ezsherni and others, are also included as landsleit.

Many significant and great changes took place in Jewish life over the course of time. A great deal of water flowed over the Jews in many lands; not least the Jewish people suffered from anti-Semitic persecutions and pogroms and slaughters, the First World War and a Second, when the savage destruction of the Jewish people under the rule of the Nazis took place and, finally, the rise of the State of Israel.

Without a doubt, all of the years and times lay their seal on organized Jewish society in general and on the Rakishok Society, which at the critical moment had to master and absorb all of the shadows and light in Jewish life, seeing the strengthening of the beliefs of our members and awakening in them the hope of better times that stimulated them to communal activities and to national actions.

The barely 40 years of the Rakishok landsmanschaft is an important communal event not only in its own area, but also for the entire local Jewish organized society and it is therefore necessary to very abundantly reflect its activities in the columns of the Yizkor Book.


The Founding of the Society

The first emigrants from the Jewish shtetlekh in Lithuania who began to wander to distant South Africa did so in the role of pioneers and among them were educated circles of landsleit who were mutually connected and were among themselves like family members and brothers who would come together to share the news of those scattered in various population areas of South Africa. Such frequent gatherings were the beginning of a landsmanshaft.

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The devotion of one toward the other was expressed in deeds; a new emigrant was met at the ship, he was offered hospitality, helped to look for work and given the initial financial aid, and care was also given to a sick landsleit, providing him with a doctor and medications, too.

The excerpt from N.D. Hofman's Book of Memories, published in Jews of South Africa by Leibl Feldman (a Rakishok landsman), can serve as a source of information:

“When a griner [newly arrived] Jew would arrive in Cape Town, he would look for distant relatives with the addresses he had brought with him from home. He would be received with pity, taken to a bath to destroy his third plague [lice], he would be led to a barber, given other clean clothing and held at home for weeks at a time until he was rested from the long trip and became a little assimilated. Then the landsleit would take him to a wholesale merchant where they had credit and provide him with several pounds of goods. They would help him pack his bag, writing the price on each piece of goods, what it cost, as well as the price for which he should sell it. Placing the heavy pack on his back and tightly binding it with two wide leather straps, they would wish him success and would send him into the countryside around Cape Town among the Boers.”

Landsleit circles were organized entirely spontaneously after which a landsmanschaft was founded. Landsleit would come together monthly on Shabbosim [Sabbaths], yomim-tovim [religious holidays] and on Sundays in a hall or at the home of a landsman – a pioneer – who had immigrated with his family or was able to bring them here.

In general single people, individuals, without wives and children, came with the first storm of immigration to South Africa and it was a long time before they decided to urge their families [to come] and to create a new home in South Africa. Even young men, who left brides beyond the sea, also did not rush to ask them because the ideas were deeply sunk into them that they still would save a little money and they would return home.

There was too strong a nostalgia with each Lithuanian Jew and Jewish immigrant for the way of life in his shtetl or city. He also could not live a religious life as at home. During the early years there were only a few khederim [religious primary schools] for children, only a few synagogues, clergymen, beli tefilus [men who read the prayers on holidays], cantors, shoykhetim [ritual slaughterers] and preachers.

The climatic and economic conditions also were entirely different from those in Eastern Europe.

It was difficult to adjust with respect to the work. There was no sellers market for much of the local work and means of earning a living. In addition, the industry in South Africa was still undeveloped at that time.

The immigrants, not mastering the language, could not take

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positions of employment in various trade firms. They became trayers [peddlers], carrying goods on their backs, mainly to the Boer villages and farmers, or they received work places in kaferites [restaurants for the Africans].

There were many cases when immigrants returned home – to their wife and children, to the relatives and those closest to them. There were also those who again returned to South Africa when they lost their saved money in trade. These facts were not an influence in such measure that Jewish immigrants would consider South Africa as their permanent home.

The landsleit joined more strongly and more firmly together in order to quiet their longing for family and home.

L. Feldman in his above-mentioned book talks about the reciprocal connection and strong friendship among the landsleit. I quote here that passage from his book:

“The thousand miles that separated him (the immigrant) from his home increased his longing and loneliness. After work, on holidays and days of rest, he felt his loneliness in fear and strongly longed for community, at least to pass time. The wish for community to quiet his loneliness and longing for his family and familiar environment drove him to the relationship with Lithuanian Jews from his town or city. As others were in a similar situation as he was, they strongly befriended each other. They would come together at the home of a landsleit and they would talk about the old home, about the difficulties of the new life, about income; they would ask for advice and they were helpful to each other.

“The coming together of the landsleit or of just Yiddish speaking Jews took on a more communal character each time. They would meet more and more often. In addition to discussing their old home and daily economic questions, they would also speak about and discuss news and worldly matters.

“This led to founding of landsmanschaftn and khevras [groups] that had as their purpose to give material support, (gmiles khesed kases [interest free loan fund], medical aid) to the landsleit and help the shtetlekh of the landsmanschaftn in question.”

The extract provided above can serve as an argument for what was necessary for the rise of landsmanschaftn, including the Rakishoker Landsmanschaft.

* * *

The genesis and stages of progress of the Rakishok landmanschaft are not comprehensive, but are mirrored in the protocol books of the Society that were kept. It is regrettable that they are dryly written, in a banal style and in a Yiddish language that has a great deal of English and German words. It is indeed a fact that the first Jewish immigrants from Lithuania, not being in the country for long, used such a strange mixed language.

Yet, looking at all its drawbacks, the protocol books are for us a

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worthwhile source from which we can learn and be informed about the founding and activities of the Rakishok Landsmanschaft in various periods of time. First of all, we are informed that the official founding of the Society took place on the 14th of January 1912, that is, over 40 years ago. From that historic day I cite the full text of the first protocol without any changes:

“A general meeting was held on Sunday, the 14th of January 1912 in South Africa, Palmesten [Palmerston] Hotel, Commissioner Street to found a Rakishoker Sick Benefit Society. The following officers were elected, S. Shwartsberg as chairman, Zalman Sher, vice chairman, Gedelia Zakstein as treasurer. Hilel Eidelman and S. N. Yafa, trustee committee, Sh. L. Yafe, Josef Feldman, S. H. Abelovitz, W. Kahn, D. Shaibla Yisrael, N. Kahn, Z. Beinart and S. Shneider as secretary. Meeting closed.

It is signed by Shimon Shwartsberg”

After this “general meeting” two committee sessions took place:
“Sunday the 21st of January 1912 and Sunday the 28th of January 1912.
At the session of the 28th of January 1912, it was decided:
“Letters shall be printed and a general meeting shall be called for the 4th of February.

“At the general meeting of the 4th of February, 1912 the particular rules and regulations of the constitution for the landsmanschaft were discussed and a decision was made that the society would arrange for a doctor who would provide medical help for the member, and his family would have the benefit of a doctor for half price and also medicine for half price. It was then decided: register books shall be printed and each committee shall have a register book and collect contributions.”

The second general meeting, which took place on Sunday the 10th of March, at 3 o'clock in the afternoon, 1912, dealt with and approved the points of the proposed constitution for the landsmanschaft. And a banking account was opened.

I publish the adopted constitution as an historical document.

Rules and Regulations

of the
Rakishoker Sick Benefit Society

* * *

  1. The name of the Society will be: “Rakishoker Sick Benefit Society,” so long as there are 10 members in the society.

  2. The purpose of the Society will be:

    1. without cost to give those members who need to have a doctor and medicine; all remaining claims and services of the doctor should be taken to the committee.

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    1. to give the wife and children of a member who need to have a doctor and medicine for the society's price at their own expense.

  1. Candidates can only become members of the Society when they are not less than 18 and not more than 45 years old.

  2. Each candidate must be brought before the committee and must be supported by two full members and shall be elected by a majority of the general body.

  3. The candidate who wishes to become a member of the Society must be a respectable man. Whoever is connected to immorality, both directly and indirectly, cannot join the Society. If the committee learns that a member has or has had connections with immorality, it has the right to return the money he has paid in and to exclude him as a member of the Society.
  4. In case a vote is brought to the committee of the Society when a member is accused of bad behavior or the behavior of a member is harmful, when the accusations are found to be correct, the committee has the right:

    1. To take away from the member all rights, benefits, such as the committee will find suitable.

    2. To call on the member in writing to resign and, if he does not resign, then the committee can remove him from membership. The committee should give the member all rights to defend himself and to appeal in person or in writing to the general meeting and if he is found guilty by the general meeting, then he will be bound by the punishment and he cannot make a claim against the society.

  5. Everything that is considered by the committee must be in private and those who reveal anything publicly to a stranger shall be penalized the first time with 2 shillings/56, the second time with 5 shillings and the third time he will be removed from the committee.
  6. A candidate who has not married according the Laws of Moses cannot become a member of the Society.

  7. The contribution will be 2/6 per month.

  8. The secretary shall send a registered letter to a member who does not pay his contributions two months in a row and ask him to pay his contributions. If he does not pay for six months, he loses all of his benefits. When a member is not able to pay his contributions, he shall inform the committee of this and they will give him time to pay, but they can also declare him without benefits.

  9. When a member travels, he must notify the secretary of this.

    He is permitted to discontinue his obligations for six months and he is without benefits during this time.

    In case of illness, the national member may present a certificate from a doctor and he will have the right to receive the same benefits according to the rules of the Society for a local member.

  10. Each person who becomes a member of the Society shall pay

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7/6 entry money and he shall be considered entitled to benefits after six months, if he has paid all of his obligations.
  1. A member can leave the Society for 12 months. Over 12 months, he can join the Society according to the rules for candidates for membership.

  2. A member of the Society who gets married should receive a present from the Society and it should cost not less than 30 shillings.

  3. The committee of the Society shall consist of 15 members: chairman, vice chairman, treasurer, secretary, assistant secretary, two trustees, two auditors, a door-keeper and two committee members. The officers should be elected at a general meeting.

  4. Duties of the chairman:

    The chairman shall administer all meetings; if he finds it impossible to attend a meeting because of certain circumstances, he must then notify the secretary in writing a half hour before the meeting or he will be fined one shilling. He shall control everything that belongs to the Society and sign the minutes of every general meeting. When he finds it necessary, he can call a special meeting. At the time of the meeting he must maintain order among the brothers of the Society. If a brother is not obedient, he has the right to punish him. If the brother is not obedient after being called to order three times, the chairman then has the right to take away his right to vote at this meeting. If the brother does not obey the penalty, then he has the right to ask him to leave the hall for the meeting. If the brother is not obedient the chairman can take him to arbitration. The chairman shall have a casting vote.

  5. Duties of the vice chairman:

    The vice chairman has the same duties and rights as the chairman, when the chairman is absent.

  6. Duties of the treasurer:

    The treasurer must attend all meetings and shall receive all monies from the secretary of the Society and give him a receipt for them. He shall deposit all monies, checks and other documents. He deposits everything he receives in the bank in the name of the Society.

  7. Duties of the secretary:

    The secretary shall have correct reports of all meetings and handle all of the correspondence and the books of the Society in good order. He should inform each member by letter about each meeting. He must attend all meetings and insure that all of the contributions are paid. All money that he receives for the Society must be given to the treasurer and he has the right to keep up to one pound for small payments.

  8. Duties of the assistant secretary:

    The assistant secretary has the same duties as the secretary. He must perform all of the tasks that the secretary gives to him for the Society. However, he cannot sign any documents that belong to the Society.

  9. Duties of the trustees:

    The trustees shall attend each meeting and when the committee decides to

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issue a check, it is the duty of the trustee to sign the check.
  1. Auditors' duties:

    The auditors shall review the books every six months before the election and sign the balance sheet if it is correct. They have the right to demand the books at that time and verify them. In case an auditor does not fulfill his duty when he is asked, the committee has the right to arrange an election in his place.

  2. Duties of the committee:

    Each committeeman must attend the meeting promptly and carry out all of the business that is brought to the committee. A quorum of the committee must be seven committee members in addition to the chairman.

    If a committeeman fails to attend three committee meetings in a row without an important reason, the chairman has the right to fine him up to 2 shillings and then the secretary shall write a letter to him and if he fails to attend a fourth meeting the committee may declare his seat vacant and designate a replacement unless he sends in an apology.

    The committee has no right to make new or other rules; a special general meeting must be called for this purpose.

    The committee shall compile a report for the general meeting about the work that it undertook. Committee meetings shall be held every month.

  3. Duties of the doctor:

    The doctor's duty is to examine a member when he asks him and in such cases he must send a certificate to the secretary and set down if his illness is infectious. He must attend all sick members at least once a day when they are seriously ill. When the sick person can, he must go to the doctor. When the doctor thinks that an extra doctor's help is needed and provides a certificate, the society will permit the taking of another doctor.

  4. [This should be 25] – Each member must attend a quarterly meeting; if not, he shall pay a fine of a shilling unless he sends an apology. When one brother is speaking a second one may not interrupt. He must ask permission from the chairman. And when the brother has finished speaking, he can then speak. If he does not obey the rules, he can be fined. When a member speaks unpleasant words or insulting words, or leaves without the permission of the chairman, he shall be fined a shilling.

    When a member moves to a new residence he must give notice to the secretary with his new address not later than two weeks or he will pay a one shilling fine.

  5. A quorum at the general meeting shall be 25 members in addition to the chairman. No member can be elected to office unless he has belonged to the Society for six months.
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The rules acquaint us with specific characteristics of that time and the active program of the landsmanshaft, as we read in these several points:

Point 1 says: “The name of the Society shall be a) 'Rakishoker Sick Benefit Society,' as long as there are 10 members in the Society.” This point teaches us how strong the patriotism and connection to Rakishok was among the Rakishok landsleit, who wanted to make sure that the name “Rakishok Sick Benefit Society” would not be changed, “as long as there shall be 10 members of the Society.”

Point 2 formalizes the purpose of the society as follows:

  1. “The purpose of the Society shall be to give such members who shall need one a doctor and medicine for free. All remaining aid and services from a doctor shall be taken up by the committee.
  2. To give the wife and children of a member who shall have need of a doctor and medicine the Society's price for their expenses.”
Point 3 limits the age of the members of the landsmanschaft as follows:
“Candidates can only become members of the Society if they are not less than 17 and no more than 45 years old.”
That a candidate could not be older than 45 was connected to financial calculations. In order not to carry the burden of medical help for members older than 45, because for the most part, older people become sick more often.

Points 5 and 6 are characteristic and instructive.

Point 5 relates to a candidate who acts immorally.

“The candidate who wishes to become a member of the Society must be a well-behaved man. Whoever has a connection to immorality, directly or indirectly, cannot be admitted to the Society. When the committee learns that a member is involved with immorality, the committee has the right to return the money he has paid in and to expel him as a member of the Society.”
Point 6 has a close connection to point 5:
“If it is brought before the committee that a member is accused of bad behavior, or the behavior of a member is harmful to the will of the Society, the committee then has the right when the accusation is proved correct:
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  1. “To take away all rights, benefits from a member that the committee shall find suitable.”
  2. “To call on the member in writing to resign. If he does not, then the committee can remove him from membership. The committee shall give the member all rights to defend himself and appeal in person or in writing to the general meeting and if he is found guilty at the general meeting, he will be bound to the punishment and has no right to complain to the Society.
Both rules were meant: to separate ourselves from such degenerate elements and not shame the name of the landsmanschaft, which must be a solid member of the Jewish societies and organizations in South Africa. The word “immorality” can be interpreted with a varied meaning, beginning with criminal offenses – such as robbery, swindling, as well as in the erotic area: houses of prostitution, trade in women, etc.

Point 8 has the object of protecting the purity of the Jewish race:

“A candidate who is not married according to the Laws of Moses may not be a member of the Society.”
Finally I want to stress that Point 14 was intended to strengthen the brotherly approach among the landsleit:
“A member of the Society who is going to be married shall receive a present from the Society and it shall cost no less than 30 shillings.”
The above mentioned, as well as many more points in the constitution, were consistent with that time when the Jewish community in South Africa was still young, taking its first steps.


Medical Help

The principle task of the landsmanschaft then was to give medical help to sick landsleit. The activities in the medical area figure prominently in the minute books.

The newly arrived immigrants went through more than a few illnesses – with their arrival in new climatic conditions and also because they lived in small rooms and were scattered over roads and detours, because they carried heavy packs of goods to the Boer customers who lived in faraway places among mountains and valleys and in the wilderness.

Taking into consideration that the immigrants were without families for the first time, they ate in cheap restaurants where the food was not fresh or they quickly cooked a little food and fed themselves with meals that were not nutritious.

There were extremely difficult working conditions in the cafeterias and other work places, which physically weakened the immigrants.

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Therefore, it is completely understandable that at first the Society cared about medical help for the landsleit. The most important task was in the foreground of its activities.

The Society drew experienced medical personnel to the medical work, such as Dr. Elson, Dr. Shapiro, Dr. Max Yafa, Dr. Reznik, Dr. A. Flaks, Mrs. Dr. M. Mendelev.

The Society had a standing committee, which was named the “Sick Committee.” Its task was to follow the health condition of patients and they were in constant contact with the doctors and pharmacists.

In such cases, the chosen “Sick Committee” stood on watch and made sure that the patient would be treated conscientiously both by the doctor and by the apothecary. The “Sick Committee” would bring all of the disputes before the committee and the more severe conflicts would also be treated at a general meeting of the landmanschaft.

The patient, who in most cases lay lonely and solitary in his rumke [small room], would be tended to by landsleit. According to the determination of the committee, special attendants would sometimes be hired.

In connection with this it is worthwhile to illustrate with the account in the minutes:

“When a member becomes ill and he is alone in his room, we shall provide an attendant for the entire day and everything that the doctor orders shall be given to the member. This means: doctors, medicine and an attendant – in cases where we are not able to attend the patient with our own members from the society.”

“A Sick Committee member, M. Nodel, gave his report for the committee: he hired a brother Yafa for one night for 8/3 [shillings/pence]. He served as an attendant for brother Press for three nights- 10 [shillings] a night and Mr. Press was attended to by several committee members for one night.”

The primary connection to the sick landsleit can only be substantiated by the fact that at each meeting the health conditions of the sick brothers was first mentioned and, if they were all healthy, it was reported in this style:
“The Sick Committee reports that all brothers, thank God, are healthy.”
Those patients who needed a hospital were connected by the landsmanschaft to the management of the hospitals and were provided with

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beds, frequent visits to the patient and the showing of a brotherly interest in the condition of that patient.

The Society was also in contact with the Ladies Society, which provided the Jewish sick with kosher food in the hospital and also contributed on behalf of this purpose. To this day, the Rakishok Landsmanschaft is a member of the kosher kitchen at the hospital and pays a yearly taxation to the General Hospital.


The Loan Fund

After the Society normalized its activities in the area of medical help, a proposal was made to found a loan fund for its own landsleit. This was a necessity at that time. The immigrants in a strange land did not always have work and the income was sometimes not enough as a means of support and to send a few pounds to the family at home. There were also many cases where landsleit needed a little capital in order to open a small shop, to buy goods for peddling or to bring relatives across the sea.

The proposal to found a loan fund was filed on the 18th of May 1913. However, a few years passed before the loan fund was implemented.

It was decided on the 4th of April 1915 to open a loan account. The decision was accepted based on the following points:

  1. The name of the interest free loan fund was chosen; it shall be called “the Rakishok Sick Benefit Loan Account.”
  2. The Fund shall consist of 75 pounds, which shall be taken from the sick benefit for the purpose of the interest free loan fund and with the hope for another 25 pounds to have a capital foundation of 100 pounds at the opening.
  3. The purpose and aim is to lend to poor brothers in need of help in making a living and [in amounts] not higher than 10 pounds unless the committee finds it necessary and if it is possible. Each applicant must pay 2/6 [shillings/shillings] for the application no matter the amount of the loan and provide two guarantors whom the committee will recognize as worthy.
  4. Those providing guarantees may be members as well as from outside and not members. To receive benefits members must be paid up in full. If from the outside, they must become a member. The financial committee cannot provide any guarantees.
  5. A finance committee should be elected from the body, consisting of five people in addition to the treasurer and secretary, who are responsible for giving loans and investigating their security and they must attend meetings, unless a written excuse is sent to the secretary. Three members of the finance committee make a quorum.

    The applicants shall go to the secretary for an application. The

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    applicant fills it out and returns it to the secretary. The secretary sets the meeting of the finance committee and the committee can come to a decision the day after the meeting.
  1. The treasurer must attend each meeting and give a report for which he is entitled to a receipt.
    8)* The treasurer must attend each meeting and give a report according to the receipt book, as to the regularity of the payments.

    *[Translator's note: There are two entries with the number 8.]

  1. The interest free loan [fund] shall have a separate banking account as well as a separate set of books. This all is recommended to the body and carried unanimously.
A financial committee was chosen at a meeting of the following people: Chaim Dovid Jafa, Morris Gordon, Kh. Sneig, Moshe Levin and Zakshtein.

A solemn gathering in honor of the opening of the loan fund was called on the 11th of April, which was attended by “brothers and friends.” Everyone was seated at tablecloth covered tables and the chairman as well as the secretary clarified the significance and purpose of the founding of the interest free loan fund in short speeches that were received with applause.

Then a goblet, which cost one pound 10 shillings, was auctioned off and it was bought for seven pounds 10 shillings by J. Sneig, may he rest in peace, and for his entire life it was a dear memento for him of the founding of the loan fund of the society.


Organizing Work and Activities

The organizing work of the Rakishok Landsmanschaft went at a rapid tempo. All of the statutes were carried out exactly. Committee meetings took place regularly each week and general meetings were called often. Elections took place every half-year and then in the later years the terms of the committee were lengthened.

The duties of the members, of the chairman, of the committee members and the doorkeeper's duties were worked out in detail.

Because of the characteristic role which a doorkeeper had had and also because of the particular ceremony at the acceptance of a new member, I cite their duties according to the way it is followed in the minutes of the 22nd of September 1919.


Doorkeeper's Duty:

Is to remain in hall near the door and let in each member when the meeting is open for business and to stop him at the door and announce to the chairman the arrival of the member and his name so that when the new member appears in the middle of the hall, the chairman will

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greet him as necessary and he will quietly take his place. The doorkeeper must hold the registry book and record the members present or permit them to enter their names.


The Greeting of A New Member:

“When the chairman gives notice of his initiation, it is the duty of everyone present in the hall to stand and greet him with enthusiasm, by clapping with the hands three times. Then the chairman or the secretary shall present him with his rulebook and address him about the worth of and obedience to the Society, as well as his duties as a member and the duties to his brothers who shall end with hand-clapping.”
According to the minutes we see that in general a discipline reigned and all decisions were carried out. Each one was commanded to carry out their duties. There was a strong reaction if a committee member or a member of the Society did not fulfill his obligations.

In addition the calendar showed many activities for the landsmanschaft to bring the members closer to each other. It was done at various opportunities.

The Society sent gifts: to a wedding of a landsman or to a wedding of his child; to a Bar-Mitzvah; at the birth of a child or to a Bris [ritual circumcision]. There were gifts for each member who showed activism at organizing balls and various undertakings on behalf of the society.

The Society took part in both the joys and the suffering of a landsman.

When a landsman died, it delegated its representative to the funeral and mourned with the family. In a case where the deceased was alone, the Society erected a headstone for him and photographed the headstone to send to his family. An obituary was also published in the press. There were cases in which the yahrzeit [anniversary of a death on which a memorial candle is lit and the memorial prayer is recited in the synagogue] was observed. There was also interest given to the situation of the orphaned family both the one in South Africa and the one beyond the sea, helping it financially and morally.

It also was concerned about the naturalization of the landsleit and supported those who endeavored to receive citizenship according to the proposal of Sh. Rubin, as follows:

Mr. Sh. Rubin proposed that the Society shall assist financially those who shall submit for naturalization. The chairman was instructed to offer support from the Society solicitor about the question of how to safely and inexpensively carry it out.

Such activities strengthened the connection among the landsleit and the leader, in which they saw brotherly interest and devotion.

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At various times an aid collection also was organized in behalf of Rakishok and its surroundings. They also helped to bring poor landsman or the family of a landsman, who did not himself have the money for travel expenses, to South Africa.

After the First World War the situation of the Jews in Lithuania was very sad. The returnees from the evacuation did not have any means to settle. Those who found themselves under the German occupation also had become very impoverished.

Although each landsman helped his closest family members and relatives, there were still many of those who had no relatives and friends in South Africa. Institutions also had to be supported.

At a meeting on the 14th of March 1920 it was decided to send 100 pounds for the Rakishok needy. The money was sent to the address of the Rakishok Rabbi, Reb Betzalel, of blessed memory. Fifteen pounds was also sent for the poor Jews in Abel [Obeliai].

Chaim Khit from Rakishok had – in the name of the Rabbi, Reb Betzalel - sent an accounting of the 100 pounds received, showing that it was divided in the following just manner: “One part for the orphans in the Talmud Torah [religious school for poor boys]; one part to buy wood for the poor and one part was given to repair the bathhouse and the mikvah [ritual bathhouse] in Rakishok.”

A fire broke out in Luknik, a shtetele [small town]; the Rakishok landsmanschaft sent in its contribution in support of the victims of the fire.

The Rakishok Society accommodated all those in South Africa turning to it for help. It was in contact with all of the other landsmanschaftn and also contributed whenever a society turned to it.

Many levies were issued in support of various campaigns in South Africa, such as in support of the War Victims Fund and for the action to bring 250 Jewish orphans (after the First World War).

The beautiful mitzvah [commandment] of charity and aid for the home was adopted by the Rakishok landsmanschaft from the first day of its founding. The following can serve as an example:

“A donation was given for the Hebrew Orthodox synagogue and the members of the first committee – Sh. Shwartsberg, and Sh. Sher – were present at the laying of the cornerstone of the synagogue.” Also they satisfactorily supported a Hasidic minyon [prayer group] with a letter when it turned for help to buy its own building. Thereby the society was guaranteed that it had the right to hold meetings in the building when it would need to at times when [the minyon] was not praying or themselves holding a meeting.

* * *

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There are two five-year money reports of the Society in the minute-books: from the 1st of January 1936 until the 31st of December 1940 and from the 1st of January 1941 until the 31st of December 1945. I find it necessary to write about the evolution of the “five-year report of the Society from the 1st of January 1936 to the 31st of December 1940,” although it does not include the sums of money that the Rakishoker Society divided among various aid organization and campaigns:

Membership 597 6 6 Doctors and Chemists 305 5 11
Loan repayments 118 7 6 Rent Jewish Guild 28 17 6
Entry fees 13 13 0 P.O. Box 6 5 0
Ball income 59 14 6 Post and revenue stamps 26 10 4
  Board of Deputies 25 4 0
  Donations and presents 25 6 0
  Bank costs 3 8 0
  Advertisements 11 0 6
  Secretary 146 9 6
  Income above expenses 210 14 9
£789 1 6£ 789 1 6

Loan Account

Balance on the 1st of January, 1936 780 9 6 Repayments 4587 8 3
Payments 108 loans 4755 0 0 Balance to 31 December 1940 948 1 3
£5535 9 6£5535 9 6

Balance Sheet
to the 31st of December 1940

Cash in Standard Bank 162 13 8 The Rakishoker Aid
Loan Account 984 1 3 Society 60 0 0
Iron Safe 10 10 0 Doctors and Chemists 19 19 2
Paid to P.O. Box 1 5 0 Special Fund 38 15 6
P.O. Box 1 5 0 Capital on the 1st of January, 1936 739 0 6
  Added Income 210 14 9
£1122 9 11 £1122 9 11
Collected capital £1042 10 9
A. Eidlman

[Page 467]

Communal and Cultural Activities

On the face of it, we can add all of the money collections for institutions and on behalf of various funds to the bank account of communal activities. If the Rakishoker Society had not had any understanding and appreciation for communal work, it would not have developed such intensive activity, and who knows if it would have existed for as long as 40 years. Without an idea and without communal activities it would have long ago fallen apart or it would have been an organization without any color and hue, without a spiritual character.

We see that the Rakishok landsmanschaft [organization of people from the same town] responded warmly to all calls from the local central organizations and societies, When the Zionist Federation had turned, for example, to her, still before the First World War, to sell shekels* and to make other commitments, she did so willingly.

*[Translator's note: The Zionist Organization sold membership certificates that were called shekels.]

We note in the minutes the participation of the Rakishok Society in all actions that the Board of Deputies organized in the interest of the Jewish community in South Africa and in the affairs of the Jewish people.

When the Board of Deputies, in partnership with the South African Zionist Federation, called a conference on the 12th of December 1917 that dealt with the plan from the British State about Palestine, the Rakishok Society was represented at the conference.

It also took part in the protest actions against the pogroms against the Jews in Ukraine and also on the 13th of July, 1919, with all the landmanschaftn, challenged the Board of Deputies to take steps against the terrible actions against the Jews in Poland. A representative of the Rakishok Society took part in the reception with General Smuts that took place on the 19th of October, 1919, when he declared to everyone that “Palestine belongs to the Jews.”

However, a strong expansion of communal activities was noticed after the First World War, particularly when a new immigrant element arrived in South Africa that came to build a new home for themselves in South Africa and did not think of returning.

The newly arriving immigrants had left the war and revolution. Many of them also were witnesses to pogroms and endured maliciousness toward the Jews in the old home.

Deportations of the Jews from their homes by the Tsarist regime during the First World War and the forced labor by the Germans at that time, no doubt, changed the psychology of the Jews, who understood life differently before the First World War, when they had no idea of another kind of life besides the shtetl way of life.

The storm of immigrants to South Africa grew stronger every day. Each ship brought new transports of immigrants. Often, the mail brought requests to the Society from people who asked that we send them papers and travel expenses.

[Page 468]

The newly arriving immigrants brought a different spirit, the post-war spirit and the spirit of the revolution. They no longer carried their baggage in a sack or in a wicker basket like the first immigrant pioneers, but they came dressed in a modern way and with suitcases in their hands.

He, the newly arrived immigrant, already had an inkling of a party, of communal activity.

We note how in a short time, the literary union, the worker's club, the Zionist-Socialist Party were founded in Johannesburg. We transplanted the cultural organized society of the old home to African soil.

Almost all of the new Rakishoker immigrants became members of the Rakishok Society and saw its modernization. They were the first to fight the rules and regulations of the Society that were undemocratic and quaint.

Discussions about the rules and regulations developed at meetings and gatherings of the Society and new proposals and work projects emerged.

There was a new leadership for the Society in which representatives of the new storm of immigration were also elected: Z. Nafanovitz, M. Muskat, Yisroel Meikl, A. Noach, Sh. Rubin, H, Rubin, the Sher brothers and others. Dr. Maks Yafa, who was a progressive community man, was hired as a Society doctor.

The Society delegates on the Board of Deputies – Jakob Snieg, Shlomo Rubin and, later, Ahron Noach – also brought their influence to the work of the Board, that it should diversify and be in agreement with the interests of the [different] strata of the people of the South African Jewish community. They spoke Yiddish and demonstrated with this their love of the language of their people, negating the tendencies toward assimilation in Jewish society.

We read reports from the Board of Deputies in the minutes. A. Noach-Noachumovitz underlines that the Board needs to expand its work and asks for permission from the landsmanschaft that he propose to the Board a new activity plan.

Such landsleit [people from the same town] were also represented in the committee of the landsmanschaft who opposed each innovative measure, interpreting it as political activity. Khona Kohen, the chairman and one of the meritorious volunteers with the landsmanschaft, who was a member of the first generation of immigrants who were raised as territorialist-religious, opposed all of the new efforts. His attitude was: “No politics should be discussed.” However, we note in the minutes from the later years that A. Noach-Noachumovitz was empowered to defend the direction of the progressive wing on the Board.

From the minutes, we notice that the Rakishoker landsmanschaft took part in all of the actions and measures organized by the Board of Deputies on behalf of the South African community and Jewish communities around the world.

[Page 469]

The Society was very active in all campaigns during the time of the Second World War.

Representatives of the Society took part in a conference which made a decision to send medical help to Russia, to help the Jews in Europe when the war ended and to all of the Jewish soldiers who would return to South Africa. There was also a decision to not take member dues and contributions from the Rakishok landsleit soldiers.

The landsmanschaft was active in Jewish war appeals, in the Kuybyshev* appeal and, in particular, with sending help to Russia and clothes to Russian Jews. In additon, it did not abandon the normal Society activities, such as aiding the sick and providing loans for the needy landsleit.

*[Translator's note: Kuybyshev is an industrial city in Russia that was chosen to be the Soviet Union's capital if Moscow were occupied by the Germans.]

It also stood on watch for local interests: the anti-Semitic-Nazi poison also spread in South Africa and there were Hilterist agents who spread a frightening hatred of the Jews. We find in the minutes that Mr. Avidov gave a report about the high importance of Jews protecting the synagogues in order to relieve the police who had other tasks at that time.

Rakishok Jews in South Africa engaged in the Rakishok work and there also were those who left South Africa and entered the ranks of the army in order to fight against the Germans who annihilated millions of Jews. Yerakhmiel Aront-Arsh, the chairman of the landsmanschaft who left his wife and children and voluntarily took part in the war against the Hilterist murderers and cannibals, can serve as a self-sacrificing example.

The communal activity of the Rakishok Society at the time of the war was especially devoted and very active. In order to accommodate various appeals and turns for help, a special war fund was created with the Society in 1940.

Shlomo Rubin proposed on the 8th of October 1940, “Whereas the Society is obliged to answer in support of all appeals from Russia, from the refugees in Eretz-Yisroel, from ORT-OZE [ORT - Jewish educational and vocational training organization; OZE - Society for the Protection of the Health of the Jews] and to help in general all of the needy, therefore, a special war fund needs to be created.”

The proposal by Shlomo Rubin was approved and the following was recorded in connection with the war fund:

  1. The Society gives 50 pounds to the war fund;
  2. Every member is asked to provide as much as he can;
  3. A special sub-committee was created to arrange special offers on behalf of the fund.
  4. The Rakishok Aid Union was challenged to supply the war fund from its money, which could not now be used.

[Page 470]

Sh. Rubin, Y. Meikl, M Muskat, Sh. Shapiro and M. Wittz were chosen for the subcommittee.

In order to do communal work it was necessary to arrange for a report and to appropriately enlighten the members.

We remember that presentations by Ovidov, Sh. Bojarski, Mrs. Rabkin, M. Shur, M. Matis and others took place for the Society members.

A precise account from Mrs. Rabkin's lecture is here in the minutes of the 10th of May 1942, reporting about ORT-OZE:

ORT-OZE endeavors to transform the Jewish masses from lacking a definite occupation into constructive workers. ORT-OZE works not only in ruined Europe where the Jews learned their earlier sources of livelihood and were forced to accept unpractical work, but even here, in a more fortunate land, ORT-OZE has much to do. The question of what our children should do when they finish school presents itself. Everyone now understands that they must learn a trade that has a future. Our youth know very well that they must forget about being a shopkeeper and, although we must have doctors, lawyers, who are often useful, not all of them can enter the mentioned professions. There are also other reasons. Anti-Semitism is more widespread among Christian shopkeepers than among Christian workers; in addition, the workers are protected by the government and trade unions and they have a more secure existence than shopkeepers. However, there are trades here and we must find a suitable trade for every young person. In America certain attempts are made with each young person to find out which trade is appropriate for him; here we only have to communicate and consider what to advise him. Then there is the question of where one learns a trade. Universities are not accessible for everyone and the trade school costs money, too. ORT-OZE hopes that with instruction, with special workshops, they will then find a place to work and in peacetime as well as wartime. Russia is strong not only with its strong army, but also with its highly qualified factory workers.”
These reports were simultaneously an important cultural contribution for the Society members, although it cannot be concluded that they had a permanent effect.

However, based on the minutes, it can be seen that various entertainments took place, annual evening, picnics, which the Society arranged. These events included an artistic program with the participation of the artist and director, Shlomo Rubin, and of his wife, Genya Rubin – an actress with many years of service, of Yisroel Meikl – a folk singer, and of Kh. Katz and others. Noach-Noachumovitz would often read his own creations, mainly memories of the old home.

As an example we present an appreciation of the yearly performance that was written by “a Rakishoker” and was published in the Afrikaner Yidishe Zeitung [African Jewish Newspaper]:

[Page 471]

“Once a year the Rakishok landsleit in Johannesburg get together so that they not do become strangers to one another, to talk about and have greetings from survivors of the Holocaust.

Each time an event is carried out, it includes not only beautifully covered tables, but also a prepared program of Jewish folk songs, music, recitations and humor.

Mrs. Rubin made a strong impression with the recitation of Segalowicz's poem, Dortn [There] and Gotlib's Lita [Lithuania]. Her interpretations of the moving creations brought tears to the eyes of the crowd.

Another one who contributed with beautiful singing was Friend Meikl, from whose singing all present had a spiritual pleasure whenever he appeared. Rev. Sh. Kheitovitz also obliged the crowd with his voice and hearty singing of Yiddish folk songs.

The performance of Sholem Aleichem's Oylem Habe [Eternal Life] with the accompaniment of the well-known actor, Sh. Rubin, Mrs. Rubin. H. Miller and Mr. A. Seitovitz, who appeared on the stage for the first time, was very successful.

The chairman of the Society, H. Arons, and his wife deserve a Yasha Koyekh [may you have strength] for their devoted work, as well as the committee and the women who assisted in the success of the evening.”

As we see, the program contained only Yiddish numbers and the Yiddish language. This is how all entertainments took place, in Yiddish, and the Rakishok Jews have not betrayed the Yiddish language and the national culture to this day, as well as the national Jewish way of life.

Only Yiddish is spoken at all gatherings. To this day they have a representative on the school managing committee of the Rakishoker Folks-Shul [public school]: earlier it was M. Witts, and then Shlomo Rubin.

When the census took place in South Africa, Brother Sh. Rubin declared at a meeting that was held on the 1st of May 1941 that they needed to inform the Jews that they should give Yiddish as their language. It is reported as follows in the minutes: “A statement by Brother Sh. Rubin also expressed the hope that every Jew will fulfill their duty and not deny their Jewish origins. The cost of spreading the leaflet about this was endorsed.”

All of the above mentioned evidence as well as the fact that Yerakhmiel Arons, the present chairman of the landsmanschaft, turned to the Federation of the Landsmanschaftn to urge that they write letters in Yiddish, confirms the folksiness of the Rakishoker Landsmanscaft and their attachment to the Yiddish language and to Jewish communal work.

* * *

[Page 472]

The Rakishok Aid Society, founded a few years before the war, was exclusively focused on helping landsleit in the old home. It carried out its aid work very intensively after the war. However, the Rakishok landsmanschaft can say about this society: “bone of my bone, flesh of my flesh.” The same workers in the landsmanschaft were also active workers in the Aid Society.

Here is further discussion about the activity of the Rakishok Aid Society. It later joined the Rakishok landsmanschaft.

With the unification it began a new fruitful phase under the chairmanship of Yerakhmial Arons-Arsh. Sh. Rubin stresses in his report: “In the time that I have been in the society, the work has never been as active as now.”

The old home lay in ruins then, the earth was covered with the corpses, but the Jews throughout the world and, also including Rakishok, wrote on their flag: “No forgetting and no forgiving!” They did not forget the 6,000,000 Jewish martyrs and did not forgive the murderers and, at the same time, they turned their energy to helping the survivors of the Hitleristic hell. The arrival in South Africa of Gisa Levin, who told of the frightful Jewish martyrdom under the Nazi executioner and of her own survival in the Hilterist hell, made a strong impression. The landsleit greeted her warmly and movingly at a special welcome that was organized for her.

Because of the later emerging difficulties in provided help to the Jews in Russia, the work then concentrated only in the direction of helping the refugees from Rakishok and its surroundings who emigrated to Israel. Sums of money and food packages were sent for them. The Society taxed itself on behalf of the Lubavitcher Hasidim who wanted to build houses in Israel, for the Israeli Federation of Lithuanian Jews, for the Mogen Dovid Adom [Red Star or Shield of David – the Israeli emergency medical service] and for other purposes.

Communal contact was created with the landsleit through the Rakishok Jews travelling on a visit to Israel. First of all, they met with Rakishokers. Rakishok residents from Israel came to South Africa and there were ceremonial welcomes for each of them.

Yerekhmial Arons-Arsh, the chairman of the Society, traveled to Israel and he brought spirited greetings from the landsleit when he returned.

At a solemn welcome arranged in his honor by the Society on the 10th of August of that year, he spoke about life in Israel. He said to everyone the following:

“When one arrives in Israel, one can understand why the English, after being in Africa for dozens of years, still say 'home' when they remember England. Now after being in Israel for a short time, one can understand what such a thing as 'home' means. It can be felt just by being there.”
Yerekhmial Arons-Arsh also had reported, “While he had seen everyone for whom he had an address and found out that the landsleit had organized themselves as well as all of the Jews in Israel. He emphasized that life in Israel is difficult, but bearable. In general,

[Page 473]

Israel made a good impression on him despite all of the backwardness and his belief is that what we do for Israel is too little and it is his belief that the Society needs to concentrate on helping Israel.”

(Photo, caption: Dr. Mikhla Orleowitz)

In the minutes is noted that special evenings were held for all landsleit who came for a visit to South Africa.

A hearty welcome was arranged for landsman Baradovsky who came on a visit to South Africa. He, Kopl Baradowsky, is a chemist and accomplished a great deal in the chemical field for the good of the Givat Brenner communal settlement.

An impressive welcome was given to Dr. Mikhla Orlewitz and a beautiful farewell evening was arranged for Mrs. Shneiderman (Libke Ruch).

The cruel Jewish national tragedy has not been forgotten by the Rakishok Jews and every year a memorial day is organized in the Hasidic synagogue. A memorial service is carried out for all of the cruelly murdered Jews from Rakishok and the surrounding area and the Jews of Europe.

We publish the following eulogy by A. Noach-Noachumovitz that was given by him at the large memorial evening, which was arranged by the Rakishoker Landsleit Farband [Union] – at the Berea Synagogue, Johannesburg – in memory of the martyrs from Rakishok, for the neighboring shtetlekh and for the millions of fallen Jewish victims in Europe.

Year in and year out, generations will still come, we Jews will come together to deliver a eulogy, to cry and to lament the destruction of 1941-1945 and will not forget the victims, the martyrs, who perished in the sanctity of God's name and of the holy people.

The history of the Jewish people was always written in blood. However, this epoch is the bloodiest, the darkest.

Six million Jews perished – a third of the entire Jewish people.

The mourners were not yet born who would write the lamentations, the words that could express that for which every one of us feel [the need] to cry for the tragedy of the Holocaust. The words, vakol nehi arimah [“…for the sound of wailing [(is heard from Zion…)” - Jeremiah 9:18], are not sufficient for the current third* destruction.

*[Translator's note: the destruction of the first and second temples in Jerusalem and the Holocaust.]

[Page 474]

New words had to be created that would express the terrible deeds, cruelty that our martyrs went through. The old lexicon did not know of all of the torture racks, such as gas, electrical currents, death factories.

Jewish history is rich in miracles, group miracles and individual miracles. In this present destruction there are no recorded miracles. Dark clouds covered the skies, the voices of the six million Jews, school children did not reach to the throne of honor.

Jewish children lay hidden in the dark cellars and lifted their hands, praying to God that the sun not shine in order that they not be seen.

Seven graves remained for us of our homes. Fate wanted Jewish Rakishok and the Jews from our neighboring shtetlekh to be destroyed with such a death. Everything that we built in the course of generations was swallowed by seven graves.

Eyewitnesses say: as soon as the Nazis entered Rakishok, all Jews were driven together to one place; each day Jews were taken to work; they would not return.

During the days of slaughter, all Jews were told to be ready. Everyone, young and old was driven together around the seven pits and machines guns were placed around them. The Jews understood that this was their end. The voices of women, children were head for distant, distant miles.

The rabbi of the city, the Rabbi, Reb Zelig Orelovitz, also was among the community of Jews. He begged the murderers that he be allowed to say several words to the Jews.

The rabbi could not call for an uprising in such circumstances. He cried out: “The will of God is from the heavens! Sanctify the name of God with love! We are not the first and we are not the last!”

After these words everyone became quiet. They no longer cried and they were ready to die calmly al kiddush haShem [in sanctification of the God's name].

Because of his words, the rabbi was the first to be shot.

Everyone was driven into the pits under a hail of bullets. Those Jews who were killed immediately by the bullets were fortunate; they did not have to be buried alive.

We, landsleit, who were left orphans, decided to write a yizkor [memorial] book in order to immortalize our martyrs of the third destruction. This would be a lament on the destruction of Rakishok and when the lamentations were read about the extermination of all of the Jewry in Europe, we would simultaneously read about the death of our shtetlekh.

The Rakishok book needs to be found in every one of our houses and be given as an inheritance from generation to generation.

We must always remember and must engrave in ourselves the words of Jeremiah

[Page 475]

in the Book of Lamentations that cried out: “Mine eyes have brought me grief over all of the daughters of my city.” [3:51]. We must always feel the tragedy to be as great as if it were happening today.

The graves must never be forgotten. We Jews must always remember our martyrs, our victims.

From generation to generation we always need to curse the murderers of our people; an eternal curse on those who annihilated a third of the Jewish people!

My eyes shed tears and will not be still. Our souls cry over the cruel extermination of millions of Jews and of my home shtetl, Rakishok.

* * *

Eulogies were made on the Society's days of mourning in memory of the Jewish martyrs and victims of the Nazi devils.

However, the Society wanted a monument for all of the tragically murdered landsleit to remain forever. Therefore, it decided to publish a yizkor book that would sanctify Rakishok and its surroundings and there also would be a section dedicated to the Rakishok landsmanschaft for its 40 years of existence.

The decision to publish a yizkor book was accepted at a meeting on the 16th of June 1949. Taking part in this meeting were A. Levin, T. Orlin, Y. Miller, M. Muskat, Sh. Rubin, Ch. Rubin, B. Ruch, Mrs. Ruch, Mrs. Sura Klas, A. Orelovitz, A. Noach-Noachumovitz. The chairman was Yerakhmial Arons-Arsh.

The question was treated comprehensively and a commission of five people was chosen: Yerakhmial Arons-Arsh, A. Orelovitz, A. Noach-Noachumovitz, Sh. Rubin and B. Ruch. The commission needed to learn all of the details, select which format, choose an editor and learn the cost of printing.

At the general meeting of the 21st of August 1949, the question of a yizkor book was again discussed. Yerakhmial Arons-Arsh reported on the decision of the committee to publish a yizkor book and asked that it be accepted by the general meeting. He also emphasized that “The work had already begun with a letter in the Yiddish and Yiddish-English press and letters were sent overseas as well as to local individuals for material.

“After his report, the chairman was heartily greeted by applause by everyone present.”

The question of the yizkor book was again considered at several committee meetings. Sh. Rubin reported “that material could be taken from the minutes for an interesting and historical work.”

Pamphlets were sent out to request memorials for the book; there was a discussion about hiring an editor and about creating a fund to publish the book.

The question of the yizkor book was treated with more detail at a special

[Page 476]

session of the executive with the cooperation of Y. Ginzburg and Y. Meikle that took place at the home of Yitzhak Ginzburg.

Through Shlomo Rubin and Yerakhmiel Arons we were informed that an understanding was reached that M. Bakalatshik-Felin was the editor of the book and this important and earnest work must immediately be undertaken because “the book must be a monumental work that should serve as an historic document, a source of material forever and ever.”

All present accepted all of the resolutions in connection with the yizkor book.

Several appeals and notices were published in the Afrikaner Yidisher Zeitung [African Jewish Newspaper] in connection with the yizkor book.


These notices are published for the sake of historical documentation:

Rakishoker Landsleit in Johannesburg to Publish a Yizkor Book

It very soon will be 40 years since the Rakishok Society, which has maintained a close connection with all of the landsleit here and overseas during the course of 40 years, was founded in Johannesburg. The society also supported a gmiles-khesed [interest-free loan] fund and a fund for the sick, as well as an aid society for Rakishok landsleit, which did their good work by giving direct help to the landsleit across the sea during the time both before and after the war and which still carries on all of this work.

The committee decided to publish a book about Rakishok in which general Jewish life in Rakishok will be reflected and also will contain various pictures of Rakishok. Certain material is being collected and prepared for the book. It is the hope of the committee that the book will be not only a memorial (a Sefer Zikhron [memorial book]) to all of those martyrs who perished in Rakishok at the hands of the Nazi hangmen, but the book should also be of literary worth and of historical significance.

The committee also developed a certain plan to cover the costs of publishing the book – a plan in which all landsleit would have the opportunity to take part and it would not be a great burden. The members of the committee will promptly visit all landsleit in connection with the program. The committee hopes that all landsleit will respond sympathetically and take part in the important work and support and help the committee in publishing the book.

At this opportunity the committee asks all landsleit who have certain important material, such as official documents, papers from various institutions in Rakishok, kehilus [organized Jewish communities], the People's Bank and so on, biographies of historical worth, contact the secretary of the Society, P[ostal] B[ox] 3302, Johannesburg.

[Page 477]

Landsmanschaft of Rakishok and its Environs

P[ostal] B[ox] 3302, Johannesburg

Esteemed Landsman,

Our Society will be 40 years old in the near future. It is superfluous to describe here the role the Society has played in the life of the newly arriving emigrants to South Africa – this would take too much space. However, when we look at the activities of our Society during its existence – particularly during the recent years – we must say that we have no reason to be ashamed in relation to our Society.

Our Society not only helped our landsleit in Europe and Israel with money and with clothing, but also did important work in giving loans to landsleit here in this country, starting with a sum of several pounds and today reaching loans of a hundred pounds, as well as medical help for needy landsleit.

A large number of the founders of the landsmanschaft are already in the world of truth [died] and, thank God, several of them are still with us.

We believe that the names of all the workers on behalf of our landsmanschaft should be immortalized; the same with all of the names of the martyrs who came from Rakishok and its surroundings, who perished in the great catastrophe of our people.

In order to accomplish this we decided to publish a memorial book where everything would be recorded forever and ever. We want this book to be a sacred object in every house, of which our landsleit will be proud.

We appeal to you that if you have material that can be used in the publication of the above-mentioned book, such as descriptions, episodes, photographs and so on, you should send it to the address given.

The material needs to be of historical value.

If you want to immortalize the names of those closest to you, or an important personality, we will place the names in this book and it will remain a monument.

We also accept greetings to your surviving relatives or acquaintances, as well as for weddings, Bar Mitzvus, birthday celebrations and so on.

Please reply immediately.

With fraternal greetings,
The Committee

[Page 478]

Landsleit Union of Rakishok and Its Surroundings Prepares a Yizkor Book

We announce to all landsleit, Yiddish writers, historians and scientists of Lithuania, both in the country and outside, that we are preparing to publish a memorial book about the life and death of Rakishok and its surroundings:

Anushishok, Kamajai Abel, Ponedel, Skopishok, Ponemunok, Sevenishok, Ezsherene [Ezerenai], Dusiat, as well as other surrounding shtetlekh.

We ask that you send us documents, letters and information, photographs, articles and monographs about the generations-long life of all of the above-mentioned Jewish shtetlekh in Lithuania.

Whoever knows should write to us with answers to the following questions:

How many residents (before the Holocaust and during the Holocaust) each shtetl had? How many institutions, associations or societies? What were their names and what purpose did they have? For what was each shtetl known? What is the number of surviving Jews who lived under the German occupation and in what manner did each one survive?

Every date and notice, document and writing is very important to us.

We will provide a place for lists of landsleit families that live in South Africa, Israel and other communities and also of those who perished in the Hitler catastrophe. Send us the names of families as well as photographic pictures. They can be of individuals, groups, societies or of buildings, streets and so on.

We also will publish memorials and short biographies of landsleit.

Material should be sent to this address: Rakishoker Society, Postal Box 3302, Johannesburg.

In the name of the Rakishoker Landsleit Farein [Rakishok Landsleit Union] in Johannesburg:

Yerakhmial Arons-Arsh (chairman)
Berl Ruch (vice chairman)
Yitzhak Ginzburg, Ahron Noachumovitz-Noach (committee members)
Shlomo Rubin (secretary)

P.S. – We ask all Yiddish and Hebrew newspapers abroad to publish this appeal.

* * *

[Page 479]

This yizkor book and the actions of the landsmanschaft over 40 years are a reflection of the elevated and communal responsibility of the Rakishok Jews.

Today the society is represented in the majority of Jewish institutions and organizations in Johannesburg. Our representative, A. Noachumovitz-Noach, a delegate to the Board of Deputies, recently brought a proposal to banish Germany from the community [of nations] and absolutely demanded that they should ban the purchase of German goods. He also proposed that the Board create a People's Bank in order to assist the lowest and middle classes of the local Jewish population with loans.

B. Ruch also spoke about not buying German goods at a committee meeting and Yerakhmiel Arons (Arsh), the chairman, wrote an article in the Afrikaner Yidishe Zeitung.

The path of strong devotion to the Jewish people was maintained by the Rakishok landsleit with great, righteous enthusiasm and love during the course of the 40 years of existence of the society.

During the existence of the Rakishoker Landsmanschaft there were a great many commendable people who were in the leadership, for whom the work of the society was very dear.

We will record their names in the Yizkor Book:

Chairmen of the society were: Shimshon Shwarcberg, Shimshon Snieg, Yakov Snieg, Zarakh Beinart, Lou Herman, Yisroel-Naftali Kohen, Khona Kohen, Mendl Yoselovitz, Shmuel-Leib Yafa, Borukh Shadur, Betsalel Yafa, Mendl Muskat, Shlomo Rubin, Shlomo Shapiro. And Yerakhmiel Arons is now the chairman.

The vice chairmen were: Mendl Muskat, Moshe Sharp, Mendl Levin, Mendl Kuperman, Hirshl Sher, M. Witts, Zakshtein, Maurice Gordon, Zarakh Levin, Zalman Nodel, Shlomo Rubin. Berl Rukh is now the vice chairman.

The treasurers were: Eliason, Chaim Dovid Yafa, Mendl Kuperman. Mendl Muskat is now the treasurer.

The secretaries of the landsmanschaft were: Sh. Shneider, Leib Fogelovitz, Shlomo Silvershtein, Dovid Kuperman, A. Noach-Noachumovitz [Noachumovitz-Noach above]. Sh. Rubin is now the secretary.

I provide the following facts about the activities of several of them, who already are in the world of truth [have died]. It is possible that some have been omitted from the list, but this is because there are no biographical facts about them:

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Shimshon Shwartsberg, of blessed memory

He was the first chairman. He laid the foundation for the long existence of the Rakishoker Society. The first constitution of the society was produced under his chairmanship and all of the rules were maintained with the greatest precision. Without a doubt, he spread love of the society's activities with his earnestness and responsibility as chairman.


Chaim-Dovid Yafa, of blessed memory

He was one of the Jews who felt it was a mitzvah [commandment or religious obligation] to do work for the Society. Even in his deep old age, it was not too difficult to go for miles to receive the signature from an endorser in order to ease the giving of loans for the needy. He was proud of his work for the Society and nothing was too difficult for him do on behalf of the welfare of the Society. He was the treasurer for years and at new elections no one ever thought of presenting another candidate in his place. He also was a member of the khevre kadishe [burial society].

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Dovid Sheibl, may he rest in peace

He was among the first founders of the Society and helped a great deal so that the Society would stand on a strong foundation and was devoted to the Society until the last days before his departure from Johannesburg to Vryheid, Natal. He paid membership dues to the Society from his new place of residence until the last days of his life.

We find his name often in the minute books of the first years connected with his generous response to the needs of the Rakishoker Society.


Mendl Yoselevitz, may he rest in peace

He was a fine Jew with a good reputation that he brought with him, thanks to his behavior in the old home. He became an active member of the Society from the first day of his arrival in South Africa. It was not at all difficult for him to go miles to recruit a new member and take on the duties of the Society. To his account we can add that he recruited a large number of members.

He was a committee member for many years and was chairman of the Society for a certain time.

He and his wife, Malka, were devoted to the Society with their hearts and souls.


Khona Kohen, may he rest in peace

He was a respected Jew, maintaining the middleclass behavior of the old home. He was the chairman of the Society for a great many years. Several years before his death, he was honored with the title, “President of the Society” as an expression of his devotion and energetic work on behalf of the Society. He required strict and exact adherence to the laws of the Society's constitution and took good care of each penny of the Society's treasury. He often supported the Society with his own payments when it was in need of money. When other societies called upon

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the Rakishoker Society for help, he was the first to take money out of his pocket and this stimulated other to follow his example. By providing funds himself he assured that the Society would not have to pay any money from its treasury.


Yisroel Naftali Kohen, may he rest in peace

He was a brother of Khona Kohen. He also was a respected Jew with a beautiful patriarchal beard and was considered one of the most intelligent, enlightened types in the old home. He was the spokesperson for the Society to whose speech everyone always listened. He did a great deal for the Rakishoker Society from the day it arose.

He became the chairman of the Society at the resignation of the first chairman, Shimshon Shwartsberg.


Zalman Nadel, may he rest in peace

He was a Jew, a toiler, one of the original founders of the Society. With heart and soul he busied himself for the public good. He recruited members, collected debts for the Society and would provide a hall for general gatherings and banquets of the Society. Reading the minutes of the Society, we see his name often and it is noted how he did everything with dedication.

He was a committee member of the Society until the last day of his life.


Mendl Levin, may he rest in peace

He was one of the original founders of the Rakishoker Society. He had a warm, Jewish heart and strongly followed the religious way of life of the old home. He would lend money to the Society when it needed it.

He was a member of the committee of the Society for many years.


Borukh Shadur, may he rest in peace

He was the husband of the extraordinary communal worker, Chana Shadur, who was the mother of the Rakishok children's home and a sister of Zalman and Hilel Eidelson.

He was a Jew, unpretentious and very honest, being very devoted to the interest of the Society. Many nights he would watch over the sick and lonely landsleit.

He was a committee member for many years. The Society helped to erect a headstone on his grave.

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Mendl Vitts-Joselovitz, may he rest in peace

He was a Jew who lived here in South Africa through arduous labor. He was a committee member for many years and a vice president of the Society for a time.

Although he was far from a rich man, when the Society needed money, he would readily donate five pounds to support the needy landsleit.

He was a good brother of the Rakishoker Society, giving support to everyone who turned to him. He attended all meetings of the Society punctually.

He was a representative in the managing committee of the Yidisher Folkshul [Jewish People's School] in Johannesburg for a time.

* * *

In addition to the above mentioned people, there were outstanding workers who are now deceased: Yakov Sneig, Yosef Feldman, Charly Yafa, Zundl Seitovitz, Max Gordon, Lipa Shwartsberg, Leib Spak, Morris Gordon and, eybodl lekhaim,* Khetskl Obelovitz, Shlomo Sher, Betsalel Berger, Yosef Kuperman and his wife, Basheve, were capable workers.

*[Translator's note: May he be distinguished for life – a phrase used to separate the deceased from the living and differentiate between them.]


Jakob Snieg [Jacob Sneeg or Snegg], May He Rest In Peace
(The recently deceased chairman of the Society)

Jakob Snieg was born in 1878 in a small village, Bitsun, nine verst [a verst is a Russian measure equal to one kilometer or six-tenths of a mile] from Abele [Obeliai]. His father sent him to a kheder [religious primary school] in Abele, to Shmuel the melamed [religious primary school teacher] at the age of six. Then he studied with other yeshiva [religious secondary school stressing the study of Torah] students with a rabbi in the village of Pokipine, where a Jewish shopkeeper lived.

His father died [when Jakob was] nine years of age and he [Jakob] wandered to Riga during his young years, where he began heavy labor and also learned a trade.

He emigrated to South Africa in 1902, settling at first in Cape Town and he moved to Johannesburg a few years later, where he remained until his death.

* * *

The first years [after] immigration were difficult for everyone and J. Snieg also went through a difficult period of immigration. All of the landsleit [people from the same town] felt lonely and abandoned and everyone needed a close relative or friend, which could be found in the circle of his own landsleit. A central meeting

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point for the Rakishok and Abele landsleit was the home in Ferreira [Ferreirasdorf] of Shmuel Leib Yafa, whose family already was in South Africa. They created their own minyon [group of at least 10 men required for organized prayer] and because of the situation of Chaim Leib Bun, who became very ill and might have died of hunger, not having anyone to care for him, the idea of founding a society was born.

First, a Bikur Kholim [Society for Visiting the Sick] was created and then, in 1912, the Rakishoker Landsmanschaft [organization of people from the same town] was created with rules and reciprocal obligations.

The first chairman of the Landsmanschaft was Shimshon Shwartsberg. In 1915, Jakob Snieg was elected as chairman.

He organized events and raised money so that the interest-free loan fund would function well.

The First World War broke out in Europe. The Board of Deputies organized aid actions for the Jewish victims of war. A letter arrived from Rakishok in which great racks of torture and the poverty in the shtetl [town] was described. Jakob Snieg exhibited great activity in all areas and was tireless in his work, organizing various events. A silver goblet was auctioned at one such event and Jakob Snieg bought the goblet. The Society [engraved] an appropriate signature [on it] and he always felt the goblet was dear to him.

* * *

Jakob Snieg was connected to the Rakishoker Landsmanschaft for 41 years. He was elected chairman many times. Over the course of time he did not weaken in his interest for the work of the Society. He always stood watch over the interests of our society, being a great conciliator. He found a way to settle conflicts with wisdom.

The Rakishoker Landsmanschaft honored him with the title, lifelong chairman of the Society, in recognition of his important work on behalf of the landsleit.

He, Jakob Snieg, with his honest and devoted work, served as a distinguished person of honor.

Honor his memory!

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The management and the activists of the Rakishoker Society consisted of the following people:


Yerakhmiel Arons-Arsh

He was born in Svadushch [Svedasai] in 1907 to rich, enlightened parents who planted in him love of the Zionist ideal.

After the First World War, arriving in Rakishok from evacuation to Russia, he decided to go through the work of hakhshore [agricultural preparation] so as to emigrate to Eretz-Yisroel.

He was one of the most active halutzim [pioneers] in Eretz-Yisroel, taking upon himself the heaviest work of drying out swamps, agricultural work, etc.

He became ill with malaria, which endangered his life. The Kupat Holim [Sick Fund] issued a certificate for him that he had to leave the country for reasons of health.

[After] returning from Eretz-Yisroel, Yerakhmiel Arsh was active in various communal areas and simultaneously completed his general and Hebrew-Yiddish education.

He emigrated to South Africa and he was active in communal Jewish life. During the Second World War, he entered the army voluntarily to fight Nazi Fascism. Since the end of the war, he has been involved in the interests of the Rakishoker Society with his heart and soul. He was president of the Society for several years and, in addition to various important activities, he was the initiator and main worker in realizing the publication of the Yizkor Book of Rakishok and its Environs.


Etl Shwartsberg-Arons

She was born in Subat, Courland in 1908. When the Lithuanian Jews in Courland were driven out in 1912, her father, Heshl Shwartsberg, who earlier had been a resident of Rakishok, returned to Rakishok with his family and in 1914, during the war, the Shwartsbergs remained there and lived under the German occupation.

She became a student at the compulsory school in Rakishok and later she studied at the Lithuanian gymnazie [secondary school].

In 1929 she emigrated to South Africa from Rakishok. Although she and her husband, Yerakhmiel Arons-Arsh, experienced a difficult time in the “golden” land, she learned to speak English and Afrikaans well.

After the Second World War, she joined the Rakishoker Aid Society and exhibited great activity. She carried out correspondences with various people to learn the addresses of landsleit and was the main force in organizing actions that were carried out by the Society. She was occupied with sending food and clothing packages to the landsleit and was one of the hardest working members of the Rakishoker Society.

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Arya Eidlman

He was born in 1895 in the shtetle Antalept [Antaliepte] that is located between Utiyan [Utena] and Rakishok. His father, Avraham-Yitzhak, was a Jew, a scholar, and because of a scarcity in income, he and his family moved to Dvinsk where he was involved with the teaching profession.

He, Arya, studied in kheder and then in the Mirer Yeshiva, where the head of the yeshiva was the famous Gaon [sage], Reb Eliyahu Borukh.

There, in the Mirer Yeshiva, he was influenced by the haskala [Enlightenment] movement and returned home. He joined the left [wing] of the Zionist movement and studied bookkeeping.

During the First World War, he traveled to Smolensk where he remained until and after the October Revolution.

In 1921 he came to Ponevezsh [Panevezys] from Russia and helped found the Zionist Socialist Party there. He was chosen as a delegate to the Ponevezsh kehile [organized Jewish community]. He moved to Mariampol [Marijampole] and there he also was active in the community, both in the Zionist Socialist Party and in other institutions.

He came to South Africa in 1930 and immediately became an active member of the Zionist Socialist Party. He joined the Rakishoker Society and, to this day, is its secretary.

Arya Eidlman is also active in the local Zionist institutions and also has been the secretary of the kehile in Mayfair, a suburb of Johannesburg.


Moshe Arlin

He was born in a shtetele near Vilkomir [Ukmerge]. His parents lived in Vilkomir during the German occupation during the First World War.

He, Moshe Arlin, studied in the Jewish Viklomir Real Gymnazie [secondary school] after the war and was active in Makkabi [international Jewish sports organization] and in other Jewish organizations.

He emigrated to South Africa in 1930. He joined the Rakishoker Society with his wife, Teyba Kyl-Arlin.

Moshe Arlin is an esteemed member of the Rakishoker Society.


Teyba Kyl-Arlin

Teyba Kyl-Arlin was a student of the German Compulsory School during the First World War. Then she studied in the Tarbut [secular, Hebrew language] school in Rakishok and in Kovno Hebrew Real Gymnazie. She was popular with the Rakishok young people who, in the 1920s, were seized by new ideas and by the national revival of the Jewish people.

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The national-Zionist young in Rakishok helped to create institutions such as the orphans house, the Linet haTzedek [society for visiting the sick] and the Hebrew school systems, Tarbut and Yavne [religious Zionist], the Makkabi, HaHalutz and the Hashomer Hatzair [The Youth Guard – Socialist-Zionists].

Teyba was very active in these institutions. She also was an active member of Hashomer Hatzair. Thanks to her talent, she took part in various spectacles and theatrical presentations.

In 1928 she left for South Africa and the young people of Rakishok considered her departure a great loss.

In South Africa she also was active in communal activities both in the Zionist Socialist Party and in Histradrut Ivrit [organization spreading the use of the Hebrew language]. She also helped with all Zionist campaigns.

Teyba Kyl-Arlin was active in the Rakishoker Society and helped the Aid Society in its work.


Yitzhak-Zorekh Beinart

He was born in 1981 [a typographical error – 1891]. When he was 10 years old, his parents – Moshe Feybish and Chava-Chaya – moved to Rakishok. At that time, they sent Yitzhak-Zorekh away to study at OZE [Jewish Health Society] in Kruk to his grandfather, who was a shoykhet [ritual slaughterer] there. There he studied a trade.

He escaped to South Africa from the Russian military draft in 1902. He worked at his trade in Cape Town during the first years and then he came to Johannesburg.

He was one of the first 12 landsleit who founded the Rakishok Society in 1912.

However, he was drawn home and in 1913 he came to Rakishok. He married there and when the war broke out, he and his wife evacuated deep into Russia.

In 1927 he again emigrated to South Africa. He was heartily welcomed by the Society and he was helped within the framework of its abilities so that he could establish himself financially.


Nakhum Blacher

He was born in Svadushch [Svedasai] in 1899 and, because his father, Aba, was burdened with many children, his grandmother in Dusiat raised him for a time.

He was separated from his parents at the beginning of 1915, during the expulsion from the cities and shtetlekh in Lithuania he traveled to Sventzion [Svencionys].

[Page 490]

After the war, in 1919, he wandered from one shtetl to another and, because he did not report for military service on time, he was sent away to a punishment battalion.

In 1936 he emigrated to Mexico and Cuba. From Cuba he emigrated as a sailor to France, where he remained for three years. He came from Paris to Rakishok and, after marrying Rywka Itsikman, they emigrated to South Africa, going through all of the phases of recent immigrants.

He has been an active member of the Rakishoker Society for many years.


Chaim Shual (Zev) Bacher

He was the son of Yitzhak (Alter) and Chaya-Sura-Ita Bacher. He followed in the steps of his parents, who gave him a traditional religious upbringing from childhood on and when he came to South Africa he kept to his beliefs and his views. He was and remained pious to God and honest to people.

Even the scope of his large businesses did not change a hair of his folksy, Jewish style and manner.

His businesses were closed on Shabbos [Sabbath] and holidays and he observed Shabbos and the holidays as in his old home.

He was known as a philanthropist, [giving] to all appeals and calls from various initiatives and distinguished himself with his anonymous help. There are many people who do not know that he helped them. He gave generously for the yeshivus [religious secondary schools] in Jerusalem, and was one of the pillars of the Johannesburg Chabad.

Chain Shual (Zev) Bacher joined many societies that he supported. He also supported the undertakings of our Rakishoker Society.

His farm near Germiston was the local place for hakshora [agricultural training for those hoping to emigrate to Eretz-Yisroel] of Habonim [Labor Zionist youth movement].


Kopl Bacher

Kopl Bacher, the brother of Chaim-Shual (Zev) Bacher, also served communally. He was the co-founder of the Magen David Adom [Red Shield of David – an emergency medical service] in South Africa and took part with activism and with financial help on behalf of the communal and Zionist funds.

The exercises of the South Africa Haganah [The Defense – paramilitary organization] took place on his farm.

The Rakishoker Society and other Jewish organizations would arrange cultural presentations and various undertakings on his farm. The institutions had the servants and goods at hand on the farm at their disposal without cost.

He is a devoted friend and member of the Rakishoker Society.

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Yitzhak Ginzburg

He was born in Rakishok in 1909. His grandfather, Artshik Ginzburg, was one of the fervid Hasidim in the city.

During the First World War, his father, Yosef–Rafal, evacuated to Melitopol, Russia, with his family and the family returned to Rakishok in 1919.

Yitzhak studied for several terms with Leib the malamed [religious teacher] and when the Rakishok Talmud–Torah [religious primary school for poor boys] opened, he studied at the Talmud–Torah and then in the Rakishok yeshiva [religious secondary school] and also was a student at the Slabodker yeshiva for a time.

The new times influenced Yitzhak Ginzburg. He came back to Rakishok and helped to found the youth organization named Tiferet Bukherim [Magnificent Young Men] at the Agudah [Orthodox political party]. Then he became a member of Makkabi [international Jewish sports association] and was also a co–founder of HaNoar HaTzioni [the Zionist Youth]. He was secretary of the Rakishok Makkabi for a time. He entered Hahistadrut and helped found Al HaMishmar [On Guard].

He emigrated to South Africa in 1936. He settled in Koppies where he founded a Zionist organization, serving as its vice chairman. From Koppies he moved to Vereeniging. He founded Habonim [the Builders] there.

Yitzhak Ginzburg settled in Johannesburg in 1930 and immediately became an active member of Hitachdut [Zionist–Socialists] and he helped carry out the unification of the Zionist Socialists with Hitachdut. He was a member of the central committee of the united party until 1948.

He also was one of the founders of the Rakishok Aid Society, serving as the president for many years. He was elected to the managing committee after the unification of the Rakishok Aid Society and the Rakishok Society and is a committee member for the Rakishok Society to this day.


Mota Gut

He was born in Dvinsk. He was evacuated to Russia during the First World War.

He came to Rakishok from distant Russia (Vologda) in 1919. He became the representative of the artisans on the council of the People's Bank, helped found the loan fund of the Artisans Union and was its treasurer until his departure from Rakishok.

He came to South Africa in 1928. He became the treasurer of the Knesset Yisroel gmiles khesed [the Jewish community interest–free loan]. He is now the life long president of this institution.

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Dovid Dektar

Dovid Dektar was an esteemed communal worker in Capetown. He was one of the initiators who, in 1944, organized an aid activity on behalf of Rakishok.

On the 3rd of December 1944, an initiating group was created that began to organize aid work. This group, which consisted of Dovid Dektar, Nakhum Sulkes–Kopelovitz and Mrs. Sheyna Davidovitz, called a meeting of Rakishok landsleit. Present at this meeting that took place in the Zionist Hall were 32 people who notably taxed themselves on behalf of Rakishok, knowing that if the war ended they would need to rebuild the Jewish community in Rakishok. No one yet imagined the size and cruelty of the destruction.

A short time later, when the scope of the national catastrophe became known, the collected money was utilized for help for the surviving Rakishok Jews.

The elected committee, under the chairmanship of Mr. Rabkin, was very active.

Dovid Dekter made a great contribution to this active work.


Avraham Levin

He was born in Rakishok in 1906. He studied in a kheder until the First World War. His father, Yona Levin, and his wife and children evacuated to Peski, Voronezh Gubernia [province] during the First Work War. There he attended a Russian school.

In 1918, the Levin family returned to Rakishok. They were the first refugees who returned from Russia, while the Germans were still in the shtetl.

Avraham Levin then studied in khederim of Chaim Eli the melamed and with Benish the shoykhet. Then he entered his father's businesses. He joined the Zionist youth at the same time. When the Zionist Socialist party was founded, he was one of its first comrades.

He emigrated to South Africa in 1925. He also signed up here [to work] for the Zionist ideal. He supports all Zionist campaigns and all Jewish institutions.

After the great tragedy for [our people] he joined the Rakishok landsmanschaft and was chosen as a member of the managing committee.

He is a devoted brother of the Rakishok Society.

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Mendl Moskat

He was born in 1898 in Halubets, Vilna gubernia [county]. He was orphaned when he was a few years old. He studied for several years in a kheder and thanks to his older brother he learned the tailor's trade.

The First World War broke out and then the revolution in Russia. He became swayed by the idea of equality and freedom, actively fighting against the White soldiers who wanted to restore the Czarist government.

In 1922 he came to Rakishok with his wife, Alta Cherelovitz, not having the right of residence in Lithuania.

The situation of a “foreigner” was then difficult, under the threat of being deported. Yet Mendl Moskat worked with great devotion in the Culture League and in the Rakishok Artisans' Union.

He emigrated to South Africa in 1926. He immediately became a member of the Rakishok landsmanschaft. Thanks to his activity he was chosen for the managing committee and also as its chairman. The landsmanschaft delegated him to the Bikor Kholim [organization for visiting the sick] and he often visits the sick in the hospital to this day.

He also helped found the Aid Society.

After this, when Khone Kohen, the long time chairman of the landsmanschaft resigned from the chairmanship, Mendl Moskat was the chairman for many years. Mendl has been treasurer of the society for many years.

Mendl Moskat is one of the most meritorious workers for the Rakishok landsmanschaft.


Yisroel Meikl–Mikhalevitz

He was born in Abel [Obeliai] in 1900. His Abel melamdim [religious school teachers] were Itse the hunchback and Aba the melamed, who strongly respected his learning abilities. His father, Mikhal Welwe, sent him to Vilna to the yeshiva [religious secondary school]. He left for Vilna and studied for three years in the yeshiva, which was located in Ramayles' synagogue.

In 1913 he left for Petersburg with his relative, Bertsik Shwarts. He threw away his studies and learned tailoring. He lived in Petersburg illegally and in 1915 he returned to Abel.

Shortly after his coming to Abel, the Germans occupied Lithuania. The Germans took him for heavy forced labor. He tried to escape from the German labor camp where he was captured and sent to a concentration camp. He finally escaped again from the Germans.

The Bolsheviks arrived after this, when the Germans left Lithuania. Then the Lithuanian Republic arose.

Yisroel Meikl–Mikhalevitz began to be interested in cultural communal

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[Page 496]

work. He helped to create a dramatic circle in Abel and thanks to his beautiful voice he became one of the most successful amateurs in the ensemble.

He and his wife emigrated to South Africa in 1927. He became a member of the Rakishok Society. For many years, he also was a member of ORT–OZE.*

*[Translator's note: ORT – Obshestvo Remeslenofo zemledelcheskofo Truda – in Russian – is the Society for Trades and Agricultural Labor. OZE – Obshchestvo okhraneniia zdorov'ia evreiskogo naseleniia – in Russian – is the Society for the Protection of the Health of the Jewish Population.]

He participated often in concerts and undertakings of the Society and of other institutions.

He is an active member of the landsmanschaft.


A. Nach–Nochumovitz

He has been a member of the Rakishok Society since his arrival in South Africa in 1927.

He is also a representative of the Rakishok landsmanschaft on the Board of Deputies.

He is also one of the initiators who significantly worked to publish this yizkor book.


Ahron (Arke) Meitovitz

He was born in 1906 in Alukste, Courland [Ilutkste, Latvia]. His father, Shmerl Meitovitz, came from Varescine, a village near Rakishok. His father was sick and paralyzed for many years. The children had to help their mother to earn their means of support. Arke, too, while still very young, felt the yoke of life.

During the First World War, the Meitovitz family evacuated to Russia, to Balande and they returned to Lithuania, to Rakishok, in 1919. He studied to be a hairdresser in Rakishok and became active in communal life.

He emigrated to South Africa in 1929. In 1933, he joined the Rakishok Society in which he has been active the entire time. He also was a member of the managing committee of the Society for several years.


Sara Klass–Spivak

When we speak about the Rakishok Aid Society and its accomplishments we must remember Sara Klass who was the most active volunteer, corresponded with dozens of landsleit. She was among the founders of the Aid Society.

She was born in Rakishok in 1905 and lived in poverty from her earliest youth. Her mother was a widow and could not give her an education. She wanted to enter the Russian government school, but because of the financial

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[Page 498]

allocations she was not accepted. She studied with Chaim Motien Panevez who was a modern teacher, studying Russian, Yiddish as well as Hebrew.

The World War broke out and the Klass family evacuated to Borisoglebsk, Tambov gubernia. There, she attended the Jewish school of the OPE Society (Society to Provide Schooling). However, she was forced to interrupt her studies because she had to help her mother. She went to work and simultaneously studied at evening courses. She and her brother, Shmuel, who studied astronomy, supported the family.

In 1919 the family returned to Rakishok. She helped to found the Culture League and taught Yiddish to poor girls. She also was the letter–writer to friends in Africa. She actively took part in the journal, Funken [Sparks], a publication of the Culture League and was on the council of the Jewish Folkshul [people's school].

Sara Klass came to Africa in 1933. She has helped the Johannesburg Jewish Folkshul and is a member of its parents' council. During the last World War, she aided the campaigns for medical help for Russia.

She has been a member of the Rakishok Society for many years. She is a member of the managing committee.


Nakhum–Leib Kopelovitz (Sulkas)

He was born in Rakishok in 1906 and he was the oldest son of his parents, who gave him and his brother a traditional Jewish upbringing.

His father, Nakhman, was mobilized into the Czarist army during the First World War and his mother and their four children evacuated to Staraya–Russa, Novgorod gubernia and from there traveled to Petersburg (Leningrad).

He entered a remesliene utshilishtshe [craftsmen academy] in Petersburg where he acquired the trades of an electrical worker and a switchboard operator. At that time few Jews were interested in these trades. Graduating from this school, he left to work as a telephonist [operator of switchboard] at the telephone stations in Petersburg and Staraya–Russa. He became the only one to provide food for his household because his father was wounded on the battlefield in the Carpathian Mountains and lay for more than three years in a quarantine station, emerging a weak and sick man.

In 1933 the family returned to Rakishok from its evacuation.

Nakhum–Leib entered the Zionist Socialist Party and Makkabi [Jewish sports organization], showing active [participation] in these organizations and helping all Zionist undertakings. He was chosen for the managing committees of the Zionist Socialists and Makkabi and was trusted.

He was one of the first electrical–technicians in Rakishok and was an electrical–mechanic in the Rakishok movie theater.

[Page 499]

He emigrated to Eretz–Yisroel in 1929 where he at first worked at the telephone stations in Yaffa and in Tel Aviv and then he worked with Ahron Nach–Nochumovitz at the building.

Because the economic situation for his parents in Rakishok grew worse from day to day, he decided to emigrate to South Africa. He settled in Capetown where he was employed by a mobile movie theater over the course of three years.

In 1939 he established a movie theater for blacks and coloreds in Worcester. The giant undertaking was crowned with financial success that inspired him to open two more movie theaters for whites. In the course of time he reached an important financial position.

However, he remained the same simple and goodhearted Nakhum–Leib. He helps all of the cultural–social campaigns and appeals on behalf of Israel with even larger sums. He also actively took part in the aid work on behalf of the Rakishok landsleit who survived the great catastrophe for our people.


Moshe Klavir

He was born in Abel in 1905. His father, Zelig Dovid, was employed in trade and his mother, Eida, also understood how to conduct trade.

After the war he was called to military service in the Lithuanian army. Returning from the military, he entered the Abel Culture League. Then he helped to found the Tzeiri–Zion [Young Men of Zion] party, in which he was very active. He founded the Abel library and helped to organize lectures and reports. He also helped to create a dramatic section, which presented many productions, and he is also one of the best amateur actors.

Moshe Klavir also founded the first haHalutz [pioneer] group in Abel, being its chairman and also went to Kovno and Shavl for hakhshara [Zionist youth movement preparing members for emigration to Eretz–Yisroel].

He came to South Africa in 1928. He joined the Rakishok landsmanschaft. He was chosen for the managing committee many times and is an active and respected managing committee member.

[Page 500]

Kheikl Rubin

He was born in Rakishok in 1899. He studied in Abel with Aba the Melamed until his Bar–Mitzvah.

He went to Walk [Valga] (Estonia) with his parents during the First World War. He returned to Rakishok with his parents in 1918.

He emigrated to South Africa in 1929. He joined the Rakishok Society and became a member of the Beis haMedrash d'Hasidim [Hasidic House of Prayer] in Johannesburg.

It is already 20 years that Kheikl Rubin has been a member of the Society and he is always ready to do the most difficult work. He also is active in the Hasidic house of prayer with great dedication.

He is one of the rare perfect Jews who are here in South Africa. He observes Shabbos [the Sabbath] and the holidays as in the old home. He is a typical tilim Yid [Psalm Jew – one who recites Psalms] who observes all of the Jewish traditions and provisions.


Shlomo Rubin

He was born in Rakishok in 1894. He showed communal initiative at an early age. He founded the first Jewish library in Rakishok and played in and also directed various plays in the Yiddish language.

In 1926 he emigrated to South Africa. From the first day, even here on African soil, he showed his interest in communal work and performed with the Jewish theater ensemble in Capetown.

He became active in the Literary Union in Johannesburg and was the secretary of the Union and the library.

He acted in and directed plays in Johannesburg and he arranged many artistic undertakings on behalf of the Rakishok Society in which he has been a committee member since his arrival in the country. Today he is an honorary secretary of the landsmanschaft, one of the initiators who actively helped to publish the Yizkor Book.

He was delegated by the Society to the Board of Deputies and to this day he represents the Rakishok landsmanschaft on the managing committee of the Jewish Folkshul in Johannesburg.

He is a real and devoted man of the people, who deeply loves the Yiddish folk language and literature and is a devoted brother of the Society in word and deed.

[Page 501]


[Page 502]

Genya Rubin

She was born in Kremenets, Wolyn, lived in Melitopol, Russia. She had a strong drive to perform in Yiddish theater.

She played her first role in 1918 in Dovid's Firele [David's Wagon]. She performed in a responsible role in Jakob Gordon's Got, Mentsh un Tayvl [God, Man and Devil] under the direction of the famous director and artist, Sokolow.

She came to Rakishok with her husband, Shlomo Rubin, and there produced Di Brenendike Hoyz [The Burning House].

She came to Africa in 1927. She acted with great success in the ensembles of [Yankev] Waislitz, Natan, Sarah Sylvia, Runitsh, Breitman, Niusia Gold, F. Zigelbaum.

Her love of Yiddish theater is great. And to this day she takes part in producing and appears with recitations at various small art evenings.

She greatly helps the Rakishok landsmanschaft in its cultural presentations.


Berl Ruch

He was born 1919 in a small village, Kurkletz, near Rakishok. His father Pesakh Ruch and his family moved to Rakishok at the time of the First World War.

Pesakh Ruch, an ardent Hasid and deeply religious man, raised all of his children in the religious spirit, including his son Berl, who went to kheder and to the Talmud–Torah and later studied for a time in the yeshiva with Reb Moshe Sidrin.

However, the new, modern ideas also penetrated the house of Pesakh Ruch. Berl left the yeshiva and became a student of the Pre–Gymnazie [preparatory school], Yavneh. He was an active member of the dramatic circle for a time.

The circumstances then of the Jews in Lithuania led to worry about the future, about a purpose and many young people began to learn a trade. Berl studied photography and, at the beginning of 1929, he emigrated to South Africa. He helped the Chabad [Lubavitch Hasidic] movement financially. He also helped the Yonishkel [Joniškėlis] Rabbi, Reb Yosef Sidrin, when he came to collect money for the Rakishok Yeshiva [religious secondary school].

At the same time, he was a Zionist and he was devoted to the Zionist movement heart and soul. He also was one of those who helped found the Rakishok Aid Society in Johannesburg and was its treasurer.

When the two societies merged – the Rakishok Landsmanschaft and the Rakishok Aid Society – he was chosen as and is to this day the vice chairman of the Rakishok Landsmanschaft.

[Page 503]

Liba Ruch

She was born in 1921 in Panevezys and, as a young person emigrated with her parents to South Africa, who settled in Muizenberg. Although she studied in the English schools, she still speaks Yiddish and is close to Jewish organizations, giving her help and contributions.

After her marriage to Berl Ruch, she became a devoted member of the Rakishok Landsmanschaft: helps to organize events, to send packages for landsleit and to gather funds.

She was chosen as a committee member of the Rakishok Landsmanschaft because of her activity.


Moshe Yisroel Sharf–Saltuper

He was born in Novo Alexandrovsk–Ezsherene in 1906. His father, Yerakhmiel, was an invalid without legs and his mother, Pesya–Malya, provided the income for her husband and children. The small Moshke, while still young, harnessed himself in the yoke of labor to make it easier for his parents.

His entire family evacuated to Saranks, Penza Gubernia [county] during the First World War. His mother was ill because of an accident. They returned to Novo Alexandrovsk in 1922.

Moshe became a peddler because of the bad economic situation in the home. He attempted to escape to Russia, but he was arrested in Latvia, sent back to Novo Alexandrovsk.

He then went to Kovno [Kaunas] where he studied tailoring. He also was active in the local “culture league,” becoming an underground worker. He took an active part in YAK (Jewish Workers Club).

He emigrated to South Africa in 1926. After several difficult years as a grinem [one newly arrived], he succeeded in working himself up and is now the owner of an industrial enterprise.

He was active simultaneously in communal areas. He is an active member of the Mayfair Congregation and was its representative to the Board of Deputies. He was also a member and honorary treasurer of the interest loan fund in Mayfair–Fordsburg.

He also is an active member of the Rakishok Landsmanschaft, member of the managing committee and is also its vice chairman.

He helps with assessments on behalf of the local Jewish institutions and on behalf of various campaigns.

[Page 504]


[Page 505]

Hirshl Sher

He was born in Antalept [Antalieptė]. Until his Bar–Mitzvah, he studied with Dowid Hirsh the malamed. When the First World War broke out, his entire family continued to live under the German occupation. Hirshl then learned a trade. He also was involved with smuggling goods. When the German occupation regime issued a decree that they must have licenses, Hirshl was delegated to go to Rakishok to purchase licenses for the traders in the shtetl.

This was his first communal mission that stimulated him to carry out activity in other communal areas, too.

He came to South Africa in 1927. He became an active member of the Rakishok Society. He is a member of the managing committee and also is the vice chairman of the Rakishok Landsmanschaft. He is also a member of the interest free loan fund of Bertrams.

[Page 506]

B. Aid Society

The Rakishok Aid Society in Johannesburg is an interesting and important chapter in itself and arose after the Rakishok Landsmanschaft in South Africa already had existed for 20 some years.

At first glance, we can examine the essential emergence of a separate aid society at the time when the Rakishok Landsmanschaft could fill the same functions, but when we comprehensively analyze the situation at that time, the economic and the political situation of the Jews of Europe, [the reason for] the rise of such an autonomous society that was founded a few years before the Second World War becomes understandable to us.

A depression had reigned over the world since 1932 and the fear of a second world war was very clear, primarily in Europe.

Letters often were received from Rakishok and from its surroundings, as well as from many other places in Lithuania and Poland, in which a fear of a second world war was expressed, emphasizing the growing social needs, the severe poverty of individuals and the financial crisis in the various institutions.

A special representative, the Joniskiai Rabbi, Reb Josef Sidrin from the Rakishok yeshiva [religious secondary school) came to Johannesburg, to South Africa in 1937 to collect money and he gave information about the bad situation in the Lithuanian towns. A committee was created then of the people: Mendl Muskat, Berl Ruch, Chaim–Moshe Gen, Shlomo Sher, Yitzhak Gruz, Shmerl Loubovitz and Sh. Rubin, which assisted him in his mission.

After his return home, various individuals and institutions in Rakishok and its surroundings appealed for support.

At first, individuals responded to the appeal, who themselves sent money to poor relatives and acquaintances and also to institutions. Thanks to the initiative of M. Muskat, a sum of money also was then collected for the Rakishok Culture League.

However, this was sporadic help and not significant.

It was necessary that the aid work be led by an organized body.

The Rakishok Landsmanschaft, in accordance with its constitution that was created during its first years, carried out its activities within the framework of local aid among the local landsleit and its main purpose was to distribute loans and give medical help to its members.

It should also be emphasized that there was a financial crisis in South Africa before the Second World War and the money reserves of the Society were very limited. This question always was on the agenda of the Landsmanschaft executive:

[Page 507]

how do we help the needy members who mostly belong to the poorest stratum of the local Jewish population? The richer landsleit rarely were Society members, believing that a society is an old–fashioned institution that they would not join.

For the reasons and facts mentioned above, the idea was born among several landsleit to found a special Aid Society.

This group of initiators – Avraham Orelovitz, Yitzhak Ginzburg, Mrs. Furman, Mendl Muskat, Mrs. Klein, Josl Kuperman, Mendl Vitz, may he rest in peace, M. Gut, Yitzhak Grin, Chaim–Moishe Gen, Shlomo Rubin, Berl Ruch, Shlomo Sher, Mrs. Shneider – had earlier distinguished itself and thanks to them the Aid Society was created that took on as its purpose the sending of financial help to the poor landsleit and institutions in the old home.

Josl Kuperman (chairman), Mendl Muskat (treasurer), Avraham Orelovitz (secretary), Yitzhak Ginzburg and Shlomo Rubin belonged to the presidium of the Aid Society.

An appeal to all landsleit in South Africa to contribute to the Aid Society was published.

A meeting was called at the end of 1937 at the Jewish Guild, Johannesburg. Among other things it was decided at this meeting to incorporate more women into the committee who would help organize various undertakings.

Entertainments were arranged often that brought in large sums of money to the treasury of the newly founded Society. At that time, if an entertainment provided income of several hundred pounds, it was a large sum considering that the pound was [equal to] 30 litai.

Mota Gut, the Mrs. Klein, Furman and Shneider, the Ruch family and Teyba Orlin–Kil demonstrated special activity in the work of the Society.

After the resignation of Josl Kuperman, the Aid Society was led by Yitzhak Ginzburg who became its chairman. The work intensified and many landsleit also took on obligations to pay regular monthly dues to be used by the Aid Society.

The financial help sent to the old home enabled the poor people to buy matzoh for Passover, buy wood for the winter and other necessities.

However, the Second World War broke out and, later, the Soviet–German War. Every contact with the old home was broken off from July 1941.

The Aid Society searched every path and byway to make contact with Rakishok and its surroundings, but all efforts were [unsuccessful]. Actually, there was then no one with whom to connect because the cruel Hitlerists had slaughtered [the residents of] Rakishok and its surroundings along with the great majority of Jewish shtetlekh in Lithuania during the first days of the occupation.

[Page 508]


There was a sum of 100 pounds in the treasury of the Aid Society, which we supplied – as a deposit – to the treasury of the Rakishok Landsmanschaft, planning for the renewed activity ahead when the war would end, not anticipating that the Hitlerists had carried out the total slaughter of the Jews.

Various rumors reached us about German cruelty and also about the extermination of the Jews in Europe during the World War, but no one could believe that such slaughter could take place in our century. Others surmised that it was just gossip and not real facts. The human brain could not comprehend that such murders, mass exterminations of the Jews could occur and if it had happened, then it was nothing but the end of the world.

[Page 509]

A consultation was called to consider how we could learn the actual fate of our brothers and sisters. It was decided to send a letter to Kuibyshev, seat of the Moscow government at the time of the war, to obtain certain information.

It was also decided at the consultation to create a fund to be able to immediately help the surviving Jews when the storm of war had passed.

Everyone present at the consultation taxed themselves for a significant sum, underscoring that as soon as the first sad news came across the sea, everyone was ready to triple the sum they had given.

In 1944 the cruel truth already was known to us about the Jews in Europe and in all of the places occupied by the Germans. The radio announced that Kovno was freed from the Germans. Yitzhak Ginzburg, chairman of the Society, telegraphed the Anti–Fascist Committee in Moscow asking that it be announced in the local Jewish newspaper there, Di Einikeyt [The Unity] that if a landsleit had successfully escaped from the claws of death, he should contact the Rakishok Aid Committee. We also turned to the chairman of the Rakishok Gorsoviet (city council).

The first letter from the surviving landsleit arrived in 1945 in which the details and course of the slaughter were described and also that, alas, there were no longer any Jews in Rakishok because even those who did survive did not want to live in their ruined homes and would rather settle in Vilna, Kovno and in other cities.

Letters then arrived from the landsleit who were freed from the various concentration camps.

The secretarial work of the Aid Society from 1945 until its integration into the Rakishok Landsmanschaft was carried out by Yerakhmiel Arons (Arsh), who with his wife, Etl, took upon themselves the work of finding out the residences of all surviving landsleit and to accomplish this they corresponded with various people in South Africa, Russia, Lithuania, Poland and with the refugee camps in Germany, Austria and Italy.

With great difficulty there was success in establishing the following names and addresses of 100 surviving landsleit, who were then in various places and nations:

Arsh, Melekh, lost his wife and children. Married in Vilna.
Arsh, Dr. Avraham and his wife Dr. Chaya Arsh and their two children, in Vilna.
Arsh, Dowid, with his wife and child (now in Israel).
Orelovitz, Zorekh, in Rakishok.
Abramovitz, Chaya Rywka, in Russia.
Abramovitz, Rywka, in Lithuania.

[Page 510]

Abramovitz, Hirshke, in Lithuania.
Baradovsky, Liba, in Givat Brener, Israel.
Baradovsky, Kh and wife, in Rakishok.
Bun, Etl (Yudl Kalman's daughter) in Lithuania.
Brinkman B., in Vilna.
A son of Shimshon Baradovsky, the rope maker, now in Lithuania.
Brik, Liba–Leah (née Meirovitz), in Israel.
Berz, S. (a grandson of Yisroel Yudl's), in Vilna.
Ginzburg, Avraham, in Murmansk, Russia.
Gelcer, Chaim, and his wife and son; his wife and son are now in Brazil and he is in Belgium.
Griz, Dwoyra (Shusiena), in Italy.
Gar, Ruchl (née Shpir), now in America.
German, Sonia, now in Israel.
Gafanovitz, Dwoyra (a daughter of Mendl the fisherman), in Lithuania.
Gordon, Elkhonen, in Riga.
Dulan, Shual Netska, from Radute (a grandson of Itshe Dulan), in Lithuania.
Two Dectar sisters, Yudl the miller's daughters, in Vilna.
Herckovitz, Dwoyra (née Ratner) and her husband, in Italy.
Weiner, Ida, in Russia.
Weiner, Y., (Mikhal's daughter), in Vilna.
Zakstein, Yehudas (daughter of Zalman Zakstein), in Vilna.
Zalcman, Avraham (Yakha Poplak's husband), in deep Russia.
Zager, Ruchl (Ruzner). (Now in Israel).
Chit, Avraham (Zorekh Meirim's nephew), in Lithuania.
Charit, Sara (née Griz), in Vilna.
Charmatz, Josef. (Now in Israel).
Charmatz, Dwoyra, now in Israel.
Turik, Breyna and son (Dore Ber's daughter), in Lithuania.
Jacobson, Zlata (a daughter of Yankl Jacobson), in Lithuania.v Yafa, Ida and Shimeon, in Lithuania.
Yafa, Aba, now in Israel.
Yafa, Hirshl, Ruchl and Gnendl, in Kovno.
Mera Ita Chonen (Herce Yafa's granddaughter) in Lithuania.
A son of Hirshl Jakubovitz, in Lithuania.
Jalavecki and three children, in Lithuania.
Levin, Gisa, now in South Africa.
Levin, Ahron, in Vilna.
Levinzon, Dusya (née Zamet), now in Israel.
Levin, Altka (Yona Levin's daughter), in Lithuania.
Levin, Hinda (Berl Levin's daughter), in Lithuania.
Levin, Fanya (Layzer Levin's wife), in deep Russia.
Mekler, Sara (Bayla Jante's daughter), in Lithuania.

[Page 511]

A daughter of Pesakh Milkin, in Lithuania.
Maran, Sheyna, in Lithuania.
Meirovitz, Josef, now in Brazil.
Meirovitz, Berl, in Lithuania.
Meirovitz, Ahrik, in Lithuania.
Meller, Yudl, his wife and son, in Vilna.
Neymark, Sima, from the Weingrin family, now in Israel.
Sarver, Zorekh and his wife, in Vilna.
Segal, Sara–Mera (a daughter of the Boba [grandmother] Mariasha], in Lithuania.
Seitovitz, Welwe (Zundl Yante's son), in Lithuania.
Sgieg, Shmuel Aba, in Munich, Germany.
Seitovitz, Chaya Henya (a grandchild of Avraham Seitovitz), in Lithuania.
Seitovitz, Ruchl Leah (Yante's grandchild), in Lithuania.
Spivak, Leib, now in Israel.
Flach, Dovid (Etl's son), now in America.
Ferias, Beyla (Shmuel Baradovsky's daughter), in Lithuania.
Fein, Etl, in Vilna.
Citisky, Reyza (a grandchild of Shmuel the fisherman), in Lithuania.
Cindel, Breyna Leah and her husband and child, in Panavezys.
Kark, Eide (Yankl Kark's daughter), with a child, in Vilna.
A daughter of Notl Kruk (Azinkaia), in Lithuania.
Kark, Meir and his wife and child, in Vilna.
Kanan, Meir (from the Epshtein family), with a sister and her husband and child, in Vilna.
Kark, Relia, in Kovno.
Two Kur brothers (Yankl Hirshl's sons), in Vilna.
Koplansky, L. (son of Mariashka Prade), in Lithuania.
Kur, M, in Rakishok.
Krok, Chaim, now in Israel.
Kolworia, Ruchl (née Meirovitz), now in Israel.
Kanan, Rywka (née Epshtein) with a sister and her husband and child, in Vilna.
Ripiena (Yankl Kur's daughter) and child in Vilna.
Ruch, Leiba, in Vilna.
Feyga, a daughter of Basl Rif, in Lithuania.
Two Ribak brothers (Bunia's sons), in Lithuania.
Rudik, Leah, Yankl Rudik's friend, in Lithuania.
Basia and Breyna Rif (Meir Rif's daughters), in Lithuania.
Rozenkovic, Rywka (daughter of Feytl Rozenkovic), in Lithuania.
Pesakh, Leyba and Basheve Ruch, in Siberia.
Ratman, Moshe, in Vilna.
Ruch, Yerakhmiel and his wife Henya and son, in Riga.
Shruchisky (Yisroel the shoemaker's [son]), in Lithuania.

[Page 512]

Shatz, Khona, in Italy.
Shukhet, Leah, in Italy.
Spak, Berl, in Kovno.
Shreiberg, Nusan (a son of the candlemaker), in Lithuania.
Shamer, Khvalya, in Vilna.
Shamer, Leah, in Vilna.
Shamer, Khesia (now in Israel).
Shamer, Shmuel Yona, in Vilna.
Shpir, Efroim (Chaya the furrier's son). (Now in Israel).
Shmushkovitz, Welwl and family, in Vilna.
Sheinke, from Rakishok orphanage, in Lithuania.
Shubel, Nakhum and wife and a daughter, in Rakishok.
Chana Perl (Zelig Pesakh's daughter), and her husband, in Lithuania.
Chana Perl, in Rakishok.
A daughter of Meir Prades–Shimelovitz, in Lithuania.
Two daughters of Shaya–Josia the wagon driver, in Lithuania.

Food parcels, underwear, bedding and various kinds of clothing were sent by the Aid Society to the addresses found at that time. We also sent money. Several dozen blankets were sent through a Swedish firm to Vilna. The capable women of our Landsmanschaft knitted sweaters that were sent to the landsleit at the first opportunity.

A committee of those from Rakishok also was created in Eretz–Yisroel that solicited help, wanting to create an aid–fund for the new Rakishok immigrants who entered illegally and also for the refugees in the refugee camps in Germany, Austria, Italy and Lithuania.

We publish the full text of this letter from Israel as a historical document without stylistic and orthographic changes.

Tel Aviv
Esteemed Friend!

It is superfluous to write to you about the misfortune that all of Jewry and Lithuanian Jewry encountered. I know with certainty that we were orphaned and lost all of our closest and dearest ones.

The war ended and little by little the picture became clearer of what had happened there in our old home and we also learned about the fate of Rakishok, our former shtetl. Few survived through various miracles and remain alive. A few already have come to us in Eretz–Yisroel.

They gave us the bitter greetings, described the embittered hearts and also spoke about those who still remain in Lithuania.

[Page 513]

Therefore, we, those from Rakishok who live in Eretz–Yisroel, decided to found a fund and collect money to help the several survivors. We collected 20 pounds on the spot and already have sent two parcels to Lithuania (one to Chana–Ela Kruk, the second to Yenta's grandchild). We also gave a loan to one of those arriving [here].

We hope that our work will expand with the help of the Rakishokers who live in Africa. We are certain that you will do everything possible for this purpose. This is the only thing we can do for our unfortunate brothers who have suffered so much.

We have elected a council of three people: Rywka Dektor, Chaya–Rayzl Ponevezh–Dobicky and Chaya–Hinda Snieg–Urmel to be responsible for the money that is received and we will send you an account of our work. We ask each of you to contribute as much as you can and also awake others to do even more.

We only have addresses for some individuals; we ask you to send us the addresses of those from Rakishok with whom you meet. We hope that you will not let the idea rest that those close to us and with whom we are acquainted are still suffering today, after all of the troubles that they bore and you will help them and do everything for them, as we are doing here.

With best wishes,
Chaya Snieg–Urmel, Rywka Dektor, Chaya–Rayzl Ponevezh–Dobicky.

We ask you to send money to the bank in the name of the three people mentioned above to the following address:

Anglo–Palestine Bank Tel Aviv

Chaya Urmel, Ben Yehuda 49; Rywka Dektor, Hebron 5; Shoshona Dobicky Bar Kochba 19.

It was agreed to help everyone and for that we needed larger amounts of money.

A meeting of the Rakishok landsleit was called then, which took place in the Jewish Guild in Johannesburg on the 27th of November 1945.

The times and the conditions were favorable for a large money collection. The women were reinvigorated by the letters they had received and the economic situation of the Jews in South Africa after the war was very good. Everyone responded with generosity.

A committee was chosen at the meeting with the following composition: Yitzhak Ginzburg (chairman), Mendl Muskat (treasurer), Avraham Orelowicz (honorary secretary), Yerakhmiel Arons–Arsh, Mrs. Sura Klas (vice chairman), Sh. Lubovitz, Sh. Sher, M. Smit, M. Gut, Sh. Rubin, H. Levin.

The first committee meeting took place on the 30th of January 1946 in Mendl Muskat's house. Important decisions were made about how to increase

[Page 514]

the aid work as well as the decision to add the landsleit Shaul Bacher, Zerakh Kosef and Berl Stein to the committee.

There was an intensive exchange of letters with landsleit everywhere and the Aid Society did not refuse help for anyone, although the financial means – because of the widespread activity – were very limited.

Sura Klas, the vice chairwoman, corresponded with almost every surviving landsleit and she encouraged them with letters. The women, Toyba Orlin, Etl Arons–Arsh, Liba Ruch, Alta Muskat and others, also were active with diligence, with great responsibility and dedication. It was through them that various money collections were often organized.

When food parcels or clothing could no longer be sent to Russia, we concentrated on helping the refugees in the camps and above all we sent larger sums of money to Israel.

After Yitzhak Ginsburg resigned, the above–mentioned activity of the Aid Society was carried out under the chairmanship of Motl Gut. Later, Moshe Sharp, was chosen as chairman [and he] resigned. Then Mendl Muskat was chosen as chairman.

However, it was a suitable time for the question of merging the activities of the Aid Society with the work of the Rakishok Landsmanschaft.

At the general meeting of the Rakishok Landsmanschaft that took place on the 7th of July 1948, Yerakhmiel Arons (Arsh) strongly defended the idea that both administrative bodies merge. He also argued for his proposal in the following way:

We have two Rakishok Societies and the same people actually are active in both institutions. This is simply comical and unnecessary. The above–mentioned administrative bodies need to merge and, perhaps, we will succeed in showing more constructive and more substantial deeds. It should be understood that it will be necessary to change and modify the constitution of the Landsmanschaft. There must also be a change so that women can also be full members of the society.

Yerakhmiel Arons' proposal to integrate the Aid Society into the Rakishok Landsmanschaft was accepted after a debate with the stipulation that a special fund to carry on activities overseas would be created in the Rakishok Landsmanschaft.

A new constitution was put together then and many points were modified, such as:

According to the previous constitution in accordance with the paragraph in point 2:

“The purpose of the Society shall be: to give such members who are in need a doctor and medicines without cost, all remaining claims and services of the doctor shall be given to the committee.”

[Page 515]

This paragraph was modified in the following manner:

a) Aid to all needy landsleit here and oversees.

The new constitution was adopted with the following points:

New Statute

Point 1.

The name of the Society (Landsmanschaft) is: Rakishok Sick Benefit and Loan Society (Medicine and Loan Society).

Point 2.


a) Help for all needy landsleit here and overseas.
b) Interest free loans to all members of the Society.
c) Medical help to all Benefit members.

[Translator's note: points 3, 17, 23, 24, 26 and 29 do not contain a clause b.]

Point 3.

a) All requests and letters need to be handled by the committee of the Society that makes the appropriate decisions.

Point 4.

a) Each member of the Society is entitled to receive a loan.
b) For every loan of a pound, the borrower will pay six pennies to the Society.
c) A member can receive a loan of up to 100 pounds.*
d) The loans must be [undersigned] in such a manner: two endorsers are necessary for loans up to 25 pounds; three endorsers – for up to 50 pounds and four endorsers for 100–150 pounds.
e) A husband and wife are entitled to receive only one loan from the Society.

* Recently it was decided that the size of the loans can reach 150 pounds.

f) One person can endorse only three loans.
g) The loan must be repaid during the course of a year, but the committee can extend it to 18 months.

Point 5.

a) The Society distributes medical aid, treatment from its doctors and prescriptions to all of its Benefit members without payment.
b) The family members of the Benefit member can also receive medical aid, but they have to pay according to the discount price of the Society.
c) The Society does not give any medical aid in cases where the illness of the Benefit member is long–standing, a chronic [illness]. The interested person, in exceptional cases, must turn to the committee, which will decide about further free treatment of the sick person.

Point 6.

All expenditures for the medical aid provided and for other needs will be covered by dues.

Point 7.

The surplus which remains after paying all debts will be transferred to the general fund of the Society.

Point 8.

The capital of the Society, with the exception of the special aid fund, can be utilized for giving loans and not for other purposes.

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Point 9.

The distribution of aid to the needy will be covered by a special aid fund.

Point 10.

Monies from special undertakings will be given for general capital or to the aid fund at the decision of the committee.

Point 11.

a) Men and women not younger than 18 can become members of the Society and have voting rights if they have paid their member dues.
b) A man or a woman who marries a non–Jew or not according to the laws of Moses and Israel cannot be a member of the Society.
c) A person must have the recommendation of two members to become a member of the Society.

Point 12.

a) Men and women from 18 to 45 can become Benefit members if they have previously been examined by the Society doctor who must certify that they are healthy.
b) The entry fee for a new member is 10 shillings and six pennies.
c) The committee has the right not to accept new members.
d) New members cannot receive benefits during the first six months [of their membership].

Point 13.

a) A Benefit member pays a member's dues of 48 shillings a year in advance.
b) The member dues for a non–Benefit member is 30 shillings a year that must also be paid in advance.
c) Member dues for a woman is 12 shillings a year, paid in advance.
d) A member who [has not paid] member dues for six months is not entitled to receive benefits from the Society.

Point 14.

a) The Society (Landsmanschaft) is led by a committee that is elected at a general meeting.
b) The committee is chosen only once a year.
c) Only at the general meeting of the Society can members decide: if the election should take place openly or in secret.
d) The general meeting elects its representatives – to represent the Society – in other unions or societies and designates the honorary officials and the editors.
e) The legally [required] number of members at a general meeting must be no less than 20 members. In cases where the above–mentioned number of members are not present, a second meeting will be called where the legally required number will be present.

Point 15.

a) The committee consists of a chairman, vice chairman, honorary secretary, treasurer, three [financial] trustees (audit commission) and seven committee members.
b) The committee has the right to add new committee members when it is necessary.
c) The committee has the right to hire a paid secretary or bookkeeper.

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d) One must be a member of the Society for six months before becoming a member of the committee.
e) One must be a committee member for not less than six months before becoming chairman or vice chairman of the Society.

Point 16.

a) The chairman is responsible for implementing the decisions of the committee and of the general meetings and directs all of the work of the Society.
b) The chairman leads the general meetings and committee sessions.
c) The chairman has the right to demand that a member leave the committee session or the general meeting in cases of a breakdown of discipline.
d) The chairman sets the agenda for the meetings and committee sessions.
e) The chairman calls the committee session that must take place no less than once a month.
f) The chairman calls a general membership meeting no less than every six months.

Point 17.

a) The task of the vice chairman is to work with the chairman and represent him in his absence, carrying out his duties.

Point 18.

a) The treasurer is called upon to collect the member dues and the payment of loans punctually.
b) He must give a receipt for all money given to him.
c) The treasurer must immediately deposit the money he receives in the bank and is responsible for having the books audited at the end of each year and also having them certified by the audit commission of the Society (auditors).

Point 19.

a) The secretary of the Society is responsible for all of the written and organizational work of the Society.
b) The secretary is authorized to see that the work of a paid secretary or bookkeeper shall be carried out accurately.
c) If the paid secretary or bookkeeper is absent, it is the duty of the honorary secretary to temporarily carry on the work.
The secretary is obligated to take exact and precise minutes that need to be certified by the Society chairman.

Point 20.

a) The duties of the trustees (audit commission) – to work in accord with the interests of the Society.
b) The trustees have the right to audit the books and accounts of the Society at all times.
c) In case the members of the audit commission are not satisfied with the state of the books or they find certain irregularities, they have the right to demand a general meeting.
d) Ten members also have the right to demand a general meeting and the chairman must recognize the demand.

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Point 21.

a) The committee members are obligated to come to all committee meetings, take part in all deliberations and meetings of the Society and help in a practical way to carry out all of the decisions taken.
b) The committee has the right to exclude a committee member if he does not attend three committee meetings in sequence without an appropriate reason.
c) All committee members are authorized to hold certain negotiations, conversations and discussions in secret at the meetings if it could blemish the prestige of the Society.

Point 22.

a) The honorary president of the Society is a full member of the Executive.
b) The honorary president leads the meetings at the time of voting.

Point 23.

a) Every member is obligated to submit to the points of the statute.

Point 24.

a) In case of the resignation of a committee member, someone must be elected by the general meeting to take his place.

Point 25.

a) A member can be excluded from the Society for refusing to pay member dues.
b) In case a member refuses to carry out the decisions of the general meeting or he causes malevolent harm to the Society, he will be excluded from the Society.

Point 26.

a) Every member can personally appeal a committee decision to the general meeting when he is dissatisfied [with the decision].

Point 27.

The exclusion of a member must be accepted at a general meeting of the Society.

Point 28.

a) Only the general meeting can remove or add points to the statute or change them.
b) Every change in the statute must be added in writing.

Point 29.

a) The statute enters in force only when it is accepted by the committee with a majority vote and then is accepted at a general meeting.

Point 30.

An agenda must be created for each general meeting that must be sent to each member of the Society [before the meeting].

A new committee was chosen with the following composition: Yerakhmiel Arons–Arsh – chairman; Berl Ruch – vice chairman; Shlomo Rubin – secretary; Mendl Muskat – treasurer; Etl Arons–Arsh, Tayba Orlin, Avraham Orelovitz, Yitzhak Niznburg, Motl Gut, Avraham Levin, Ahron Noach–Noachumovitz, Ahron Seitovitz, Moshe Klavir, Sura Klas, Liba Ruch, Kheikl Rubin, Hirsh Sher.

[Page 519]

Aid has been sent to the landsleit in the name of the Rakishok Landsmanschaft since the founding of the Aid Society [as part of] the Rakishok Landsmanschaft.

The most important activities of the Aid Society are reflected in the letters received from the landsleit.

We publish a series [of letters here].

From a letter from Chaim Kruk, dated the 12th of July 1946, Tel Aviv:

“At the start I can inform you that my family and I are all healthy. I have received the 50 pounds from you for which I sincerely thank you. I have received a residence as well as a place to work. I also have procured a few tools and I am working a little. I have the opportunity to begin to build my new home. The money from you should not be considered a donation. I hope that I will have the possibility of giving it back.”

A letter from the Rakishok Committee in Israel, dated the 18th of October 1946:

“It is again possible to send parcels to Russia and we again are sending parcels to Russia, but we do not know how to proceed further and we are giving the matter to you for a decision. The issue is as follows: we think that you [should] take over the work directly because we have heard that parcels also are being sent to Russia from Africa and that it is not worthwhile to incur any additional costs with you sending things to us. We will send you all of the addresses that we have and you can send your help [directly] based on your decision.”

From a letter from Leibl Spivak, Petar Tikvah, dated the 17th of March 1946:

“I have already written one letter to you and now I will need to thank you again for the 200 pounds that you sent to me and I send you my blessing for the duty you have felt to your tortured brothers and also wish you success in your work, that more Jews will answer and you will be able to help them. I cannot express my thanks to you and describe how much I needed [the help]. I was despondent and without hope. You know how we looked coming naked and barefoot from the concentration camps.”

Mera Segal, from Vilna, in a letter of the 25th of November 1948, lets be known:

“I received a parcel of fabric and lining for a coat from you on the 9th of November. My daughter and I thank you sincerely. We wish you much success in your work.”

Yoba Zalcman writes the following (the letter is from Yakutsk, dated the 4th of January 1949):

“I can write to you that we received your parcel today for which we thank you all, all those from Rakishok, for the good work you do for we few surviving Jews. We ask that you not forget us [in the future].”

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Yehudis Zakstein, wrote on the 28 of September 1948:

“This is written by Yehudis Zakstein, who received a parcel from you. I thank you very much for your effort and dedication. This is a joy for me because I do not know you at all. My dear one, write to me and tell me who you are and what drove you to send me the parcel. Do you, perhaps, know me? I am still a young girl and you have been in Africa for a long time.”

The Aid Society received many such letters during the first years after the war. landsleit did, too – as telegrams or through postcards – thanking the Aid Society.

Recently the work has been concentrated on helping the survivors and those landsleit who already are settled in Israel because all contact with Russia and the refugee camps in Germany, Austria and Italy has been terminated as we mentioned earlier.

The letters from the landsleit in Israel were written with great approval and with a tremendous amount of warm feelings. We provide only summaries from several letters:

“We have received the parcel of food a few weeks ago. This was so kind and it arrived just in time; there is no doubt that it was given by our own people [people from Rakishok].”

(Shulamit Sarber–Frydman in Tel Aviv)

“We were very delighted to receive your letter, as well as the parcel. We thank you very much. We are not lacking for anything here and need nothing. However, we were moved by the attention and more than anything that somewhere in the world there still exist a few Jews with Rakishok names. It is superfluous to record how cherished and dear this is for us. We received a breeze of warmth and home from the distant past from your letter.”

(Chana and Mikhal Orelovitz, Tel Aviv)

“A great, great thank you in our name and in the name of our childhood names for your beautiful gifts, the parcels that you sent us. We are all surprised that we were remembered in friendship by people who all lived together in our Rakishok and your attention to us made a terrific impression.”

Pinkhas Patz (Hadera)

“First I want to thank you for the food parcel that I have received. Gratitude is due to you not only for sending the parcel; there is a feeling of concern, of family and this is worth a great deal and, therefore, I thank you again.”

Tsipora Ziglbaum (Kril), Tel Aviv

“I received your parcel for which I wish you much luck in your further work. At this time you will be happy to hear that I am one of those who, thanks to your parcels during wartime, did not die of hunger. The thousands of people who fell in the streets like flies from hunger, many of them our closest friends, today still appear before my eyes.”

(Chana Orelovitz, Tel Aviv)

“Several days ago I received a parcel of food and a letter from you. I was moved by your attention. I live in a kibbutz and all of

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[Page 522]

us in the kibbutz were provided with a life. And I ask you not to send anything more. I imagine that there are many in the country [Israel] for whom the parcels are truly important. However, I will be thankful if you will keep in further contact with letters. Everyone carries his childhood in his heart, his home and of course his shtetl; and even if his life is rich in experiences and events, childhood and youth are the dearest, most intimate and sacred parcel of memories that everyone protects so strongly.

(Nesya Urluvitz, Amir)

“I have received your extraordinarily good parcel for which I thank you very much. It was a splendid parcel. We wish you great success in your work.”

(Darka Zelbovitz–Entin, Haifa)

“I can write to you that your parcel has been received. I send you my hearty thank you. We wonder greatly about how you knew my address. I really want to know who it is who is interested in us.”

(Pesakh Inglin, Tel Aviv)

“This week I received a food parcel from the Rakishok Society. I do not know who the senders are. That they remembered me, it is enough that they are from Rakishok; they are our own, close, dear friends. I thank you very much for your friendship. The parcel is a very good one and very important for us but your friendship and dedication are more important than anything else to us. It is correct that we have left Lithuania with a curse on our lips because every stone there is covered with Jewish blood, with the blood of our parents, sisters and their children. However, I was born in Rakishok; my most beautiful childhood memories are connected with the accursed shtetl. And when I received your parcel – it suddenly awoke memories of my dear childhood years, [female] friends and [male] friends, school years. I went through the day as if in a dream. I would really like to know who you are, who did not forget your landsleit after so many years. Perhaps you were one of my girlfriends or boyfriends? Believe me that your friendly letter cheered me up no less than your parcel for which I thank you very much.”

(Brik, Liba–Leah, Jerusalem)

“I send my lines to all of you from Israel with deep [friendship] and gratitude for the great consideration that you have shown me through your loving work. But it is not only the words (which are certainly beautiful and useful), but also the special feeling of belonging to a large family of people who hold you close. I can again only emphasize that the attention moved me greatly. With you are many people whom I knew well personally and several who were my good friends, but many I do not know personally – but we all have our roots in the Lithuanian shtetl named Rakishok. And each of has us dear ones and unforgettable ones who were left there – and this is a strong connection.”

(Bluma–Lubia, Tel Aviv)

“First I want to thank you for your friendship; it is very pleasing to know that somewhere there are good friends and in addition the friendship is

[Page 523]

so real as is the respect [and it is accepted]. The second thank you is also really for the honor, as you refer to it. Everything was good and fine as from good friends who are close to them. It is a shame that you did not send us more details about your work and your activities.

“Now about the addresses that you sent me to carry out a search and find. I have done everything possible and alas I have not heard from everyone because there are several here outside of Tel Aviv and I ceased [the search] there only after not yet receiving any answer. Therefore, I have decided to answer you with what I know and to send you the remaining in a second letter. Many addresses that you are unsure of actually are correct. I recorded everyone with certainty and I added several [city residents] who you did not include. Incidentally, where did you get all of the names and addresses? You truly are an address office!”

Chaya Urmel (Tel Aviv).

“The parcel that you sent to us a week ago was unexpected by us [and gives us great joy]. Until today [when we received the letter from you] we did not know who had sent it to us, but today it is clear to us that an 'angel from heaven' has brought it to us. We thank you heartily for the deep interest.

“We thank you again, many, many times.”

Hinda Ginzberg (Ramat HaShofet)

“We acknowledge the parcel that you have sent to us, which we received today at the South African office on HaYarkon Street in Tel Aviv, with gratitude and thanks. We consider your special effort as a worthy, friendly, effective gift and what a good thing at the time.

Berl Sarver, Tel Aviv

In the end, we publish a letter from the Rakishok Rabbi, Reb Shmuel haLevi Levitin, who is in America and occupies an esteemed place at the Central Lubavitch [Chabad] Tomchei Temimim Yeshiva, in its full text:

25 Kislev 5712 [24 December 1951]

In honor of my dear ones, honored, eminent habitants of the city of Rakishok now living in the State of South Africa. May God protect her!

Peace and blessings!

I already twice have had the opportunity of hearing a greeting from many of you through Rabbi Shai Weinberg.

I was very happy to receive a living greeting from a large number of the refugees from our city that the Lord God, the reason for everything, led to come to South Africa and as a result be protected from the hand of the oppressive enemy, may his name be erased.

I certainly remember the warm Jewish and Hasidic atmosphere that

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reigned in our city Rakishok and certainly you did everything possible so that your life in South Africa would be in the spirit in which you were raised and lived for many years.

And may the Lord, God grant that your children born in Africa may also mirror this way of life.

I also was very satisfied to hear from Comrade Weinberg of your warm help to his sacred mission for the holy Lubavitch institutions that are disseminating Torah across the entire world.

I am making use now of the opportunity that Comrade Weinberg is traveling again to your country and send with him a hearty greeting to all those from Rakishok.

Simultaneously I want to ask you to help Rabbi Weinberg in his holy mission now even more than previously because, alas, our institutions find themselves in a very critical situation, particularly our institutions in Eretz–Yisroel.

The Rabbi, Shmuel haLevi Levitin, former rabbi of Rakishok, Lithuania.

In connection with this letter it is worthwhile to underline that in addition to help for the landsleit, the Aid Society helped various campaigns with sums of money: on behalf of the Israel Appeal; for the War Appeal; for the Mogen Dovid Adom [Israeli emergency medical service – Red Shield of David]; for Chabad Lubavitch Fund.

In the course of its existence, the Rakishok Aid Society wrote a meritorious page in the history of our local Landsmanschaft.


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