Under the influence of the Haskalah and Khowewei-Zion (Lovers of Zion) Movements an organization arose in Radomsk among the local young men from the shtiblech and Beis-Midrashim under the named Tiferes Bokherim (Magnificent Young Men). The leaders of the organization were Simkha Yuburski, Herszl Krojze, Malekh Grosman, Simkha Kalka, Zisme Tiberg, Mordekhai-Zelig Rozenblat and others. There they introduced Zionist and cultural activities, such as collecting money for the Odesser Committee, distributed books, etc. This movement was frowned upon in the city and its members were called apikorsim (heretics), even though many of them, even if they were studying a trade, did not fail to go to Minkhah-Maariv every day and to study a chapter of the Mishnah.
The revolutionary storm and the freedom movement in Russia in 1904 carried away with it the members of the youth organization, too. In the shtiblech and in Kopel's Beis-Midrash fearful things were told about the Jewish revolutionaries who were called "Akhdes Yungen" (United Youth). The activity of the Jewish workers' movement in Warsaw and in Lodz provoked an upheaval in the Jewish streets in
all cities in Poland, not excluding Radomsk. Radomsk was considered a Hasidic city; mothers prided themselves in their G-d-fearing sons and thanked G-d that the 'evil spirit' had not reached here and that "Akhdes Yungen" was not here. However, while the mothers took such pride in their children, the G-d-fearing young men were already caught up with the revolutionary spirit.
The First Open Appearance
On the Fast of Esther, when the lame Szmul Beker finished reading the Megillah in the Shul, one of the former members of the Tiferes Bokherim organization, Simkha Kalka went up to the reader's desk. He called out, "In the name of the S.S. Party (Zionists Socialist Workers' Party), a comrade from Czenstochow, Kh. Aleksander, will speak. All of the doors were closed so that no one would be able to leave and at every door stood two comrades with revolvers in their hands. Jews seeing revolvers were frightened and were quiet. Comrade Aleksander began speaking. However, he stopped because he was heckled by a comrade from the Bund. A great racket broke out; hot heads began threatening with their hands and the gabe of the Shul, Abrahamel Kleiner, began yelling, "Shkotsim (Gentiles/Smart Alecks), go to the woods with your meetings and do not desecrate a House of Prayer!"
This was the first sign that the 'evil spirit' had arrived among Radomsk's quiet and G-d-fearing young men.
The First Strike of the Boot-Stitchers
Shabbos, after the third and final meal, I am sitting, I and my brother Herszl, and we are singing Shabbos songs with our father. Suddenly I hear that I am being called from the street. I go to the window and see Yosel Maszkes (Yosel Kucik). I tell him that he should wait that we are almost ready to go to the shtibl and I will be able to talk to him. On the way to the shtibl I ask him what had he to tell me. He explains to me that at six o'clock there will be a meeting of all of the boot-maker journeymen and apprentices at Leizer Tencer's in the hotel, room number 7 and that I, too, must come. I told him that I would ask my brother. I did tell my brother the reason Yosel Maszkes had called me. He told me to go to the meeting, promising to find a pretext for our father in case he asked where I was. Our shtibl was located on Zhaba Street near Rosze the 'goose-woman.' When we arrived at Dovid Bugajski's house where Leizer Tencer's hotel was, I slipped in. I knocked on the door of room 7 and said the password, "teritorye." The door opened and I was inside. Comrade Shlomoh Bugajski ("der gruber kop" [the thick head] we called him) introduced me to someone who was stretched out on the bed and smoked a cigarette, although it was still Shabbos. His appearance was bizarre, long hair like a Russian Orthodox priest, red eyes under thick eyeglasses. All of this made a bad impression on me and I felt as if at a strange wedding. It drew me to my father in the "shtibl" and I thought to myself, this is the first and last time. I was tortured, too, by the thought of what would be if my father would know where I had gone. However, I was consoled that my brother would turn it around.
The journeymen and apprentices were already gathered in the room. In the mean time, Herszl Epsztein came in with Yosel Kucik and they read a note of instruction. It appeared that two journeymen and one apprentice were missing, Brojer's son and Khaskel Zamberg's son, both from Krakowsker Street and Done, Leibel Gelbard's son of Strzalkowsker Street. These three had categorically declared that they would not go to "Akhdes Yungen."
The meeting opened with Shlomoh Bugajski declaring that Comrade Abraham Wiewiurke of Czenstochow would speak about the position of the Jewish worker. To tell the truth, I did not understand a lot of his speech, but that it was necessary to work less and receive more money I did understand.
When the speaker ended, I asked if I could pose a question. I was answered that I could ask about anything that was not clear. Then I spoke up, "Yes, it greatly pleases me that I would not have to carry the cholent to the baker and take Yosele to kheder and do other housework, which does not belong to me and not have to sit for three years as an apprentice. Therefore I agree to strike. However, what will my father say about it? If I have the audacity to tell my meister, who davens with my father in one shtibl and travel to one rebbe, that I will not work?" And on that the speaker answered, "Your question is naïve, but to the point. I have already heard such questions and, therefore, every one of you must give the address of your parents. After the strike breaks out every father will receive a letter from the Czenstochow Committee with the following content, "As it was decided to strike in order to better the situation of your child, we warn you that you should not interfere. The parents can expect such a letter."
The Strike Breaks Out with the Help of P.P.S. (Polish Socialist Party)
Sunday, my father had already received a letter about the strike. The following demands were listed in it, a) abolish yearly and time work; b) a ten-hour workday; c) a ban on employing apprentices for housework; d) introduction of sanitary working conditions. And further, a warning was received, "The Czenstochower Organization tells you to be considerate, that you do not have the right to interfere with your son's right to strike. We will get even with you if you oppose him."
It was dark indoors. My father argued, "What does it mean? I no longer have any authority over my child, only they, the 'Akhdesnikes?' They want to draw him in little by little until there is no father, no mother and no G-d, just them, may the merciful G-d save us." My brother, who already worked at Fonski's in the printshop, read a lot and was under the influence of the Haskalah, made an effort to calm our father. First he made him aware that it was terrible
to play with fire and secondly, he added that it is better that one does not work the whole night and one does not carry butter cakes to the bakers. In short, our father agreed to the strike on the condition that I would not go to meetings of the "Akhdes Yungen."
After all of this was carried through, the strike broke out. P.P.S. delegated two workers from Tonet's furniture factory, who went together with the tall Aitzik, a shoemaker and Shlomoh Dyner to all the workshops and delivered the demands to the bosses. They turned to us with the words, "Tawazhisze presze z nami." That meant that we had to leave the work and go with them. We all really did leave work as one person and so the first strike broke out in Radomsk.
The strikers gathered at Ginter's in the garden, where a strike committee of five comrades was chosen: Shlomoh Bugajski, Herszl Epsztein, Yosel Kucik, Shlomoh Dyner and I. The (meisters) organized, too. They concentrated the work in three places and began working, with the help of women and children, at Asher Winer's, at Wigder's and at Ruvin Liberman's.
After several weeks of striking, the strike committee called a meeting
at Fulrale's in the stables on Krakowsker Street. We discussed the situation
and decided to take the dials off of the machines. We chose three men with
guns in a bag and they went to the three places. At two, we did take off
the dials, but at Ruvin Liberman's (in Ockowski's house) a tumult occurred.
One of us shot into the air, but in the meantime we received information
that the police were coming and we quickly ran away. When the police came,
we had already changed our clothes and no one was arrested. This action
did have an effect, the meisters felt that it was bad and they did not
have the means to sew. They proposed arbitration, to which we agreed.
For weeks, in all shtiblech and in Kopel's Beis-Midrash, there was talk about the strike. Jews sighed and groaned seeing how the evil spirit, may G-d the merciful save us, had seized the quiet and G-d-fearing Radomsk, too, and was essentially organized and led by middle-class and Hasidic children in whom parents had so prided themselves.
Even though striking and meeting were forbidden, new strikes broke out spontaneously. The sock makers, tailors, shoemakers, bakers and so forth struck and the organizing work was carried out with the greatest fervor.
Three worker parties established themselves in the Jewish quarter, Paolei-Zion, S.S. and Bund. Each party carried out intensive activity in the realm of social, political and cultural life endeavoring to win more members, gain hegemony over the Jewish worker streets and among the wider population, too.
The strike of the sockmakers
There were two sock workshops in the city, one Yosel Hamer's in Dovid-Leib Feierman's house, and the second Lame Yankel's on Strzalkowsker Street. Mostly young women from middle-class homes were employed in the above mentioned workshops, all G-d-fearing children with the exception of two already class-conscious workers. This was Lifa Malamed's son, Abraham, the 'Long Head,' an anarchist and Yosef-Ber Malamed's daughter, the dark Dwoyra, a Paolei-Zionist. The two organized the strike, which was led by the Paolei-Zionist organization. It was a difficult strike, first of all, because the participants were very backward. The young women were afraid that it would be said that they belong to Akhedus Yungen and secondly, that Yosel Hamer was very stubborn. "With me," he said, "they will not succeed." We called a meeting and elected a strike committee of four members: Abraham the 'Long Head,' the dark Dwoyra, Ruvin Okrent and I (the last three from Paolei-Zion). Beside the difficulties, which are described above, we, with the help of the Czenstochower Paolei-Zion organization, won the strike and the owners agreed to all of the demands, which the workers had put out.
The strike of the cooks
The strike of the cooks evoked noise and agitation among the Jewish population, which saw a danger for kashrus (dietary laws) under the influence of Akhedus Yungen. The strike was led by the S.S. This strike directly affected the Rebbe's court and, because of this, the Rebbe Reb Khaskele called a meeting in the large Beis-Midrash and with tears in his eyes he turned to those gathered. "Jews, A fire is burning. Kashrus is in danger!" All of those gathered cried. In the morning the rebbe permitted
Herszl Gliksman and Herszl Krojze to call on him and tried to influence them to end the strike. They declared to him that the strike continued on tactical grounds, that the strike is not led from Radomsk, but by the Czenstochower organization and that had an effect. The strike lasted a month's time and the cooks won it.
Agitation by the parties was carried out on three fronts (points), on the so-called workers' 'Burjes.' In this case it does not mean a place where bills of exchange and securities are traded. On this 'burjes' 'isms' were traded, Zionism, Territorialism, Bundism, anarchism, Seimism and so forth.
How did this happen? Each party had a set segment of the sidewalk, the Bund occupied the sidewalk of Nekhemia Zandberg up to Yosel Neikron's, the Paolei-Zion from Dovid-Leib Feierman up to Strzalkowsker Street, the S.S. from Nejkron's up to Krakowsker Street. Each party brought to their spot on a set day an older and class-conscious comrade, who strolled with two other comrades and they agitated for their party's programs. Not all parties arranged their strolling for one day. It also happened that bullies appeared (police people) or Cossacks and searched the pockets of the strollers. We knew earlier when the 'guests' were coming, thanks to a bully named Dlubok, who always knew when a police raid would happen. Understand, that all strollers were then 'clean.' They did not have with them any compromising material and no one was arrested.
It was accepted that one party invited a second party to a discussion. Such meetings occurred in the woods around the city, in Borower or Plawner Woods. In this way, for example, the Bund invited the S.S. to a discussion and brought Comrade Abramowicz from Czenstochow who was a good speaker for this purpose. S.S. for their side, brought an even more beautiful and better speaker, the so called 'Yellow Ahron' or 'Ahron Czenstochower,' as he was called (Dr. Ahron Singalowski, later the director of ORT, who died in 1957). A discussion between two such speakers created a great interest among all workers without a distinction as to party.
In order to avoid provocation, posts from one of the parties were placed and the participants were required to give an accepted password, for example "teritorye" or "autonomye." Those who did not know the password were detained by the posts until the end of the meeting. The posts were deployed beginning at City Hall up to the entrance of the woods.
Participation of Women Comrades
The participation of women in the parties was not small. The activists among them were: In Paolei-Zion, Ite Aronowicz, former wife of Pinye Kalka; she died young after their wedding. Leitsze Walinski, the wife of Abraham, "the Long head." Sale Slawik, Yoske Malamed's grandchild. In S.S. those active were, Kheisze-Sora Sweter, the wife of Mordekhai-Zelig Rozenblat, Frumet Medweyedow and others.
The work of the women consisted of carrying revolvers from one city to the next, bringing proclamations for the 1st of May and similar work that was easier for women to carry out. Their assignment also consisted of carrying propaganda among Hasidic daughters and working women.
Guests for Yom-Tov
If life was intensive and lively the whole year, it was still more intensive and livelier during the yom-tov days. The reason was that all of the Radomsker young people who worked in other cities, such as Warsaw, Lodz, Czenstochow and so forth, came together in Radomsk for yom-tov and brought with them the air of strange and large cities.
That is how Comrade Berisz Kugel, an active and class-conscious comrade from Paolei-Zion, Yakov-Yosef, a fanatic Paolei-Zionist, Simkha Kalka from Czenstochow, an intelligent and active S.S. member, Yankel Tepel Farfelt, a comrade from the Bund, and so forth came [to Radomsk]. Each party received its comrades with feeling. Small meetings were arranged of the group's representatives and the guest talked about the activities of the party in the city from which they had come and about their most recent assignments. Discussion meetings took place, too, with participation and entertainment in honor of the guests. In a phrase, it was lively in the shtetl. Each such visit left a strong impression and activated the work in the city.
"Voile Yungen" (Good Youth)
There existed at the time in Radomsk a group of underworld people. They were called the "Voile Yungen." Their leader was named Khasrial Faldak. He was a tall, fat
young men and his face and clothing already gave witness to what type this was. He wore his hat with the Polish visor shoved off to a side, sideburns down to half of his face, long turned-down mustache, a low-necked black vest from which a white publication shone out and a paper collar. In a vest pocket lay a thick watch attached with a wide chain, [he wore] lacquered boots up to the knee and had a thick stick in his hand, which cast dread on everyone. This Faldak was the leader of the Radomsker Voile Yungen. They, of course, did not work and they led their extravagant life thanks to pretensia gelt, that is, simply blackmailing people and extorting money from them. Thus, for example, there was a Jew named Mazunski, who had a still at home (little whiskey factory) in Abrahamele Szenker's house. He had to pay monthly money so that he would not be reported to the authorities. They also did other things, for example, when a young girl from Brzeznica came to serve as a cook, they invited her for a stroll under the stables and if she did not agree, she was not to be envied.
Once an event took place that incited the whole city. A businessman named Noakh Soberman lived on Zhaba Street. Once, he and his wife went away to a wedding and left the cook to watch the apartment. At night, Faldak and his gang broke into the apartment and did to the cook what they didů When Soberman returned from the wedding, the cook told him what had happened and the matter was turned over to the police. The whole gang was arrested immediately and they were led each day shackled in chains to the "Sledawatl" (investigating judge), who lived in Berisz Ferszer's house. It was lively in the shtetl. Cheder students ran after them whistling, women spit on them and took out on their heads all of their nightmares and Radomsk had something to talk about.
To their merit, the role the Voile Yungen filled during Czarist Russian military conscription must be remembered. Because of this, they won the sympathy of the Jewish population. They had shown valor then. From time to time, young gentiles would come to Radomsk from the surrounding villages, Stobiec, Radziechowice, Pajeczno and others in order to report for the military ("losewanies'"). Before they went to the military commission ("prisustwe"), which was located at the start of the Neiem Weg, they first went into Yitzhak Bugajski's tavern. They got drunk and later began bothering Jews. The Voile Yungen beat them so that it was necessary to lead them to the commission, because they were now unable to go there alone.
The First Clash with the "Voile Yungen"
Once during a meeting of Po'Alei Zion in Ginter's garden, we suddenly heard shouting, "Down with Akhdes Yungen, Long Live the Tsar!" The "Voile Yungen" immediately broke in with thick sticks in their hands and they attacked those at the meeting. We [the members of Akhdes Yungen] did not stand still for them and there were wounded on both sides.
Representatives of all of the three parties met the same day and delivered a death sentence again their leader Khasrial Faldak. The sentence was not carried out, because Faldak immediately apologized and his gang declared that they would immediately leave Radomsk. Some of them actually went to America and others were good comrades, active in the "Boyower" Section (the combat section). Thus, the underworld group was eliminated which had blackmailed the Radomsker Jewish population and, particularly, the revolutionary workers' movement.
The "Boyowe" Section
Every party had a combat section, which had the assignment of carrying out terrorist actions. Herszl Radal, Chaim Boydem's, Moishe-Wolff Kazal and others were active in the Po'Alei Zion section. The Bund had such a section, too. At the head of the S.S.ist section stood Shlomoh Dyner, Yosel Kucik, the Royter (red) Natan and others.
With the participation of P.P.S., the Po'Alei Zion "Boyowe" once carried out an ambush of the "kasnaczejstwa' (government treasury), which was located in Chaim-Dovid Zandberg's house on Strzalkowsker Street. A considerable sum of money was seized with which several revolvers and daggers were bought. Two provocateurs were murdered in a second instance by a group in which Yosel Kucik took part.
Feelings of pogroms [were in the air] in Radomsk at that time and all of the Jewish parties united in order to create a resistance. For that purpose a collection of money was organized among the well-to-do [members of the] Jewish population. Out of fear, all gave; only some, such as Khaskel Rabinowicz ('the deaf Khaskel') refused to contribute to the fund. As he had a dry-goods store in the market, naphtha was poured on his goods. At Aba Szwarc and at Nejmark's, who did not want to contribute, either, the windows were knocked out.
In 1905 and 1906, the revolutionary workers' movement achieved its highest level and the workers' parties had absolute hegemony over societal life in the city. Their importance reached so far that during a conflict between husband and wife, those in dispute went not to the rabbi, but to the party. All of the workers were organized in professional unions and won for themselves better working and wage conditions.
The organizers and leaders of this revolution in the Jewish quarter of quiet and G-d-fearing Radomsk were the Tiferes Bokherim (the magnificent young men), who began their activity in the small attic room of Mendele Lifszits in the market. Who were they? From Po'Alei Zion: Mordekhai-Zelig Rozenblat, Yankel "Hanukkah Lights," Berisz Kugel's, Srolke Hamer and others; from S.S. Simkha Kalka, Herszl Krojze, Herszl Gliksman, Eidel Bernsztein, Malekh Grosman, Herszl Epsztein, Yosel Kucik, the 'Red" Natan and still others. From the Bund,, the Tanski brothers, Abraham Szaul Mair's, Ale Barda, Old Szreiber, Pinche Rabinowicz and Szimon Medwjedow.
In 1907 the strong hand of the Czarist regime began to be felt. With the help of known provocateurs, one in Russia known as Ozef and one in Lodz known as Noakh'l, the party leaders were arrested. In Lodz, gallows were erected not far from A.G. Zamberg's theater (on Konstaniner Street). In the Warsaw Citadel, too, a gallows was erected and General Skalon in Warsaw and General Koznjakow in Lodz succeeded in breaking the workers' movement and repulsing their assault.
The first person hung was a Radomsker named Dovid Yekheil Krojze (my father's brother), an active member of the Bund. When his brothers begged him to turn to the Tzar for clemency, he proudly answered that he would not beg the Russian despot to give him his life and bravely went to the gallows.
In 1908 the Russian Revolution was already defeated. The revolutionary
movement was forced to pull back from the heroic struggle on the barricades
and hide again in the forests and cellars. Radomsk, too, again became quiet,
comrades traveled to all corners of the world and the local merchants sang
this little song:
I will tell you something
You will have pleasure [from it]
Already all of the strikers
have been killed
We will be able to work
Until 12 o'clock!
The Quiet Time
In general a deep chaos was left over after the revolution and, particularly among the Jewish workers. Political life was almost obliterated from the surface and economic life entered a crisis, which strengthened the emigration tide, particularly of workers.
In this situation the Territorialist party began an active [campaign], which propagandized the idea of emigrating to Galveston. Under the leadership of Professor Mandelstat of Kiev committees were organized to realize this dream. A committee was created in Radomsk, too.
During a conference of the movement which took place in Lodz
 Galveston, a port city in Texas, United States.
The Galveston Plan (originated in 1907) was initiated and financed
by the eminent philanthropist J. Schiff and its assignment was to bring
the Jewish emigrants through this port to the south and southwestern states.
The movement was active until the outbreak of the First World War and ,
in the course of seven years (1907-1914) brought over in all around ten
thousand emigrants. Return
Activity began in every city after the conference and in Radomsk, too. However, unfortunately, it did not last long, because use had begun to be made of a legal guilt for political work. Possibly, it was also the hand of special delegate provocateurs. The end result, however, was that this committee was declared illegal and their activities were stopped.
Hereby, the political and societal life in Radomsk was stilled, too.
"Swoj Du Swego"
In 1912 elections took place for the Fourth Russian Duma. The Polish National-Democratic Party (En-De) presented as its candidate one of the worst anti-Semites, Radan Dmowski, and requested of the Jews that they vote for him. The P.P.S (Socialists) presented a candidate named Jagjella, who was elected with the help of the Jewish votes.
The issue of the vote so enraged the Endekes (National Democrats) councilors that they declared the Jews were separate from the Polish people and called for a boycott of them. The intensive agitation among the village and city population under the slogan "Swoj Du Swego" ("We for our own") planted deep roots. The Poles started to establish special societies for buying products from the peasants, opened special stores and workshops. The priests preached that Jewish merchants and artisans should be avoided, their own should be supported and this action had an effect. The village population stopped buying from Jewish merchants and avoided Jewish artisans.
At that time, the famous blood libel trial against Beilis also took place, which provoked a mood of panic and dispiritedness in the Jewish quarter and created a stampede of emigration. Merchants, artisans and workers emigrated.
As much as the difficult situation was felt in the large cities, it was felt more in the small shtetlech and towns and among them, in Radomsk, too. The communal life, which had so beautifully developed died out. Hazimir closed because of a shortage of money and volunteers and it became quiet in the Jewish quarter. Jewish worker and national songs were no longer heard, [such as] "Farom," "Shir Hzire" which had once resounded at Hannye Lewkowicz's on the Shul Street. A funereal quietness ruled over the city and only a few from each party remained and they did not carry out any activity. The situation persisted until the outbreak of the First World War.
A Guest in the Shtetl
In 1914 Comrade Aiche Grosman arrived in Radomsk from Eretz-Yisroel (a grandson of Hinde Izrael Yankel's of the Shul Street). An active comrade of the Po'Alei-Zion movement, coming home he found his city sunk in a lethargic sleep without any sign of any kind of political or communal activity.
One Shabbos when I met him in front of the shul, he invited me to take a stroll with him on the Neiem Weg. "Why are you sleeping?' He turned to me, "Youth has grown up spending their time dancing and playing cards, have they not?" That is how he further spoke to me and in the end he suggested to me the start of activity in the city, because he had come with special assignments from Palestine. My skeptical answer did not satisfy him. After a certain time, we again met and this time he encountered me with an enthusiastic call. "I have got a hold of them!" To my question of who he had gotten a hold of, he explained to me that he had become acquainted with a certain Yankel Aronowicz, who had gathered to himself several young people. They met every Shabbos in the afternoon in a small room over his father's store at "Mishugener" Solsze's in the house in the new market. There was a large row of stores and over them ran a long corridor with small rooms. In one of them lay "Mishugener" Szmul, who always sang and made a racket, so the spot was suited to secret meetings.
The small group of young people grew a little larger and Comrade Grosman gave them a series of reports on the theme: "What is happening in Palestine?"
At that time, Dovid Gold, of blessed memory, joined, too. He began to teach Hebrew and held a series of discussions about Ahad Ha-am (pseudonym of Hebrew poet Asher Ginzberg) and thus a little activity began. The room had its virtues, but on the other side, the crazy pranks of "Mishugener" Szmul deeply disturbed [us] and the group was forced to move to another room on Czenstochower Alley over Ahron-Wolf's soda-water factory. A Sefer-Torah was placed there and activities were carried out until the outbreak of the First World War.
During most of the time that landsleit emigrated from there our hometown was named Noworadomsk. Administratively, it belonged to the Piotrkow Gubernia in Russian-Poland. After the [First] World War, the Polish state was restored and changed the name of our city to Radomsko, and assigned it to the Lodz Wojewodztwo (province).
The city then occupied an area of nine hundred hectares of land (according to the way land area is determined in America that is almost three and a half square miles). The center of the city covered 40 hectares; gardens -- 50 hectares; bodies of water -- 30 hectares; fields under cultivation -- 390 hectares.
The last statistical figures that we possess are from the first of July
1935. At that time, Radomsko had 24,434 inhabitants; 12,063 men and 12,732
women. The remainder (or excess) was 308.
By religion, the following lived in our city: 58 percent Catholic, one and one-half percent Provoslavne (Orthodox), half a percent Protestant and 40 percent Jewish. About ten thousand Jewish souls lived in Radomsko then.
Comment from the editor: This clarification is from "Noworadomsker Almanac,"
published in America (1939). In this Almanac our city was called Nowo-Radomsk,
Radomsk and Radomsko.
JewishGen, Inc. makes no representations regarding the accuracy of
the translation. The reader may wish to refer to the original material
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