Plotzk; a History of an
Ancient Jewish Community in Poland


52°33' / 19°42'

Translation of
Plotzk; toldot kehila atikat yomin be-Polin

Edited by E. Eisenberg

Published in Tel Aviv, 1967



Project Coordinator


Emerita Project Coordinator, Ada Holtzman z”l


Our sincere appreciation to Yochevet Brown, president, and the Plock landsmanschaft in Israel,
for permission to put this material on the JewishGen web site.

This is a translation from: Plotzk; toldot kehila atikat yomin be-Polin
(Plotzk; a history of an ancient Jewish community in Poland),
Editors: E. Eisenberg, Tel Aviv, World Committee for the Plotzk Memorial Book, 1967 (H, Y, E, 780 pages).

Note: The original book can be seen online at the NY Public Library site: 2527

This material is made available by JewishGen, Inc. and the Yizkor Book Project for the purpose of
fulfilling our mission of disseminating information about the Holocaust and destroyed Jewish communities.
This material may not be copied, sold or bartered without JewishGen, Inc.'s permission. Rights may be reserved by the copyright holder.

JewishGen, Inc. makes no representations regarding the accuracy of the translation. The reader may wish to refer to the original material for verification.
JewishGen is not responsible for inaccuracies or omissions in the original work and cannot rewrite or edit the text to correct inaccuracies and/or omissions.
Our mission is to produce a translation of the original work and we cannot verify the accuracy of statements or alter facts cited.

World Committee   Irgun Yotzey Plotzk
for the   Be-Israel
Ploth Memorial Book   (Plotzker Association in Israel)



A History of an Ancient Jewish Community in POLAND

Eliyahu Eisenberg

Vice-Chairman, Plotzker Association in Israel

Publishing House
Tel-Aviv, 1967

Honorary President of the World Committee
for the Plotzk Memorial Book

Mr. Itzhak Grinbaum

Editorial Board

Chairman: Moshe Rubin


Itzhak Ben-Shai (Fuchs) Shlomo Greenspan
Benyamin Galewski   Itzhak Tynski

Irgun Yotzey Plotzk (Polin) Be-Israel
(Plotzker Association in Israel)

Plotzker Young Mens' Independent Association
in New York

Sociedad de Residentes de Plock
en la Argentina

Organisation de les Amis de Plock et Environs
en France

Plotzker Groups in Australia, England, Canada
and the U.S. West Coast

Drawings: Yaakov Guterman
Title-page design: H. Dayan

All Rights Reserved
Copyright © 1967 by the Plotzker Association in Israel “Hamenora”
Publishing House, 24 Zangwill Street.

Printed by “Arazi” Press Ltd.,
4 Ayelet Hashahar Street,
Tel Aviv, Israel

plo000.jpg [23 KB]

Foreword   5
Introduction   9
History of the Jews in Plotzk Until the First World War (1237 – 1914)
History of the Jews of Plotzk from the Middle Ages until the 17th Century Y. Trunk 10
The History of the Jews of Plotzk from the Middle of the 17th Century until World War I Y. Trunk 16
Activities of the Plotzk Jewish Community Dr. Y. Schipper 25
The Minute-Book of the Tailors' Union Dr. E. Ringelblum 25
R' Moshe Ben Israel Wasserzug E.E. 25
Avraham Yaacov Papierna; Teacher and Literary Critic S. Greenspan 26
Aharon ben Moshe Kahanstam (Konstam) E. Eisenberg 27
Lives of Famous Plotzk Rabbis S. Greenspan 28
Jewish Life in Plotzk in the light of Hebrew Periodicals of the Second Half of the19th Century S. Greenspan 33
Nahum Sokolov's Youth F. Sokolov 36
Beginnings of Zionism in Plotzk I. Grinbaum 36
Inauguration of the first Jewish Gymnasium Y. M. Zlotnik 37
Memories of the Past S. Rozen 37
Jewish Plotzk during the First World War I. Tynski 38
The Jewish Kehila of Plotzk (“Vaad Hakehila” – secretary memoirs) Y. Ben-Shai (Fuchs) 40
The Jewish Hospital on the name of Icchak Fogel A. Shmueli (Plutzer) 41
Ezrat Holim   42
The Jewish Orphanage (“Ochronka”) G. Puk 42
Cooperative Banks and Trade Unions I. G. Chanachowicz (Kent) 43
The Small Traders organization J. Malonek 44
The “Gildene” Street B. Gincberg 44
“Ort” in Plock I. Tynski 44
Anti-Semitism in Plotzk between the two World-Wars E.E. 45
The Mariavits Convent and the Jews I. G. Chanachowicz (Kent) 45
The Jewish Gymnasium   47
Jewish Primary Education I. Ben Shai (Fuchs) 47
Shmuel Penson B. Grey (Graubart) 48
My Father, R' Shmuel Penson A. Penson 48
Jewish Education in Plotzk Prof. D. Eisenberg 48
Memories of the melamed Yehiel Meir Kravietz A. Sh. 49
The Popular Functions of the Jewish Library “Hazamir” Prof. D. Eisenberg 49
Local Theater Groups M. Magnes 49
Childhood Memories M. Zylberberg 50
The Struggle for Restoring the Good Name of Rabbi H. Shapiro A. Hartglas 50
Nahum Sokolov and Plotzk Y. Warszawski 50
Nahum Sokolov's visit to Plotzk and Wyszogrod M. Turkow 51
Shalom Ash and Plotzk M. Zylberberg 51
My Uncle, Rabbi Y. L. Avida (“El Zet”, R' Yehuda Leib Zlotnik) Ruhama Shnir (Zlotnik) 51
Rabbi Yehuda Leib Avida (Zlotnik) Dr. Nechemia Aloni 52
Alfred Blei, The Last Chairman Meir (Michael) Koenigsberg 52
Zysze Landau Melech Rawicz 53
Memories of My Father's Home E. Eisenberg 53
Four friends and their spiritual world M. Rubin 55
“Agudat Zion”   55
Keren Kayemet Activities   55
“Zeirei Zion” in Plock I. Tynski 56
The Agricultural Farm of Moshe Krakowski E. E. 56
“Hachshara” Kibbutz by the name of “Borochow” F. Fliderblum 57
Hehalutz, Hehalutz Hatzair and Hapoel Y. Rosenblum 57
“Mizrahi” Movement   58
“Herzlia” Association M. Rubin 59
“Poalei Zion (Left)” B. Okolica 59
The “Freiheit” Movement D. Shahari 59
“Agudat Israel” in Plock and the Region L. Geliebter 60
The Activities of the “Bund” I. M. Oliver (Ilover) 60
“Hashomer Hatzair” E. E. 61
Revisionists and “Beitar”   62
“General-Zionist” Youth Movement and “Akiba” B. Galewski 62
The Local Communist Party Sh. P. 63
The history of “Maccabi” in Plock M. Rubin 63
The Last Two Years of “Maccabi” A. Najman (Nowicki) 64
Nathan Korzen Y. Aronson 65
Fishl Zylberberg (Zber) (1909-1942)   65
Yechiel Meir (Maks) Eljowicz, Portrait-Painter M. Rubin 66
David Tushinsky, Master of Miniatures E. E. 67
Shmuel Har-Shalom (Fridenberg) M. Rubin 68
The Jews of Plotzk under the Nazi Regime Dr. J. Kermish 70
The Privileges of the Jews in Plock [H] Michael Shperling 74
Jews of Plotzk under the Nazi Terror D. Dabrowska 76
Jews of Plotzk in Exile   76
Testimonies   77
A Reminder (“Regards”) H. Elboim-Dorembus 78
Between Warsaw and Plotzk Michael Zylberberg 78
I left the Ghetto H. Mairanc-Meiri 79
I was a “Submarine” in a Nazi-Camp M. Koenigsberg 79
A Revolt in Hell, Testimony The horrors and heroism in the camp of Treblinka Marian Platkiewicz 79
Jewish Plotzk cannot be rebuilt I. G. Bursztyn 82
I returned Home I. G. Chanachowicz (Kent) 83
Post- War Activities in Plotzk   83
Jews of Plotzk in Israel   85
In Memoriam   86
History of the Plotzker Young Mens' Association in New York H. Lipner 88
Shlomo Greenspan, In Memoriam Bezalel Okolica 89
Plotzk Jews in the Argentine   90
Plotzk Jews in France H. Zimmerman 90
Rabbis, Essays by Plotzk Rabbis
Plotzk Jews in various countries   91
Illustrations   92
Plock Hassidim and Nahum Sokolov [H] Kurt Blumenfeld 130
Fragments of Memories [H] I. Grinbaum 131
Memories of a pupil of the Russian Gymnasium [H] Jakob Brozda 141
The value “Plock” in various encyclopedias [H]   145
A Jewish settlement from the 11th century is discovered [H]   145
The Community of Plock between two World Wars (1918–1938)
Community institutions, welfare, economy and neighborly relations [H] (from Kalendarz–informator Mazowsza Plockiego 207
Plock (Warsaw District) – in “Almanac Gmin Zydowskich in Posce” 1939 [H]   208
The Jewish Hospital named after Yitzchak Fugel [H] Shmueli (Plutzer) 209
"Ezrat Cholim" [H]   211
The Jewish Orphanage ("Ochronka") [H] G. Puk 211
"Charity will save from death" (the image of a popular welfare activist) [H] Halina Woitkowski Szlechter, source: Dina Berland 212
The association of artisans in Plock [H] Jehoszua Zwirek 220
The yard of Altman on Szeroka street 10 [H] Natan Lerman 223
Grunim (published in “Plocker wart”, 1936) [H] Chaim Flaks 224
Education, Religious Life, Cultural Organizations, Personalities
Jubilee to the Jewish library in Plock [H] E.E. 249
The “small Beth Midrash” of Plock [Y] Israel Zylberberg 258
The arrival of a new rabbi to Plock [H]   259
The Victim [H] Y. Warszawski 260
Political Parties, Youth Movements, Zionist Funds
The first Zionist fulfillment [H] Elisza Jecheskeli (Czrnobroda) 297
The festivities of “L'g Baomer for the national fund [H] M. Rubin 303
Summary of 10 years of “Poalei Zion” [H] R. Lichtman 320
“Akiba” in Plock (“Divrei Akiba” 14.12.1933) [H]   345
From our own ideas (the ideological struggle for Zionism and Judaism) [H] Meir Pagorek 346
Nathan Korzen – the painter [H]   370
He will not be forgotten [H] Harry Koren (Korzen) 376
The exhibition of the works of F. Zylberberg [H]   378
With Fiszl Zylberberg (Zber) before his tragic death [H] Itzchak Furmansky 380
Personalities, Public Figures
Lexicon of Personalities and Pubic Workers [H]   389
Nachum Sokolov (1860-1936) [H]   391
Itzhak Grinbaum [H]   393
Rabbis, dayanim (religious judges) and heads of yeshivot (religious colleges) [H]   395
The Lexicon of Biographies [H]   400
Destruction of the Plotzk Community
Letters of Plocker Jews from the towns of deportation [H]   506
Pages in the diary [Y] Itzhak Tynski 526
Testimonies of Holocaust Survivors
The tortures in the Forced Labor Camp Amsee (near Poznan) [H] Leib Geliebter 539
Plock in the chronicle of Ludwik Landau (1909-1944) a Jewish famous economist from Tomaszow Mazowiecki [H]   542
A Revolt in Hell, Testimony The horrors and heroism in the camp of Treblinka Marian Platkiewicz 544
I was a mouth of hundreds of thousands murdered victims – (Sobibor trial) [H] Moshe Bahir (Szklarek) 553
The testimony of Moshe Bahir (Szklarek) in the Eichman trial [H]   555
Nothing Remain… (a poem) [H] Katriel (Kurt) Hazan 558
To the Jews of Poland (a poem translated from Polish to Hebrew by Zvi Yashiv) [H] Wladyslaw Broniewski 559
Warszawa year 5601 (1941) [H] Itzhak Bernsztein 560
Our Plocker landsleit in Ghetto Warsaw [H] Michael Zylberberg 570
Escaped from the claws of death (Josef-Jorzek Fiszman – Makowski) [H] Prof. Artur Ber 573
Yizkor the Martyrs Names (necrology)   575
Post War Efforts of Rebuilding
Survivors of the fire [H] Alfred Blei (30.10.1945) 606
The activities of the Plocker Survivors Committee
In liberated Plock – the remembrance assembly of March 3rd, 1946 [H]   608
Exhumation (21.10.1946) [H]   610
Summary of the Plocker Survivors Committee activities (1948) [H] M. Tirman 611
The dedication ceremony of the memorial monument to Plock martyrs (built by architect Benjamin Arie Leib Perlmuter) [H]   612
Jewish Plotzk cannot be rebuilt [H] I. G. Bursztyn 614
I returned Home [H] I. G. Chanachowicz (Kent) 629
Associations of Plotzk Jews All Over the World
Jews of Plotzk in Israel   643
The first immigrants (“ olim ”) from Plock in Eretz Israel [H] Eng. Mordechai Shoshani 648
Yaacov Tzidkoni (Rechtman) – a Folklore researcher and a collector [H]   651
In Memory of the Missing
Several details about the Plockers in Argentina [Y]   676
Last Letter from Menachem Banach, 30.3.1942 [Y]   677
Pictures from Yizkor Book  

Original Coordinator's Notes

The English part is not a complete translation of the Yizkor book of Plock but rather a synopsis, summary, and should be treated as such. there are 684 pages in Hebrew and Yiddish but only 96 pages in English.

I have translated and added the titles and page numbers of articles which do not appear in the English summary. I added the code “H” if article is in Hebrew, or “Y” if in Yiddish.

I have also added the names of people who appear in the photographs to the captions in English which did not include these names.

I wish to thank the Plock Landsmanschaft who encouraged me and gave me and JewishGen the permission to post the Plock Yizkor book in the Internet.

It is my hope that this book will serve as commemoration to the Jewish ancient grand and holy community of Plock, exterminated by the Germans during the Holocaust.

Ada Holtzman z”l


plo447.jpg [20 KB]
Drawing by Yaacov Guterman


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