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[Pages 523-524]

Zionist Youth Movements


The First Youth Organizations

by Eliyahu Naor-Bitchutsky

Translated from Hebrew by Lehava Falkson

When the Balfour Declaration and the Keren Hayesod were established (the Keren Hayesod sent out representatives for fund appeals everywhere where there were Jews), a growing Zionist atmosphere increasingly developed in our town, just like everywhere else in Bessarabia. The representatives arrived from the chapters in Kishinev and then public informational and organizational meetings were held in our town.

The chapters of the Zionist parties were organized, and the Zionist youth groups popped up from time to time under various names such as “Ha-Am,” “Prachei Zion,” “Haor,” “Hagibor,” “Hatechiyah.” Some of these groups split and others were created. Among the active members in all these groups, I would like to mention Shalom Caspi (Serebrenik), Yosef Shitz (Magen), Yisrael Kolker, Efraim Shwartzman, David Kalis, Zelig Krik, Berl Goldenzwaig, the author of this article, and others. There were also two girls whose names I cannot remember – I should be forgiven.

These youth movements that I mentioned above encircled children. In “Hatechiyah” we were more mature, better considered in thought and in action. We developed many cultural activities. We also kept in contact with other “Hatechiyah” chapters in the nearby towns. We started a sub-chapter in the village of Zabritchen (Zabriceni) and I remember the trips we took there on Saturdays and Holidays.

Aharon Zemura's house was a center for Zionist activity. As part of the movement a “work group” was organized. Members of the group went from time to time to work on farms in the area, especially at the time of weeding the sunflowers. Getting used to physical work was not easy, but in the end, we valued it with respect.

We were very proud that three of our friends went on with the Aliyah at quite a young age: Efraim Shwartzman, Shalom Caspi (Serebrenik), and Zelig Krik. The farewell parties for the new immigrants were very impressive. A few of our friends joined “Hachalutz” and went away for agricultural training, David Kalis was among them. In the spring of 1926, I and another friend, Yitzchak Shwartz (son of my uncle, “Dezherots”), went for pioneer training at the Biliceni farm near Beltz. I was on this training for one year. Here on the farm I met Shimshon Schechter, one of the founders and leaders of “Hachalutz” in Bessarabia.



“Haor” was one of the first youth groups in town that merged with other youth groups (“Hagibor,” etc.) and became then “Hatechiyah” (in the early 1920s).
Standing, from right: Yosef Magen-Shitz (Tel Aviv), Gavriel Kriegsfeld (North America), Zelig Krik (Rishon Lezion), Yisrael Steiff, z”l.
Seated: The brothers David and Yaakov Steinman (Brazil) and Yaakov Meiberg.

He influenced me in the spirit and ideology of the “Hapoel Hatzair” party, where he was a member. Schechter informed me about the existence of a Zionist Pioneering youth movement named after A.D. Gordon, a movement founded in Galicia and spread to Poland and other countries. In Romania and Bessarabia a few chapters had already been established.

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In fact, when I visited home in the winter of that year, I found a chapter of the “Gordonia” youth movement in town founded by Dov Dondushanski, who was previously the head of the “Hachaver” chapter in town. The headquarters of “Hachaver” was in Czernowitz. This youth organization joined “Gordonia” and changed its name. At the same time, negotiations were underway for other youth organizations to join “Gordonia,” especially “Hatechiya” and “Hachalutz Hatzair”.

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In the spring of 1928, the unification convention of all these organizations took place in Czernowitz and the National Organization of “Gordonia” was established.

The “Hatechiya” chapter in Yedinitz, under the influence of Yosef Shitz-Magen, Shalom Caspi (who in the meantime returned from the Land of Israel), Yisrael Kolker, Lyova Gokovski and others was the kernel of establishing the youth movement of “Poalei Zion”.

Translator's footnote:

  1. Haor means The Light. return


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Fifteen-Year-Old “Delegates” at the Kishinev Conference
Episodes of the “Hagibor” Youth Organization

by Mordechai Reicher

Translated from the Hebrew by Naomi Gal

Relative to the age of their peers, the children's and youth's organizations developed a wide range of activities that required thought and initiative on their part in terms of how to preserve the framework and how to operate it, for it to be compelling and interesting. Episodes from the life of the Hagibor Organization that I wish to describe here also typify other youth groups mentioned in various articles.


Maintaining the Clubhouse

One of the problems was the maintenance of the clubhouse (which we called “The Hall”). In the beginning, it was not a problem, since the members assembled in the home of one of the members, David Kallis, the son of the widow Di Yochanka, as she was called after her husband Yochanan died. There were some expenses, not high, to maintain this club.

So, what do you do? The heads of the organization founded a storehouse for stationery and haberdashery in the corridor of the spacious home of Shalom Caspi (Serebrenik) and all the members of the club who were school students had to buy their stationery and haberdashery only from this collective storehouse. The profit covered the minimal expenses of the organization. The responsibility for the first investment fell on the owner of the storehouse, on Shalom Caspi himself.


A “Newspaper” with just two copies

Among the important and necessary actions for the organization's sustainability, the management saw the need to issue a newsletter for its members. The newspaper was named “Hagibor” as well; it was published three times a week, with only two copies. It was hand-written by Mordechai Reicher, who was its editor and most of the time also its author, although quite a few of the members had remarkable writing talents even back then, like Israel Kolker and the brothers Steinman, to name just a few.

The only subscriber was Shalom Caspi, who also financed the bulletin's expenses (paper, pens, and ink). The other copy was kept at the club and each member could read it at his convenience.

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It should be mentioned here that at the time, there were several other newsletters from other youth organizations, like “Haam”, “Dror” and “Fonkan”. Unfortunately, very few of these periodicals survived, since back then no one thought that they would have any value.


A Fence as a Contribution to the Keren Hakayemet (JNF)

It happened in the dead of winter when the old club was moved to a rented apartment (at the tavern “Einfar”) belonging to Haim Reubens. The fee collected from the members was meager and barely covered the rent. The cold was bitter and there was no wood to feed the stove. So, what does one do? With no other choice, you find wood wherever you can. At night the branch activists raided the town, pinching anything that could be burned to get heat for the two small club rooms: wooden, crumbling poles, an old bench that needs replacement, an unsteady wooden counter from the vegetable market, etc.

One night, the prey was the fence around the house of Abba Lergman (in the street's corner across from Baruch Blank's house), and why? Because a few days beforehand there was a JNF fundraising in town (maybe for Tu Bishvat?) and the landlord refused to contribute although all the other street tenants donated. As a reaction, someone must have decided that he will contribute even if unwillingly, and if not with money, then with something else equal to money as long as it is for the sacred aim of the Land of Israel.

But something went wrong. When the guys were busy “fundraising” (uprooting the fence) a night guard of gendarmes appeared and caught the busy youth. Thanks to the quick intervention of the older Zionists, the young activists were freed after spending some hours at the gendarmerie.

It must be mentioned that while the gendarmerie held the activists, the uprooted fence did get to its destination and fulfilled its burning mission.


A Delegation to Kishinev

In the winter of 1924-1925, an invitation arrived from the central secretariat of the “Hatechiya” organization in Kishinev for a national conference inviting the different youth organizations in Bessarabia.

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The invitation was signed by Meir Kotic, back then a student (now a lawyer in Tel Aviv) and Haim Lerner (Lior, nowadays, the Israeli Knesset secretary).

In the members' meeting, the invitation was accepted and two “delegates” were selected to go to the conference: Shalom Caspi, and the author of this article. The “delegates” left on their way.

As mentioned, it was a deep-freezing winter, and the travel by train was first to the station in Dondushen and from there to an all-night ride to Kishinev, which was not pleasant.

In the morning, the two representatives from Yedinitz, between 14-15 years old, marched in the snowy streets of the big city to the house of the Zionist Center to present themselves to the conference organizers. But here a very unpleasant surprise awaited them. The conference was supposed to include Nahum Sokolow, but since he suddenly announced a two-week delay, the conference was postponed. The organizers did send a note about the delay, but it reached Yedinitz after the “delegates” left.

It was an embarrassing situation. So, what do we do? Go back home and return, again? To stay there? And how would we pay for our sojourn in Kishinev for two weeks while we only had enough to cover for two or three days' expenses?

Finally, we stayed and looked for a way to get along for two weeks. Since in Kishinev there was a branch of the “Halutz,” it seemed logical to present ourselves at the Halutz House on 20 Benderskyi Street, where we hoped to have a shelter and bed at night, and of course, some food.

We also hoped to meet friends who were previously pioneers in Yedinitz. The “Halutz” Chapter was located on the second floor in the home of a famous Zionist family, the Baltzan, and occupied one big room, like a hall. What was obvious as soon as one entered the room was to see the lines of beds where the pioneers slept. They were simply shelves on two levels, like the ones they have in the passengers' boats. As far as I can remember, it was not difficult to get the consent of those responsible for the Yedinitz delegates for the sleeping arrangements for those two weeks. And as for food, that, too, was easy. Whatever the others ate, they would eat or not eat, we did as well.

If sleeping arrangements were fine more or less (although that same night a shock went through the shelved beds, one crumbled somehow and the whole line landed on the floor), the food was a different story. It was the very opposite. The food was disproportional to the efforts and labor of the pioneers, which was mainly chopping woods for keeping Kishinev Jews warm.

As far as I can remember, the menu was almost the same each and every day. In the morning there was mamaliga and tea with sweets, sugar was too much of a luxury for the pioneers, at lunch there was once again mamaliga, but this time soaked in boiled oil and onions leaving a taste that resembled butter, and as dessert, there was tea once more. The dinner menu was the same as breakfast.

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We did not care about food, the main thing for us was the dance afterward. As soon as we consumed the tea, the dance began. Hand on shoulders, at first two and then a third and a fourth joined singing “Morning, morning, morning comes to work.” Our legs stomped the wooden floor until it began shaking and the circle became wider and wider, and since the hall was too narrow for the circle, it separated in the middle, with the long line descending the stairs from the second floor to the first one and then it went outside into the yard. Here, the circle closed once again, and we sang “Who will build the Galil? Pioneers will build the Galil”. Then the circle grew tighter, bodies came closer and closer, the cold and freeze penetrated our bones, but who cared? The main thing was to sing “Am Israel chai, chai, chai…”

No one was tired or hungry. Only very late at night, the pioneers went back up to the “beds” since morning was near and “Morning comes to work.”

The two “delegates” felt guilty for being free boarders and thus asked the work manager to let them work. And indeed, to calm their consciences, they allowed them to join one group that went to work chopping trees.

It would not be accurate to say that they were able to continue this hard labor, day after day, in the dead of winter. So that the “delegates” would not feel like idlers, have to some extent cover a minimal amount of the expenses for meals they extracted from the pioneers' meager food, and since there was not much cash in the chapter treasury, one day Nahum Shreibman approached the delegates treasurer, which was incidentally the author of this article, and told him:

“Maybe you have a charity of 20 lei? I will give it back to you before you go back home”.

Of course, the loan was immediately given, being the money reserved for the expenses of the trip back home.

When the time came to return home, the naïve lender asked Shreibman to give back the money. But the man looked at him, slightly surprised, and with good humor he said:

- “Are you kidding me? Where can I find the money? Don't you know that the “Halutz” does not give money back? As for the trip, that is a real problem. But I cannot help you. I am sure that you will manage somehow. I am certain that you will make it back home.”

And he was right. The two “delegates” had no choice but to address acquaintances since with time the two found out they knew some friends of their parents in Kishinev, so they explained what happened and the friends had no other choice but to give them the monies necessary to cover the travel back home.

The delegates returned home and to those who had sent them, equipped with the decisions made at the conference about the founding of a national organization of “Hatechiya”, to which the members of “Hagibor” joined. For a long time afterward, they spoke about the trip and their adventures.

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A group of members of the Hatechiya Movement in the mid-1920s

Standing (from right to left): David Steinman (Brazil), Eliyahu Bitschutsky (killed in Israel), Yaakov Schwartzman (Israel), Yisrael Steiff, z”l, Yitzchak Schwartz (Dezherots)
Seated: Yisrael Kolker (Lvov), David Kallis, hy”d, Mordechai Reicher, z”l



The Hatechiya Youth Organization

by Ephraim Schwartzman-Sharon

Translated from the Hebrew by Naomi Gal

After World War I many youth organizations sprouted up in our city. A few of them were “Prachi Zion,” “Ha'Am” “Ha'Or,” “Ha-Tikva.” “Ha-Gibor,” “Yaldei Zion,” “HaChaver,” etc. Only one chapter of a nation-wide organization, “Hashomer Hazair,” was founded in Yedinitz (it was started by Eliezer Reich-Ro'i). However, it did not last long, and only in a later period at the end of the 1920s were branches of the various nation-wide organizations established in the town. These included “Dror”, “Gordonia”, “Maccabi” and “Beitar” (only briefly and in a limited way). “Hashomer Hazair” did not attempt to re-establish a chapter.

All these first youth movements did not last long, but the “Hatechiya” organization replaced them. Youth organizations under this name sprouted out in all Bessarabia cities and towns. In Yedinitz, the youth joined from all walks of life: students, working youngsters, sons of wealthy families, sons of landlords and sons of laborers, and craftsmen. Some members made Aliyah in the following years; others continued their studies. Some left town and the country and spread over many continents.

The members of “Hatechiya” were the living spirit in the town's Zionist activities.

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The older Zionist back then, headed by the teachers Hillel Dubrow, Noah Ledermann, Baruch Yeshikman, Yitzhak Ledermann, and the Zionist activists Shimshon Bronstein, Avremale Weisman, Ben-Zion Tinman, Avraham Milgrom, Moshe Steinwortz, Moshe Schutz, and others considerately helped the chapter.

The movement was nonpolitical. It developed a rich educational and cultural curriculum especially in the field of Hebrew. On Patchova Street one could hear young men and women speaking flowery Hebrew. We founded literary circles which met in different homes. In those meetings, literary works were read and discussed. I remember us meeting once in the house of the member Osnat Shkolnik, z”l, and in the houses of Duba Grozman, Gittel Feldman, and Haya Rosenberg, sometimes we met at my house or in the home of Eliyahu Bitschutsky-Naor, z”l. Also, in the “Hatenuah” (the movement) Hall were meetings, lectures, and lively discussions.

Some words about the youth movements that proceeded “Hatechiya”. In the “Ha'Or” Movement I was a member alongside Yosef Schutz, Israel Steiff (who died in Israel), Ze'ev Krik, David Lerner, Yosef Kligman, Gokovski, Mendel Shor, and others, whose names I no longer recall. We decided to change the name of the organization to “Hatchiya” and join the club in Kishinev, whose secretary was Haim Lerner (Lior) who later became the Israeli Knesset's secretary. After a short while, the members of “Hagibor” joined “Hatechiya”; they were Shalom Caspi, Mordechai Reicher, David Kallis, Miriam Weisman, Israel Kolker, and others.

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I remember we published a sort of newsletter edited by Y. Schutz and Y. Kolker, and I participated as well. I can still remember the balls organized by the local Zionists when the Hebrew University was founded in Jerusalem in 1925. It was held at the home of Perl (Shor) and Asher Goldenberg. There was a separate ball for the youth. I cannot forget an incident which Baruch Blank initiated, castigating those who had no cover on their heads.

I recall, too, how we debated about paying the rent for the movement's hall. We once organized a dancing ball with raffles, prizes, and games to cover the expenses. We also produced successful theater plays of the “Hatchiya” Movement.

In 1925, the “Hatechiya” center in Kishinev started a district conference in Securan. Our representatives at the conference were Haim Lerner (Lior) and Isser Rabinowitz.


One of the many reading evenings started in the 1920s

1. Fishel Malay (Peru) 2. Doba Grozman-Cohen (Israel) 3. Julius Feingold (Brazil) 4. Ephraim Schwartzman-Sharon (Jerusalem)
[Photo:] In memory of the tenth anniversary of his death [for author Sholom Aleichem] – 1916-1926

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I participated as the Yedinitz chapter representative. After three days of discussions, it was decided to make it mandatory for the movements' members who reach eighteen years to join the “Halutz” and to obtain a training preparing them for their Aliyah.

Among the outside visitors who came to the chapter back then were Leib Gantz, who later became a known cantor and an activist in the Zionist movements in America and died in Tel Aviv, the famous Israeli singer Friedman-Lvov, the actress Miriam Bernstein-Cohen, the daughter of the Bessarabia Zionist activist Dr. Bernstein-Cohen, and others.

In 1926 I decided to make Aliyah. Before my departure, a farewell ball was held in my honor and all the town's Zionist activists attended.

About the history of the “Hatechiya” and the end of the movement, see Yosef Magen's articles about the “Poalai Zion” and the “Dror” in this book.


A literary trial (about “HaCohen” by I. L. Peretz) in the late 1920s

In photo: 1. Meshulam Bronstein 2. Monya Kleiman (USSR) 3. Eliezer Zonstein (South America) 4. Yisrael Millman (died in Israel) 5. Shalom Ozeroner (perished) 6. Mordechai Reicher (died in Israel) 7. Leibush Lerner (Colombia) 8. Eliyahu Bitshutsky-Naor (killed in Israel) 9. Berl Goldenzweig (Brazil) 10. Fishel Malay (Peru)

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Attempts To Establish a Chapter of “Hashomer Hatzair”

by Eliezer Ro'i (Reich)

Translated from the Hebrew by Laia Ben-Dov

I arrived in Yedinitz from Novoselitza, where I was staying as a student at the Gymnasium (sixth grade) and where I established the first fund of “Hashomer Hatzair” in Bessarabia with the guidance of the leaders in Czernowitz.

At first, I intended to turn again to the bendichka and isolate myself in some remote village under this “Konditzia.” But after I examined myself, I saw it as a desertion of my goal and the job that I had already set for myself, and I decided to search for my path in this town.

In my pocket, there wasn't a cent. True, I was able to get a few hours of teaching in the houses of the Kormenskys and the Pardises, who well remembered my grandfather Yechiel, who faithfully served them on the estates that they rented and worked when the revolution broke out in 1917. But the poor income from teaching was difficult enough to raise for meals but was not enough for renting an apartment.

I wandered in the streets of the town and its suburbs. Once, at the hour of twilight, when I walked on Patchova (the main street in Yedinitz) passing by the Talmud Torah, a thick-bearded, stocky Jew whose cheeks bloomed like roses, called to me from the other side of the street, waving a cane from where he sat at the entrance to a house.

I answered his call, and I found myself standing next to him.

- “Yungerman (young man), if I am not mistaken, you are “one who goes astray in the walk of life.” Pardon me, but tell me, what exactly you are lacking.”

I consulted myself for a moment, and I answered to this aware and energetic elderly man (he was about 90 years old), Reb Yisrael Bronstein (who told me a while later that the “ימחשמויניק” (villain) Leibele Trotsky, was a member of his family): “I have everything except an apartment.”- “Which means that, nevertheless, you are living the life of a dog, you don't even have a kennel…Nu, so be it. Come, then, after me, so we will find a kennel also for you…”

He got up from his chair and leaning on his cane with strong steps, he pulled me after him to the deserted orchard behind his house. There, he brought us to a broken hut, pointed with his cane, and said:

- “You are lucky, young man, that it is summer outside and you will not suffer from cold. Regarding rain, the roof of the hut is still whole…and if there is a storm, Heaven forbid, don't be shy. Come into my house. We won't drive you away.”
The decision quickly ripened in my heart. I thanked the dear old man and already that evening I moved my few belongings to the hut. I was proud of myself, that as a “watcher” I was fulfilling an actual halacha (religious law), the commandment to “love nature” …

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One day, I arrived at the Moldovan suburb, which was in the vicinity of the Jewish sweat bath in Yedinitz. In one of the courtyards, I saw a large wooden storeroom, rickety and partially broken, and from inside it, echoes of sawing were heard. Unintentionally, I continued going inside, and I found Petro, the mustached Ukrainian, – a la Taras Bulba, like in the descriptions of Gogol. He also saw me, and he met me with a good-hearted smile. When I greeted him, he invited me to sit on a stump of wood, and when I refused to be honored with a cigarette, he rolled it for himself, and when he lit it, he began to examine my character. Even I, on my part, wanted to know who and what was he.

Within a warm-hearted conversation, it became clear that since he was an anarchist, according to his view of the world, he had to arrange exile from his birthplace, the Bolshevik Ukraine.

By profession, he was a craftsman-artist. He engraved and carved icons for the Christian churches. It was ascertained that at that time, Christianity did not “flower” in Bessarabia, and he turned to carpentry, mainly to making furniture.

At that hour, there arose in my mind the idea that an opportunity had come to me to learn about the carpentry trade with the instruction of an artist. I revealed my request to him, with hesitation that this was likely to consume a lot of his time.

- “With regard to the time, I will do everything to teach you quickly. But the main thing depends on you.” Petro answered me and continued: “But a man also is obligated to live, and not only to work. The slice of bread cannot always be found with me. You can only depend on the fact that I do not want to deprive you …”

When I revealed the matter to Reb Yisrael and requested his advice, he encouraged me, and so, two weeks later, I rewarded him as he deserved, when I brought him and his wife, who was shy and retiring, two footrests for their weak feet to boost the work of my hands…

Reb Yisrael Bronstein was also proud of that, and he found an opportunity to sting his neighbor Moshe Steinbortz (formerly the rabbi on behalf, in the days of the Tsar), who was struggling between Zionism and assimilation, by saying:

- “Gospodin Steinbortz, look and see what the strength of the Land of Israel is…”

When I returned in the evening to my house, I met Reb Yisrael Bronstein:

- “Yungerman, your grandfather was known as a religious “objector” and you are here with me, leading a matter of Rabbi and his followers…”

At that same hour, in my hut in the garden, a group of youths who responded to my invitation to establish a nest of “Hashomer Hatzair” waited for me…

It seems to me that more than anything else what drew the young men and women was my eccentric outward appearance: shorts, a scout shirt, and on my head a green scout hat, wide-brimmed with declining triangles with the scout emblem in the form of a lily. Apparently, my decision to live from the work of my hands and learn carpentry had more than a little influence.

In Yedinitz, as in all the towns and cities in Bessarabia, attracted by “Hashomer

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Hatzair”, were the young students, mostly children of well-to-do or middle-class families. Among them, I remember Liosa Nimshnitzer, the son of the owner of a pharmacy, Feigele Blank, the two daughters and son of the Hebrew teacher Yankel Kizhner, one of the Kligman sons, and others, all of whom I do not remember, and among them was Sarah Zaldin, the refugee girl from Ukraine.

There is no doubt that the way of life of the scouts' youth movement, the talks around the campfire, and the singing, sports games, and hikes in the field and forest with which the Jewish youth was not familiar are what drew the youth to join. But from here to the consciousness of preparation and making Aliyah to the Land of Israel, the path was far away; also, the “Tzeirei Zion” group in the town did not view my activities favorably, and like them, also the small group of “Poalei Zion”. It is no wonder that with my leaving Yedinitz at the end of the summer, “Hashomer Hatzair” was left alone and fell apart…

Some years later, in 1927, the last attempt was made by Aharonchik Cohen (today a member of Kibbutz Shaar Haemekim and a well-known Orientalist in Israel), one of the heads of the nest in Brichany, to establish “Hashomer Hatzair” anew in Yedinitz. He gathered some young men and women, but this attempt did not stand up to the test of success for more than several months. The group fell apart, and most of its members were “swallowed” by “Gordonia”.


Youth Groups and Students in the 1930s

A Group of Students in the Late 1930s

1) Sarah Klerman-Gonikman (Nazareth) 2) Syoma Freilich, Hy”d 3) Attorney Izzy Bronstein, Hy”d 4) Sonya Yanovich (Colombia) 5) Belka Karmansky (Russia) 6) Chaim Serebrenik, Hy”d 7) Ita Mutchnik 8) Pearl Largman, Hy”d (hanged herself in Transnistria) 9) Lidia Lerner (Tel Aviv)
A Group of Youth Studying in the Late 1930s

1) Manyusa Kaufman, Hy”d 2) Attorney Fima Tolpolar (Czernowitz) 3) Sonya Sadovnik (Riga) 4) Lisa Premislov (Haifa) 5) Motele Fuchs (Brazil) 6) Roysa Koifman 7) Bella Friedman (Brazil) 8) Leah Speyer, z`l 9) A woman from Lipkan 10) Betty Ackerboim-Fuchs (Brazil)


A Group of Students in 1930

1) Yosef Waldstein, Hy”d 2) Misha Feinboim (Czernowitz) 3) Yisrael Rosenthal 4) Syoma Freilich, Hy”d 5) Shmuel Weintraub (Rishon LeZion) 6) Yosef Zeidman (?) 7) Peretz Kleiger (Pardes Chana) 8) Lisa Tchak, Hy”d 9) Shimon Mittelman, Hy”d



The Gordonia Branch in Yedinitz, 1934

1) Chantsa Beniches 2) David Grossman (Haifa) 3) Manya Friedman (Mishmar Hasharon) 4) Manya Schwartz-Gukovsky (Tel Aviv) 5) Leah Mann-Parnass (Tel Aviv)) 6) Yisrael Lerner, Hy”d 7) Pinchas Mann-Meidelman (Nir Am) 8) Rachel Medelman (Gan Yavne) 9) Yosef Zonnenshein, Hy”d 10) Netanel Shachar (Netanya) 11) Aviva Dubrov (Yifat) 12) Tsizi Blank (Netanya) 13) Manya Helfgot (Pardes Chana) 14) Zissel Gukovsky, z”l 15) Shmuel Greenspon, Hy”d 16) MenuchaWeiner, Hy”d17) Rachel Milman 18) Sima Schneiderman 19) Gittel Grossman, Hy”d 20) ----------- 21) Yenta Finkelstein, Hy”d22) Golda Weissman 23) Gittel Tendrich, Hy”d 24) Perel … (in Yedinitz) 25) Chantsa Lerner 26) Chana Schwartz 27) Bracha Dorf (Ramat Gan) 28) Perel … 29) Chena Miller 30) Leib Schuster 31) Rosya Lerner (Haifa) 32) Bilha Roitbard 33) Chana … 34) Fania Goldenzweig 35) Chantsa Perklov (Haifa) 36) Manya Martsinovsky 37) ------- 38) ------- 39) Mendel Leiberman 40) Zussia Garelnik (Yedinitz) 41) Riva ------- 42) ------- Girtzman 43) ------- 44) Yitzchak Steinbortz (Haifa) 45) ------- Roitshenker 46) ------- 47) Musya Cooperschmidt 48) Yitzchak Reboch 49) Shmuel Gruzman 50) Leib Shachar (Israel) 51) Sara Finkel 52) Sara Koifman 53) Reuven Shacham-Schwartz (Tel Aviv) 54) Manya Roif (Peru) 55) Reuven Gertzman (Chanita) 56. Yaakov Rosenthal 57) Avraham Brand 58) Shlomo Ashkenazi 59) Masya Freidman 60) Pesya Schneiderman 61) Zhenya Kolkar, Hy”d 62) Gittel Nudelman 63) Ratsa Tepper 64) Chaya-Ita Tepperman (Israel) 65) Gittel Skolener 66) ------- 67) Sara Weiner-Schwartz (Nir Am) 68) Chaikel Weiner (Pardes Chana) 69) Shraga ------- 70) Raya Rabinowitz 71) Eliyahu Rosenberg, z”l 72) Masya Weinstein, Hy”d 73) Rachel -------- 74) Froika Kogan 75) Beila Perklov (Yedinitz) 76) Sheindel Welbitz 77) -------- 78) Tsvia Shpigolant 79) Ittel Tepper 80) Feiga Weissman 81) Chantza Koifman (Czernowitz) 82) Tsetsa Rogis (Colombia) 83) Gusta Ackerman (Chanita) 84) Chanka Glinoyer 85) Rachel Rosenthal 86) Raiza Tepper 87) Devora Koifman 88) Shmuel Groisman 89) Rachel Lerner (South America) 90) Sara Gokovsky, Hy”d 91) Pesia Weissman (Tsahala) 92) YaakovSerebrenik 93) Manya Rabinowitz 94) Feiga Schiller 95) Rachel Cherkis 96) Tova Skolner (Nir Am) 97) Batya Schneiderman 98) Sonia Gertzman 99) Chaim Finkelstein 100) Velvele Schneider (Acco) 101) ------- 102) Sara Spigolant 103) Feiga Rapoport 104) ------- 105) Valya Steiff (Yedinitz) 106) ------- 107) Yechiel Martsinovsky 108) Minnia Yanovitz (Brazil) 109) Tsvia Weinstein (Hadera) 110) ------- 111) Dov Koifman 112) Moshka Miller (Brazil) 113) Menachem Helfgot (Ramat Chen) 114) Rachel Gellman 115) Sarka Weintroib (Rishon LeZion) 116) Leah Zeidman, Hy”d 117) ------- 118) Chentza Finkelstein, Hy”d 119) Miza Weinstein, Hy”d 120) ------- 121) Chana Lerner 122) Tsipa Lerner 123) Moshe Serebrenik, Hy”d 124) Hershel Lerner 125) ------- 126) Froika ------- 127) Nachman Weissman (Tel Aviv) 128) ------- 129) Tsipora Skolnik (Jerusalem) 130) Esther Martsinovsky, Hy”d 131) Shmuel Blank 132) -------- 133) Leib Pofleiger 134) Heinich Akerman (Kiryat Chaim) 135, 136, 137) ------- 138) Palat Shachar (Israel) 139) Pinny Parness (South America) 140) Liyoba Adelman 141) Avraham Reichman 142) Feiga Weissman (Chanita) 143) Yosef Dondushansky (Israel)

Hy”d: an acronym for the Hebrew HaShem Yikom Damo, which means “may G-d avenge his blood.” This expression is used in mentioning the name of someone who was murdered because he was Jewish.


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