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[Col. 59]

5. Education and Enlightenment

The Enlightenment, the spiritual aspiration to bring “the beauty of Japhet into the tents of Shem” – began to strike roots very early in the hearts of the Jews of the Suwalk area. While a maskil (enlightened Jew) was still a rarity in most places in the Pale of Settlement, there were maskilim in a number of towns in the Suwalk area who played a role in the local community life. In the 1850's the Haskalah had already taken on various organizational forms. Suwalk and the towns included in this study were classic Haskalah towns more than 100 years ago.

[Col. 60]

The most striking example is that of the rabbis in Suwalk. All of them without exception (it seems) were far from the type described by maskilim as “Obscurantists”. The same is true of most of the rabbis of the nearby towns. When Suwalk or one of the nearby towns was looking for a rabbi, the heads of the community tried to find out, first of all, if the candidates understood the spirit of the time. The fact that these rabbis were more or less in tune with the local maskilim shows how strong the influence of the Haskalah was in Suwalk and its province.

Dr. Naum Slouschz, the famous Hebrew scholar, wrote the following perceptive remark about the Jews of Suwalk area: “They all walk the golden mean… here, there are no great Torah scholars, but, there are many householders who know the Torah. Here, there are no outstanding maskilim but, the Haskalah, especially in its practical aspects, has spread into every corner without provoking fanaticism. Here, there is no apostasy but also no extreme piety”.[1].[1*]

[Col. 61]

The main reason for this phenomenon is again, the border character of the region. Because of the proximity of the Prussian border, the ideas of Moses Mendelssohn spread into Suwalk and its vicinity more rapidly. Y.S. Vays, something of a Suwalk compatriot, tells that the Jews of Suwalk area were very much influenced by Mendelssohn's teachings[2*] . Many Jews of Suwalk visited other cities in the Pale and out of it, and grew accustomed to other ways of life. As a result of such journeys, some of which ended in matrimony, Jews came to Suwalk from large cities where life was very modern – and this must have influenced the spiritual make-up of the local community. This was especially true of women such as, for example, the daughter of the wealthy man from Warsaw – Moshe Endalman.[2], the daughter of the rich man from Moscow, and others.

The many thousands of Russian soldiers who were garrisoned in Suwalk also helped to bring a worldly note into the town. During manoeuvres the town was literally flooded with soldiers. This certainly had an influence since in places that are isolated from the rest of the world; new ideas and new ways of live have a better opportunity to infiltrate.

One hundred years ago, there was already “teacher from Germany who served as tutors in wealthy homes and used the German translation of the Bible”.[3]

Even earlier, in the first decades of the nineteenth century, there were correspondents of the German-Jewish press in Suwalk.

Some 115 years ago, a young man from Suwalk, Moshe Rubovits? Picked himself up and went to Marseilles to study painting.

In the fifties, in the small town of Ratzk, there was a Jew named Ts. H. Perlo who was reading “Gazeta Varshavska” and translating articles from it for the Hebrew press.[4]

[Col. 62]

In 1862 in Suwalk, a “Bet Sefer le-yalde Yeshurun” was founded by R'Yehudah Leyb Paradistal, about whom we shall write further on. The course of study of this Hebrew school was Hebrew, Bible, grammar, Polish and German. Among the teachers was Mordekai Yahalomshteyn; “the maskil who spoke many languages fluently”. Those associated with founding the school were the wealthy men: Shalom Erdikh (Erdraykh?) and his son, Yosef; S. Rozenthal and S.Z. Perlovits.[3*] A second source adds the names: David Lipski; R'Motele Lipski; Shmuel Grunem Laypuner; Yakkov Laski; Mikhl Klaynerman; Eliezer Efrayim Rozntal; Moshe Bardin; Yehudah Volf; Y. Likhtnshteyn; R”S Mints and D. Holenderski.[6]

An account in another newspaper tells about preparations to build a building for the school and that the materials are already present. Also, students are already present. Among the teachers mentioned are Yosef Shaynhok and H. Shtern, a student of the Rabbinical Seminary.[7]

A correspondent in a fourth newspaper, Moshe Meir Kahan, writes that the school's programme of studies includes: Pentateuch with the commentary of Rashi; mathematics and history. He adds that the local rabbi has visited the school; tested the children and has praised Paradistal highly.[8] At that time the rabbi of Suwalk was Samuel Mohilewer.

We do not have any information on how long Paradistal's school lasted. Two years after its founding, there is a mention in “Hamagid” that it is progressing well.

In 1861, the maskil Asher Margalit from Psherosle, together with R'Shraga Fayvish Berkman from Vilkovishk, printed the book: “Phaedon” by Moses Mendelssohn.[9]

[Col. 63]

The same Asher Margalit was the agent for subscriptions to “Mekitse Nirdamim” in 1862.10. In 1871, a general list of the subscribers to “Mekitse Nirdamim” includes the name of R'S son of R'Ts. Vazbutski from Suwalk. In 1877, a fund raising campaign for “Mekitse Nirdamim” was carried out in the small town of Filipowe by the maskilim, R'Yehudah Vistinetski, Shimon Faynberg, Eliyahu Hirshorn, Yehudah Wolk, and Yehudah Yisrael Kletski.[12] In a list of members of this society[4*] in 1866, we find the names of the maskilim: Yitshak Roznblum, Asher Finkl, Zelik Rosnfeld and Ra”ts Meltserzon. [12a]

About a year later, when a school for Jewish boys was opened in Suwalk, a local Jewish girl called Miriam, daughter of Shimon Verzbolovski,[13] came out with a protest as to why there was no concern for the education of Jewish girls. She acknowledged that parents did hire private tutors for their daughters but insisted that this would not solve the problem. And, she demanded in 1863! That a Jewish school for girls should be established. It is interesting that Abraham Mapu, the famous Hebrew writer, had read the correspondence earlier and had sent it to “Hamagid” where it was published with his approbation at the end.[14][5*]

At the end of 1867, Aaron Samuel Liebermann came to Suwalk (later to become the famous editor of the first Hebrew socialist newspaper – “Ha-Emet”). Liebermann had been appointed teacher in the local Jewish government school. The official letter of appointment reads in translation: “Ministry of People's Enlightenment, Warsaw Educational District. Chief of Suwalk School Principalship. Suwalk March 15, 1868 n°1368”.[6*]

“On the basis of Article 53 of the Law of Civil Government Service, Arnold Liebermann who was sent here to the position of second teacher in the Suwalk Jewish Elementary School is hereby appointed as the second teacher in the Jewish Elementary School in Suwalk with a salary of 120 rubbles annually. He will receive this salary from the tuition fees that will be paid”.[16][7*]

A few months later, Liebermann was made the manager of the board of the Jewish community of Suwalk and he was sent the following letter:

“Suwalk January 28th, 1868.
To Mr. Aaron Liebermann, the manager of the community of the Suwalk district.
The Jewish community directorship of Suwalk district has decided to appoint Aaron Liebermann as the business manager of the affairs of the Jewish community board of directors. His salary is set according to the budget at 100 silver rubbles a year starting from the day he took over the position that is January 1st, 1868”.
D. Likhtnshteyn
Yeshayahu (Lipski?)
B. Bialistotski.

A.S. Liebermann was not a new face in Suwalk. He had spent some years there in his father's house. His father had lived there from about 1849-1853. In 1869, he left Suwalk for his studies at the Petersburg Technological Institute.[17]

[Col. 65]

In 1867, a private school was founded in Suwalk were Russian was the language of instruction. Its founder was Shelomoh Zeligman who was the religion teacher of the Jewish children in the local government gymnasium. Zeligman later became the Government rabbi of Suwalk and, in 1894, government inspector of all of the Jewish schools and hadorim in the city. The director, A. Sultanovski, gave him the permit for this.[18]

Before the school was founded, Zeligman had announced that Hebrew too would be taught there. However, at the beginning, it was only Russian which was taught and this evoked anger of the Hebraist maskilim.[19]

In 1869 another private school was founded by Zeev Danayger Ha-Kohen which later played an important role in the educational system of Suwalk and its Jewish social life. The school was Hebrew but Russian was very important too. The teacher of Russian was Vishinski. This school lasted for 25 years.

During his long years of pedagogic and communal involvement, Danayger had many opponents. According to the already cited “Tiltule Derekh”, it seems that the teachers Y.S. Vays, S.L. Zitron and others complained about his dictatorial ways. On the pages of “Hamelits” there is a long discussion in 1894 about Danayger's activities with criticism from one side and praise from the other.[20] Danayger's camp was very strong, mostly householders supported him. One of the correspondences about his educational methods which were an indirect response to his critics had over 50 signatures; among them, many of the most important householders and communal leaders, such as: Shelomoh-Tsevi Zeligman, government rabbi; Menahem Mendl Rozntal; Meir Tsevi Serayski; Yitshak Dov Brinman; Mikhl Frenkl; Zalman Rozntal, and others. At the end, there is a separate approbation quoted from the “Mo”Ts Rabbi Naftali and Rabbi Moshe Altman.[21][8*]

An echo of this debate can be found in “Hamelits” and also in “Hatsefirah” of the same year (May 5th), where Avraham Naymark writes that thanks to Zeev Danayger, education had been greatly improved in Suwalk.

In 1886, a girl's school was established in Suwalk – a rare phenomenon at the time in the towns of the Pale. It was founded by Haykl Midad who had been teaching in Suwalk for some years. Two years later, correspondence published[9*] says that the school is developing nicely.[22]

In the 80's, there was a small school in Suwalk where Hebrew, German and Polish was taught. The principal and teacher was Gudinska.

In 1892, a teacher from Slonim, who had previously taught in Gerson Rosenzweig's school, directed a Hebrew school for girls in Suwalk.

Y.S. Vays relates that in the entire province of Suwalk, girls were taught “Torah and knowledge {science?} and Hebrew”. He remarks that this tradition of educating girls was transported by the Jewish immigrants to America who came from Suwalk province. Most of the girls in Jewish schools in America, he writes, come from Suwalk backgrounds.[23]

Avraham Eliyahu Sandlar, a teacher from Verzshbolove (Virbaln), remarks in his series of articles: “La-horim vela-morim”[10*], that there were Jewish schools for girls only in Lomza and Suwalk provinces. Such schools as well as coeducational schools were later prohibited according to Sandlar, “through the efforts of the teachers in the province of Suwalk”.

There were also a number of Jewish female students already in the Suwalk government gymnasium at the beginning of the sixties – but we will write about this later.

In 1893, a Hebrew school was opened in Suwalk by Samuel Leib Zitron, later a famous writer in Hebrew and Yiddish. The Suwalk Lovers of Zion and notables of the city brought him in from Augustow. After a year, Zitron left for Mariampol but returned to Suwalk again and directed a private school until about 1897. His house was a centre for all Lovers of Zion and Hebraists in town. There was also a Zionist prayer quorum there.

[Col. 67]

At the same time, Y.S. Vays also had a school in Suwalk. He became very friendly with Zitron.

G. Rosenzweig had a modern Hebrew school in Suwalk. In later years, he was one of the pioneers of the Yiddish-Hebrew press in America.

It is worth mentioning that in 1894, Diment – a Jew from Suwalk who had had dealings in Moscow – donated a building in the Shulgasse and 500 rubbles to found a vocational school in Suwalk.[25]


The oldest, most important and long lasting educational institution in Suwalk was the Talmud Torah founded in 1851 by the then Rabbi of Suwalk, the famous scholar R'Yitshak Ayzik Haver and it bore the name: “Ohel Yitshak”.[26] The Tamlud Torah and Yeshivah lasted until the Holocaust. It graduated many teachers and a number of famous Jewish writers and communal workers studied there.

In correspondence in “Hamegid” by E.B. Smolenski of Kalverie the co-founders of the Talmud Torah, Yosef Rozntal and Dov Ber Brinman are mentioned.[27]

For many years, the principal of the Talmud Torah was Dov Ber Ayzenberg. Yosef Sheynhak, the famous writer of Suwalk origin, writes in 1869 that his friend Sheynhak has been directing the Talmud Torah for over five years and that there are around 400 students enrolled.[28]

[Col. 68]

The great rabbi, R'Zevulun Leyb Barit, rabbi of Filipowe, visited Suwalk in 1872 and examined the students of the upper grades who were studying along Yeshivah lines. He recounts that there were eight teachers there and that the directors were the chief rabbi Yosef Rozntal, chairman, vice chairman, Binyamin Diskin (the rabbi's son-in-law; secretary, Zalman Rozntal trustee and Asher Rubinstayn – mashgiah {supervisor}. Yosef Rozntal, Asher Rubinstayn and Zalman Rozntal were famous maskilim and scholars, and it is no wonder that the Rabbi of Filipowe reports (in 1872) that grammar and “foreign languages” were taught there.[29][11*]

Grammar and foreign languages were taught at the Talmud Torah before such studies were required by the government. This does not mean that all of the teachers there would have been able to pass the examinations required by the law of 1872 “of the teachers of the province of Suwalk”. Russian, Polish etc., were taught by the teachers from the government gymnasiums and some teachers just “slipped by”. Tshibulski, who was inspector of schools in Suwalk for almost thirty years (1871-1899), understood the situation of the older teachers and did not demand of them that they know Russian. Sidarski, who replaced Tshibulski, followed in his footsteps.[30] Tshibulski failed some teachers – to protect himself[12*], but generally, he was a friend of the Jews and thanks to him, the prohibition against Jewish children being enrolled in the teachers' seminary of Vayveri, Mariampol district, was rescinded.[31]

A solution was found for the teachers with the problem of the {lack of knowledge of} Russian just as a solution was found for the problem of the law of April 15, 1888 {limiting the} number of teachers. According to this law, for every 1000 Jews in a town, there could only be one heder, which meant in practice, one teacher. The Jews of Suwalk province interpreted this, however, to mean that teachers could have assistants, not limited in number by law. Tshibulski accepted this interpretation and the school inspector for the Suwalk district, Nenadkevitsh, also accepted.[32]

The Talmud Torah was a large enterprise. There were usually eight to ten teachers and an average of 250 students, most of who did not pay tuition fees and were also often given shoes and clothing. This required large expenditures. Most of the budget was provided by Suwalk householders. In 1875, the supervisors of the Talmud Torah thanked these householders publicly, listing the names of 87 householders.[33]

However, it was still difficult to cover expenses from local sources and appeals were made to Jews abroad. One of the philanthropists from abroad responded warmly and gave donations for the Suwalk Talmud Torah for a number of years. This was the famous Jewish philanthropist and communal worker, Moses Montefiore.

In response to his contribution, the management of the Talmud Torah sent him the following letter {in Hebrew}:

“With feelings of honour, we, the undersigned, members of the Board of Directors of the Talmud Torah, thank you for the five pounds sterling which you sent us for the support of the Talmud Torah in our city. Our souls are full of awe and trembling as we see that your heart is as wide as the ocean to do justice and charity, and that you are observant to perfect and strengthening anything lacking in Jacob {i.e. children of Israel}, while also watching to strengthen and reinforce every good and useful action.

Your deeds are wondrous, O lover of justice. Our souls know that you seek only to pursue justice and to encourage salvation until the wings of your charity shall sprout forth all over the world and wherever there is need to spread charity, you are there. Therefore, we pray to God who has been your shepherd for one hundred years, that he give you many years of life, as the sands of the sea, that a just man shall flourish like the palm tree and that your bones may be strong so that you will be a wonder in the land and an honour in the midst of your people Israel until the honour of Jacob is restored and the Lord returns the captives of his people”.[34][13*]

The correspondence about the letter is signed by Yisrael Zalman Staropolski, a very intelligent man, correspondent for newspapers who was then (and for many years), the principal of the Talmud Torah.[35]

Out of gratitude for Montefiore's contribution, the leaders of the Talmud Torah decided to make in an honorary member of the institution. He agreed, and so for many years, Sir Moses Montefiore was “honorary member” of an institution in Suwalk.

[Col. 72]

Rabbi Yaakov Tuvyah Goldberg had a large share in the spiritual development of the institution. He was Dean of the Yeshivah for 31 years (1864-1895). Before that, he was rabbi in several small towns around Suwalk. He supported the study of “the language of the country” and he published Torah novella in “Halevanon” and other Hebrew periodicals.[36]

In the 90's, the one-story building of the Talmud Torah was on the verge of collapse. It was repaired in 1894 and two additional stories were built onto it.[37]

In 1894, there were 225 hadorim in the Suwalk district, taught by 225 teachers with 2900 students.[38]

The boys in the Yeshivas in Suwalk province felt more comfortable and had easier lives than those in Lithuania, according to Y.S. Vays in “Tiltule gever”. They felt freer. This is certainly plausible when one considers the Haskalah atmosphere in this region.


One of the best known educational institutions in Suwalk province was the Hebrew school in Saini founded and led by the well-known Haskalah writer, T”P (Tuvyah Pinhas) Shapira. The curriculum of his school included: Bible, Gemara, Hebrew, Russian, Mathematics, Geography of Russia, etc.[39]

But, Shapira's school although supported by the enlightened circles of Saini, soon encountered difficulties and did not last very long. It began at the start of 1874 with 60 students and 5 teachers. A correspondence from Saini in the very same year, reports that the school is about to close.[40] T”P Shapira himself denies these rumours but admits, in the second years of its existence, that it has been reduced by half, both in number of students and in number of teachers.[41]

[Col. 73]

T”P Shapira's personality certainly had a great influence on Jewish life in Saini, especially on local maskilim. Thanks to him, they became connected to central Haskalah institutions as, for example, the “Hevrah Marbe Haskalah Be-Yisrael”[14*] in Petersburg which sent those books and periodicals.[42] Nevertheless, the Haskalah was in a weaker position in Saini than in Suwalk, both in the 70's and 80's. Avraham Tsevi Polnitski, writing from Saini in 1885, tells how the “obscurantists” exploit the pogroms as a way of frightening parents away from the Haskalah and that many Jewish parents do not sent their children to the secular schools as a result of this propaganda.[43] There was, of course, anti-Haskalah propaganda in Suwalk too, but its results were not as serious as in Saini.

Not only the Haskalah but also the Talmud Torah was less successful in Saini than it was in Suwalk.

In 1883, T”P Shapira bemoans the terrible pedagogic and financial situation of the Saini Talmud Torah.[44]

In that same year, in another periodical, there is a similar correspondence from Saini by Hlvna Bernshteyn. He argues that the condition of the Talmud Torah has been bad for many years and he calls for help to prevent its disappearance.[45]

That same year, there was a plea for help “especially to our compatriots in New York and Petersburg”. This plea was signed by the wardens of the Talmud Torah: Moshe Fin, Moshe Shapira, Barukh Lifshits and Shelomoh Berkman.[46]

The attendance of Jewish boys and girls at the government gymnasium in Suwalk and in the province, gives a clear picture of the worldliness of Suwalk's Jews. As far back as the 70's, it was not rare to find Jewish boys and girls studying there and even travelling to study at Russian universities and abroad.

[Col. 74]

As early as 1867, we find an unusually large number (for that time) of Jewish children in the government gymnasium in Suwalk: 27 Jewish students; in the girl's gymnasium there were a few Jewish girls. The thirteen year old G. Lipski excelled in her examinations.[47]

In 1872, a Jewish boy, Klaynerman, graduated from the Suwalk gymnasium with a gold medal.[48]

In 1878, Yaakov Goldblat of Suwalk was already at the Art Academy in Petersburg. He later won many prizes for his works of art.[49]

In 1884, the Jewish surveyor in Suwalk, Kurliandtshik, was a university graduate.[50]

Shemuel Zundl Finklshteyn of Filipowe graduated from the Real Gymnasium in Marburg in the 1880's.[51]

In the mid-80's, the number of Jewish students who were tutoring their Christian classmates was so great in the Suwalk-Russian gymnasium that the Directors carried out a special poll among the Jewish students to see who was paid for such private lessons. The goal was clear: prohibition of such relationships, as had already been done at the schools in Minsk, Vilna and other places.[52]

In 1887, seven Jewish students completed the Russian gymnasium of Suwalk and four of them were accepted at the University of Warsaw.[53]

In 1888, the gymnasium student, Yaakov Bernshteyn of Suwalk, sought his father, Yitshak who had graduated years earlier from the universities of Berlin and Breslau.[54]

At the end of the 80's, two sons of Esther and Zalman Rozntal[55], Eliezer and Avraham of Suwalk, were students at the local gymnasium. In 1889, their daughter Menuha had completed her matriculation examination with a gold medal.[56]

[Col. 75]

The number of Jewish graduates in Suwalk was so large that even the founders of the “Bikur Holim” of Suwalk came mainly from their ranks.[57] By the way, the reporter of this information was a woman; Esther Broynrat – one of the rare appearance {of a woman} in the Hebrew periodicals of the time.

In 1900, the Jewish girls, Mine Burak of Suwalk and Freyd[15*] of Saini, distinguished themselves among the gymnasium graduates.[58]

Such a large intellectual community as existed in Suwalk, felt the need for a Jewish (more precisely Hebrew) book. The first permit to open a Jewish library in Suwalk, as far as we know, was given in 1867.[59]

In 1891, the society “Safah Berurah” {Clear Language} was founded in Suwalk, its goal being to disseminate the Hebrew language. It founded its own library in 1891. The rich man – Markson, gave a donation towards its founding.

At its very beginning, Safah Berurah had about 70 members. They were very active. Each member had to speak Hebrew with the other members. Every Saturday night, they would meet in a synagogue to hear a Hebrew lecture or to enjoy an entertainment and always in Hebrew.[61] That year, they presented M.L. Lilienblum's “Zerubavel”[62], which was translated into Hebrew by the well-known local teacher, Zeev Danayger for the benefit of the society. A year later, the same play was performed by the society for the benefit of “Lehem Ani'im”[16*]. Among the participants in “Zerubavel” was a newly formed Jewish orchestra with the long flowery name of “Menaghim bi-khle-shir me'ahavah mibene Yisrael”.[17*] Among the performers in “Zerubavel” were the teachers (Yaakov Eliezer), Vishinski and (Shimon) Vishayski.[63]

Among the names of the 120 members of “Ahiasaf” in 1901, the most important society for Hebrew literature at the time, we find the name of B.Serayski of Suwalk.[64]

[Col. 76]

The maskilim of Suwalk organized classes for adults for long winter evenings. In 1899, there were evening classes in Russian and mathematics. The teachers were: Vishayski, Aleksandrovits and Midad. That year, the society “Torah mi-Tsiyon” was organized especially for working people to study Bible and Jewish history.[65]

In his memoirs, Eliezer Mordekhay Altshuler, born and bred in Suwalk, gives a picture of the general Haskalah atmosphere in the province of Suwalk, and especially in its capital.

Altshuler, who organised a group of Lovers of Zion in Suwalk and environs to settle in the Land of Israel, wrote in 1881 in a letter to Z.D. Levontin: “we are all educated and understanding – there is not one amongst us who does not know three or four languages besides the holy tongue of our ancestors”.[66]

Zeev Danayger, one of Altshuler's chief assistants in organizing this group, complained in a letter to the well-known Yehiel Michael Pines in the name of his comrades, that the “Hevrat Meyadse HaYishuv” had a by-law that “Jewish children could not be taught any language besides Hebrew”.[67]

In that same letter to Levontin, Altshuler adds the following paragraph about religious observance which gives a clear picture of the spiritual climate among the Jews of Suwalk at that time.

“As to your question whether our society is based on tolerance or upon religious fanaticism… one can say that such fanatics are very few in our circles (my underline, B.K.) – although such people cannot be underestimated.. however, our side has more people than their side and we do not debate them and they are afraid to speak against us”.[68]

There were few towns in the Pale of Settlement where opponents were “afraid to speak against” Lovers of Zion and maskilim.


Translator's Footnotes

1*. In the text, the word is shtremung but I think it is a misprint for shtrebung and I have treated it as such Return
2*. Literally Torah. Could mean Mendelssohn's translation of Bible. Return
3*. No sign of footnote 5 Return
4*. Mekitse Nirdamim was a society for publication of scholarly editions of medieval Hebrew literature founded in Lyck in 1862 Return
5*. It is not clear from the text what “correspondence” is being referred to here Return
6*. Kagan is translating from Russian into Yiddish and I am translating his Yiddish into English. I have no idea what the official Russian nomenclature of these official titles is Return
7*. translator's quotation marks Return
8*. As previously mentioned, there are many titles which are untranslatable. Mo”Ts stands for Moreh Tsedek, teacher of righteousness, which can mean head of the local rabbinical court or, simply be honorific Return
9*. In “Hamelits” Return
10*. To parents and teachers Return
11*. It is not clear from the punctuation whether Yosef Rozntal was vice-chairman or chairman Return
12*. i.e. to show he was doing his job Return
13*. It is impossible to transmit the very flowery language of this letter which uses many very high-flow metaphors taken from the Bible and the Talmud. I tried to retain some of the flavour but you would have to multiply it considerably to translate it literally. For example: taking from the Song of Songs, Montefiore is pictured as gazing from the windows and peering from the cracks, language used in the Song of Songs for the Beloved, etc Return
14*. Society for the increase of Enlightenment among Jews Return
15*. No forename given Return
16*. Bread for the poor Return
17*. Players of musical instruments out of love (i.e. amateur) from amongst the children of Israel Return


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