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[Col. 45]

5. Emigration from Suwalk

Many years before the mass emigration of the Jews from Eastern Europe, Jews had begun emigrating from Suwalk in all directions. It did not have the character of a mass immigration until the 1880's. Jews from Suwalk were among the first immigrants from Eastern Europe to set foot in the United States.[1*] The nearness of the Prussian border was a factor in this phenomenon.

[Col. 46]

Jews from the province of Suwalk (at the time still part of Augustow province) came to America about 115-120 years ago. There were Jews from Suwalk among the Polish Jewish immigrants of the 1840's.[1].

The famine of 1847, from which Suwalk's Jews suffered a great deal, led to the emigration of many Jews to North America (and other places). Proof of this can be found in the traces of Suwalk Jews in a number of places in the United States, shortly after this date.

[Col. 47]

Among the founders of the first congregation of Russian Jews in New York in 1852, Jews from Ratzk and Filipowe are found i.e. R'Leyb Ratsker; R'Shemuel Halevi Ayziks; R'Avraham, son of R'Meir Ratsker, R'Hayim Sakalski all from Filipowe. R'Shemuel Halevi Ayziks was born in Ratzk in 1825 and came to America in 1847. He died in Chicago in 1917. R'Hayim Sakalski had studied with the great scholar, R'Hayim Filipower. He became a scribe of Torah scrolls and mexuxab scrolls in New York and also wrote articles in Hebrew and published some books in English.[2]

Nahman Ber Etlzan (?) born in Shaki, Suwalk province, lived in Chicago in 1851. He had articles published in American English periodicals.

In a list of four Jews in Richmond, Virginia, in 1855, one finds the name of M. Lazarus of Kalvarie, in the Suwalk area.[3]

In the mid-1850's, the names of Jews who played an important role in import and export from California are found. One of these is Reuven Ayziks[4]. Probably related to the previously mentioned Shemuel Hilel Ayziks whose name we encounter about fifteen years later in a proclamation about Jewish day schools in New York.

The story of this proclamation is very interesting and should at least be mentioned here. In 1871, a proclamation came out in New York through Rabbi M.Y. Ish-Litay that it is unfortunate the Jewish children in America should study in public schools. A group was formed to found “separate schools for Jewish children”. Interestingly, almost all of the initiators of this project were from the Suwalk area: the above-mentioned Rabbi Shemuel Hilel Ayziks, born in Ratzk; Rabbi Shlomoh Zalman Lians, head of “Mishkan Yisrael Le-Anshe Ratsk”; Rabbi Moshe-Lipa Abrahams, head of the “Mazhire Shabat Li-Vene Suvalk”.[5]

[Col. 48]

In “Hamagid” 1863 n°22, there is an announcement from a Suwalk woman named Rivkah, that her husband, Dov-Tsevi, son of Zeev Halevi from Baklerowe, has died and that she wishes to receive halitsa[2*] from her dead husband's brother, Betsalel Eliyahu, who had been in America for a long time.

In the same issue of “Hamagid” there is a notice by one Gershon Frank from Suwalk who seeks his newly arrived father in America, Barukh Zeev. His father could not have disappeared in the very first year he arrived (1863).

In 1866 in New York, there was already the “Hevra Gomele Hasadim le-Anshe Suvalk” that had been founded. The head warden was R'Shemuel Matulier and others were: Yaakov Zeev Pialandtser and Yaakov Dikhayzer. Their goal was to collect enough money to build a study house for the group and to aid newly arrived Jews from Suwalk.

The family of Dr. Shemuel Shulman, who later was one of the leading Reform Jews in America, came from Suwalk in 1867.

In “Hamagid” of 1868 n°34, Avraham ben Meir Halevi of Ratzk, a resident of New York, makes known that the brothers Kanhaym of Suwalk have absconded with an endorsed note for $1000.

During the famine years of 1868-69, the number of Suwalk Jews in America grew 6 to the point where they felt the need for their own synagogue. In 1870, the first synagogue of Suwalk Jews was founded on 5th East Broadway, New York City under the name of “Mishkan Yisrael le-Anshe Suvalk”.

Among the leaders of the “Bet HaKeneset Mariampoler Yelide Poyln Ohave Shalom” in 1871, the name of Aryeh Leyb, son of R'Moshe Direkterovits of Suwalk, is found.[7]

In 1871, Leah, daughter of Tsevi Hirsh Hakemski from Wizshan seeks one Shabetai Tabrishkoski, lost somewhere in America.[8]

In the seventies, many Jews from Ludvinove, Kalvarie, Suwalk, Vishtinets, Verzshbolove and Mariampol emigrated.[9]

[Col. 49]

In a list of Jews who immigrated to America in 1869-70 dated 30th March 1870, made by the Koenigsberg Aid Committee, the names of many Jewish emigrants from the Suvalk area appear:

From Wizshan: M.Finkleshteyn.
From Suwalk: S. Arager, S. Barlen, S. Birzenski, Ts. Berman, S. Broda, Y. Gumbiner, Yehudit Gumbiner, B. Grodzinski, G. Hirshberg, B. Volovski, Ts. Volovski, S. Viranski, Ts. Vegman, Hayim Tovim, S. Tovim, Y. Liberman, I. Lifshifts, Y. Levit, B. Novinski, A. Stolorzshevski, Y. Slavitski, A. Epshteyn, S. Popovski, A. Finklshtyen, A. Finshteyn, M. Kasel, L. Klumortsiski, S. Kalynarski, Y. Rubinshteyn, R. Shapira.
From Saini: A. Fridman, A. Zshidovski.
From Psherosle: M. Vishtinsetski.
From Filipowe: S. Unterberg, B. Berkovski, S. Gridniski, M. Deniger, Y. Yerminski, M. Yerminski, S. Livonovski, M. Shtshikolovski.[9a]

By the mid-seventies, there was a firmly rooted Suwalk colony in New York. Its members supported Suwalk institutions and in 1875, we find a note of gratitude to: “our honoured brethren, the wardens of New York” Moshe Aharon Ahrnzon, Aryeh Berghsteyn, Leyb Yitshak Rozenberg, and Moshe Lipe Abramski.[9b]

The first congregation of Polish-Russian Jews in Boston was founded in 1873 and one of its founders was Barukh Yitshak Reynharts, born in Baklerowe in 1848. He was a very wealthy man, a philanthropist who wrote for “Hamagid”, “Hashahar” and other periodicals.[3*]

The well-known Suwalk Lover of Zion, A.N. Altshuler, writes in a letter dated December 15, 1881 to Y.D. Levontin: “The emigration to America has increased greatly in the last decades. There is no family in our area without a brother, uncle or friend in America who have progressed and developed there”.[10]

In 1884, Daniel Roznberg writes from Baklerowe that many Jews from the towns near Prussia are leaving for America.

[Col. 50]

In 1885, Shemuel Yehudah Markun from Suwalk writes about mass emigration from the town. In 1886, an anonymous correspondent from Suwalk writes that people are leaving town every week.[11]

This mass emigration kept on for a long time. By 1892, there was barely a week when 20-30 Jewish families did not leave for America from Suwalk and environs.[12] There was such a mass departure that the prices of houses fell drastically.

The write, Y.S. Vays, tells that there is no large city in America or Africa where there are no Jews from Suwalk.[13]

We should mention the interesting fact that in the 90's, a Suwalk Jew was a well-known Senator in America, although no one suspected he was Jewish. This was Senator Hodges of Alabama who was known as Hodosh in Suwalk.[14] One should mention too a very characteristic fact: when the “Am Olam” movement, which aimed to establish agricultural colonies in America for a national Jewish renaissance, was expanding and growing, Suwalk was one of the first participants in the plan and, in 1881, became one of the first sections of “Am Olam” in all of Russia.[15]

There was also a great emigration of Suwalk's Jews to South Africa, although not in such numbers as to the United States. H. Gershater, one of the well-known and important South African-Jewish writers, writes (in the name of the then popular writer, Ben Zion Hofman), that already in 1870, there was a Jew from Suwalk in Kimberley. Ts. Vays, one of the important Jewish merchants and communal workers in Capetown was Hayim Liberman, born in Suwalk in 1852 that came to South Africa in the seventies. This Liberman was an Orthodox Jew but was influenced by the Reform Rabbi, A.F. Binder, and became active in his Capetown “congregation”. He was so accepted by his new home town that he was the Mayor of Capetown from 1904-1907.

[Col. 51]

He might have been elected to the South African Parliament in 1907 but, many Jews voted against him because he followed his goyish-reformed {sic!] rabbi in his opposition to Zionism and Yiddish as a European language.[16][4*]

The Jews of Suwalk started to emigrate over 100 years ago, not only abroad, but at the same time (and logically even earlier) they scattered over many countries of Europe. The nearness of the border, frequent business trips to other countries, marriages with people of other countries, etc., were factors in this phenomenon. There was another reason: Jews from the Suwalk province, on their way abroad, often had to stay for some time in their cities of transit, and thus, there grew colonies of emigrants in various places in Europe.

A small congregation of Jews from the Suwalk area was formed in Moldavia-Wallachia in Hungary.

In 1840, we find a Jew from Augustow, David son if Yitshak Tsarnavski, in Krayava, Wallachia,[17] seeking his family left behind in his birthplace.

In 1863, A.M. ALtshuler of Suwalk was seeking his cousin Finklshteyn in Hungary.[18]

In 1864, Meir Hirshfeld of Ratzk was a religious teacher in Klausenburg, Hungary. In 1876, he was sought by his brother Yitshak who lived in Baklerowe.[19]

In 1873, Feyge Ayznberg of Suwalk sought her son David Halevi, who had left for Moldavia-Wallachia.[20]

At the beginning of the 1860's, there was a sizeable colony from the Suwalk area – evident from a number of appearances in periodicals of which the following are some examples:

In 1865, Manye, daughter of R'Yosef of Suwalk, sought her husband Yosef Bialogorski. He was born near Saini and had left for Stockholm.[21] In 1870, Aryeh Leyb Klayn sent a donation from Karlshtadt, Sweden, for some Jewish institution in his home town of Suwalk.[22] It is evident that he had been living in Sweden for some years.

[Col. 52]

In 1871, we find a notice from Yitshak Dov Mirkovski of Suwalk, that he is seeking his son Leyb who had left for Sweden but at the time, Mirkovski was no longer living in Suwalk but in East Prussia.[23]

That same year, a Suwalk Jew living in Sweden criticized an article which had appeared in “Hamagid” on the subject of Jews from Russia-Poland living in Sweden. His name was Tuviah, son of R'Tsevi Leybzan.[24] From a second note, it seems that Leybzan had been living in Salves Borg for a long time.[25]

In 1872, Tsevi Hirsh Berkman from Wizshan was a ritual slaughterer in Gothenburg, Sweden.[26] In 1874, we find the same Berman in Gothenburg collecting for the hungry people of Jerusalem.

There was a large centre of people from Suwalk in Warsaw. In the 70's, the well-known teacher and writer, Y.L. Paradistal, a long-time resident of Suwalk, was working in Warsaw. The well-known maskil and writer in Warsaw, Y. Zibenberg had actually lived in Suwalk for a long time (see chapter on writers). At the end of the fifties, Abele Markson, the well-known printer-publisher from Suwalk, was active in Warsaw. The Rozntal family from Suwalk were scattered over many cities of Russia-Poland and also had their “representatives” in Warsaw.

In 1864 the Jew from Suwalk, Shemuel Mints, opened an inn in Warsaw named “Hotel Loybes”.[27]

In the list of subscribers from Warsaw to a book which was published in 1865, a David Kahana of Suwalk is listed.[28]

In another book published in Warsaw in 1871, we find the name of subscriber Shimshon Zeev Faynberg of Filipowe.[29]

[Col. 53]

In 1872, a Jew from Saini, Asher Berg living in Warsaw and a self-taught master craftsman, invented an iron-cutting machine.[30]

In the cemetery in Warsaw, we read on a tombstone dated 1881: “The wealthy man, honest, lover of Torah, doer of mitsvot, Mr. Moshe (Yaakov) son of Shua and honoured in his congregation – Rabbi Yehuda Brahn – may his memory be for a blessing – born in Suwalk, lived in Warsaw, died 26 Elul, 5649.[31][5*] Brahn (Broyn) is a well-known family name in Suwalk and many subscriber lists from Suwalk include this name. There was even a kloyz in Suwalk named for (R'Yitshak) Broyn.

In many other cities we find single Jews from Suwalk or even small colonies of them.

Zorah, son of Binyamin, of Suwalk had wandered to Odessa before 1865 and his wife, Hayah Sarah Ahrnzan of Suwalk was looking for him.[32]

In the sixties, a son of Suwalk's wealthy man, R'Meir, son of R'Nisan Raygradski, settled in Lodz. A second son settled in Petersburg.

In 1872, the family of Avraham Tsevi Rublianski from Baklerowe lost their thirteen-year-old son in Berlin.[33]

In 1871, there are regards sent from a Suwalk Jew in Riga, Shimon Verzbolovski.[34] From the context, it is evident that he had been there for some time.

Hamburg had a colony of Suwalk Jews from the seventies onward. They had originally gone there in transit on their way abroad and had remained for one reason or other.

In Hamburg in 1872, Refael-Mendl from Wizshan was looking for his brother Zeev, son of R'Menahem Menkhin (Menukhin?).[35]

That same year, Avraham David Volinski of Suwalk already owned a hotel in Hamburg named “Hotel Warsaw”. He had previously been a ritual slaughterer for six years in Altona, Prussia.[36]

[Col. 54]

An early and large colony of Jews from Suwalk existed in Paris. As early as 1843, Leon Holenderski, who had a large family in Suwalk, lived in Paris. Holenderski was an active leader of the revolutionaries of 1831 in the Suwalk area.[37]

Leon Holenderski was born in Vishtinets – province of Suwalk, in 1808 (according to one source, 1812). He was a pioneer of the printing industry in Suwalk. His bookkeeper told the police that he was printing seditious literature and Holenderski fled from Suwalk to Paris where he became one of the most active political émigrés. He was involved not only in political work as he was also a novelist, poet, frequent contributor to the French-Jewish press and a translator of Hebrew works. He was the author, translator or publisher of the following:

“Les Israélites de Pologne”. Paris 1846. “Mochek”. Paris 1859. « Dixhuit siècles des préjuges des chrétiens ». Paris 1869. « Délices Royales « . Paris 1864. He also published: « Madame Melekh » of Avraham Ibn Ezra with commentaries (Paris 1864).[37a]

Holenderski died in Paris in 1878. Some have written that he converted to Christianity. This is an error: He was confused with the Polish-French writer, Jan Tshinski.[37b]

We know that Jews from Suwalk started settling in Paris in the forties and fifties of the previous centuries from the fact that the first society of Polish Jews in the French capital was founded in 1856 by Jews from Suwalk. It was called: “Société de Secours Mutuel des Israélites Polonais de la Loi Rabbinique ». The society had its own synagogue which was called: « Dos Suvalker Shulkhl ».[6*]. Between 1856 and 1882, some of the presidents had the nickname “Suvalker” after their names. The synagogue brought in a Torah scroll all the way from Suwalk. This happened in the seventies and the cantor of the synagogue of the society was Fayvl Shtern Mikhalavski. One of the founders of the society was Fayvl Shtern.[7*]

The Novoshelski family from Suwalk came to Paris in the fifties. Avraham Novoshelski was the secretary of the first Jewish furriers society organized in Paris in 1879.

[Col. 55]

Among those active in the labour movement in Paris was Jean Zshavergovski, whose family came in 1868.[38] In his memoirs his says that “in Paris we met many people from Suwalk”.

Among the founders of the Jewish workers syndicate in Paris in 1896, we find: Yaakov Matulski born in Suwalk in 1859 (who married Leah Goldman also from Suwalk), and Shumski Ayzik[8*] born in Suwalk in 1862.[39]

The descendants of Suwalk Jews in France often occupied very important political positions. In the recent past, after the creation of the Fifth French Republic, a member of General De Gaulle's cabinet was the Jew, Michel Bokanovski, grandson of an immigrant from Suwalk. Bokanovski was one of the first to join De Gaulle's resistance movement after Marshal Petain's capitulation. His father, Maurice, was killed in an airplane disaster that same year.[9*]

In the thirties and forties of the previous centuries, there was a large colony of emigrants from Suwalk province in England.

In 1872, there was a sizeable group of emigrants from Suwalk province in England as some Jews made a living from transferring funds from England to Suwalk.[40]

In 1873, Tsirl, daughter of R'Avraham Kaletski from Suwalk, sought her husband Leyb Ber Levinski who had left for London and had disappeared without a trace.[41]

In 1876, Miriam Shlakhetski from Suwalk who had married in Warsaw sought her husband who had left for London.[42]

[Col. 56]

In the seventies, R'Nahum Lipman born in Suwalk was the supervisor of ritual slaughterers in London.[43]

There is a very interesting document relevant to the Jewish immigrants in the English capital at the beginning of the eighties. It is a long letter in Russian, dated 31st Jan.1882, London: “To his Majesty, the Chief Procurator of the Holy Synod, Pobedonostev”. After this title, the letter begins with the words “we, the undersigned Jews from Russia, who came to England not because of being criminals….but because of the scarcity in ways of making a living the in the Jewish pale of settlement and because of great need which forced us to leave the Fatherland…”. It is then declared that Jews are not exploiters and that the restrictions on Jews in Russia will not achieve their goal and that they should be abrogated, etc. Among the fifteen signatures, there are from Suwalk: Avraham Rubinshteyn and Pesah Broyn.

In 1883 the correspondent of “Hatsefirah” in Saini, Hlvna Bernshteyn, writes (n°32) about the need to support the Talmud Torah “to all our brothers of the city of Saini now living in honour in France and England”.

By 1882 the immigrants from Suwalk in London had already a synagogue where their own cantors officiated at prayer.[44] Rabbi Moshe Hayim Hayimzan from Suwalk was the chief dayan in London in the nineties.[45]

In 1894, there existed a society in London called “Poale Tsedek Bene Suvalk” with its own permanent preacher.[46]

In 1896 there was the inauguration of the “Bet Hakeneset H'hadash” by the “Hevrat Ma'agle Tsedek Ahim De-Suvalk” in London. In honour of this event, they published a booklet of “Zemirot veshirot” {songs and hymns} in Hebrew and in English.[47]

In the 90's, Suwalk Jews even published a Yiddish periodical in London.[48].


[Col. 57]

The emigration of Jews from the Suwalk area brought in its wake a number of family tragedies. A man would travel abroad to seek his fortune and “forget” his wife and children or would go to find their fortunes and would be “lost”, and so on. These sorts accompany every wave of emigration.

Sarah, the daughter of R'Yudl of Kolne, who had lived in Suwalk for 16 years, asks for assistance in tracking down her run-away husband, Shemuel Shlezinger.[49]

In 1869, the Suwalk rabbi seeks one Aryeh Leyb Klinkavshteyn who had abandoned his wife and two small children.[50]

In 1872, Rahel Slaver from Suwalk seeks her husband David Otinski.[51]

In 1874, Tsevi Aryeh Bargshteyn of Suwalk was looking for his father who had emigrated and disappeared.[52]

In 1873, the rabbi of Saini announced that the emigrant Barukh Meir Valtsinski from the village of Gibi near Saini, had abandoned his wife.[53]

Hayah Mishkovski from Psherosle had not heard from her husband Zusl in America for a long time. As a response to her newspaper notice, she received the information that her husband had died in Texas.[54]

In 1878, Menahem Monish Levin from Suwalk left for America and left behind his wife Sarah, daughter of Naftali Hirts of Keidan.

There was a second phenomenon which accompanied emigration. Not all of the Jewish families who emigrated had the financial means to take along all of their family members. There were many cases where single members of a family emigrated with the expectation that he would eventually “bring over” the rest of the family. In such cases, if there was a son of army age in the family, he was the first to be “sent away”.

Among the complete families that left, there were of course, many young men of army age. Even though such young men were forbidden to emigrate, the nearness of the border made it easier for many Suwalk families to circumvent the prohibition. Thus, there were many less recruits to the Russian army than were actually served draft notices.[10*]

This provided much material for anti-Semitic newspapers in Poland (and Russia) at that time. For anti-Semitic circles that did not want Jews nearby, this Jewish emigration was a thorn in their eye: what if the situation of the Jews in their new place of residence was better… thus, for example, we find in the “Kurier Varshavski” of 23rd dec.1883, a whole fuss raised against Jews who were traveling around Suwalk province, encouraging Jews to go to America.[55]The subject of the draft was a very precious “sugar cake” for anti-Jewish elements.

Not appearing for the draft could also be explained by the fact that Jews did not hasten to notify the city registries of their dead or departed as well as the fact that they did not have a great desire to serve the Czar. But the main reason for the disparity between the numbers called and the numbers who showed up at the draft office, especially in border towns, is, we think, due to emigration.

This non-appearance before the draft board in the province of Suwalk became so extreme that in 1883, the inspector of the Jewish government school in Shaki, Suwalk province, Avraham Duber, son of S.Hakohen Ayzndorf, sent out a circular to “the rabbis of the province of Suwalk” in which he warned that there was an imminent danger for Jews because of draft evasion and that the Jews of Suwalk were in an especially precarious position. The rabbis are requested to involve themselves in this problem as well as to register the names of the dead and departed, etc.[56].

[Col. 59]

A list of men to be drafted published in “Pravitelstvetni Vestnik” exemplifies this difficult situation: of 637 Jewish young men called in Suwalk province in 1891, 259 never showed up.[57]

In 1893 the per cent of Jews who did not appear before the draft board in Suwalk province was even higher. Of 779 called, up to 499 (!) did not show up.[58]

In 1900, the number of Jewish deserters was even higher. In an article in “Al ha-Roim ah-raim”[11*] the well-known writer, Mordekhay ben Hillel Ha-Kohen wrote that 618 Jewish draftees did not show up before the military committee. He argued that the number of young Jews who did not show up to be drafted was larger in the border areas.[59]

In “Hamelits”, a correspondent from Saini reminds the local leaders of the community to be sure to erase the names of those who leave town.[60]

[Col. 60]

A second correspondent in “Hamelits” from Saini that same year reports that the police are demanding fines of 300 roubles (based on a special law) from families whose military aged members have not fulfilled their obligations.[61]

The governor of Suwalk province before 1905 was not a Jew hater. When he transferred to Petrikov (1905) the representatives of the Jewish community of Suwalk accompanied him and gave him a Pentateuch bound in silver. In his speech to the Jewish leaders, the governor said: “Take care that Jews should not avoid military service lest it bring trouble upon you.[62]

In brief, the problem of military draft, as an accompaniment to the Jewish emigration, caused much worry and aggravation for the Jewish leadership in Suwalk province.[63]



1. “Poylishe Yiden” {Polish Jews} edited by Y.Z. Tigel. New York 1933, article by S.Tsharnobrode: “Poylishe Yiddn in Amerke bis 1881”. {Polish Jews in America before 1881}. Return
2. “Otsar Zikhronotai”. {A treasury of my memories} J.S. Eisenstein. New York 1929 p.29,133,247. Return
3. In previously cited Tsarnobrode article, p.14. Return
4. “Geshikhte fun der Yidisher arbeter bavegung in di Fareynikte Shtatn” v.1 New York 1943 article by Y. Lifshits p.64. {note: Kagan is probably referring to the book edited by Elias Tcherikower: History of the Jewish labour movement in the United States. Return
5. “Hatsofe ba-arets ha-hadashah” New York 1871 n°50. By the way, R'Shemuel Hilel Ayziks published many articles on Torah in “Torah mi-Tsiyon” Jerusalem. Return
7. In previously cited article by Tsharnobrode. Return
8. “Hamagid” 1871 n°23, supplement. Return
9. “Geshikhte fun der Yidisher Arbeter bavegung in di Fareynikte Shtatn” v1, p.239 New York 1943. The first town listed there is called, by mistake, Litvinove. J. Lestschinsky writes there about the emigration from Suwalk p.39. Also, Bernard Horwich in “My First Eighty Years” Chicago 1939. See also Pinkas of YIVO 1927-28 p.47 where K. Marmor argues that “just as in New York, in Chicago the first Yiddish speaking immigrants also came from the province of Suwalk”. Return
9a. Z. Szajkowski in “YIVO-Bleter” v.40 p.224. Return
9b “Hamagid” 1857 n°39. Return
10. “Ketavim le-toldot Hibat Tsiyon ve-yishuv E”Y”. Tel Aviv 1932 v.3 n°1117. {writings on the history of Hibbat Tsiyon {Love of Zion} and the settlement of the Land of Israel}. Return
11. “Hayom” of Petersburg. 1886 n°102. Return
12. “Hatsefirah” 1892 n°139. Return
13. “Hamelits” 1895 n°21. Return
14. “Poylishe Yidn” p.41. Return
15. “To Dwell in Safety” by Dr. M. Wishnitzer, Philadelphia. 1948 p.61. Return
16. “The Jews in South Africa” edited by G. Sharon and L. Hotz, Cape Town 1955 p.42,48,69. Return
17. “Hamagid” 1864 n°16. Return
18. Ibid. 1863 n°24. Return
19. Ibid 1876 n°8 supplement. Return
20. Ibid 1873 n°30 supplement. Return
21. Ibid 1865 n°11. Return
22. Ibid 1870 n°5. Return
23. Ibid 1871 n°29. Return
24. Ibid 1871 n°19 supplement. Return
25. Ibid 1872 n°19 supplement. Return
26. Ibid 1872 n°48 supplement. Return
27. Ibid 1864 n°31. Return
28. “Sefer ha-deot veha-midot” of Ralbag {Rabbi Levi ben Gerson, Gersonides} compiled and prepared by Yehiel Mahariah, Warsaw 1865. Return
29. {this number appears in text but not in footnotes}. Return
30. “Hamagid” n°47 under the name of “Izraelita”. Return
31. “Nahalat Olamim” S. Yevnin. Warsaw 1882 p.105. Return
32. “Hamagid” 1865 n°9. Return
33. Ibid 1872 n°34 supplement. Return
34. Ibid 1871 n°11 supplement. Return
35. Ibid 1872 n°28 supplement. Return
36. Ibid 1872 n°4. Return
37. {appears in footnotes but not in text}. Return
37a “Leon Holenderski's Statement of Resignation”. A.G. Duker. New York 1953. Return
37b “Tenuat Tubianski ben Ha-Yehudim” {The Tubianski movement among Jews} A.Z. Eshkoli. Jerusalem 1933. Return
38. The original name is probably Yaverkovski – a member of Morris Rosenfeld's father-in-law's family. Return
39. “Tog-Morgn Zshurnal” {Day-Morning Journal} 27th January 1959, article by A. Alperin. Return
40. “Hamagid” 1872 n°34. Return
41. Ibid 1873 n°3 supplement. Return
42. Ibid 1876 n°1. Return
43. In “Zikhron Ya'akov” by Yaakov Halevi Lifshits, part 3. Kovne 1939 the entire letter is herein. Return
44. Return
45. “Ohale Shem”. Shemuel Noah Gotlib. Pinsk 1912 p.454. Return
46. Ibid p.458. Return
47. The synagogue was run in partnership with “Hevrat Bene Berit veHevrat Bene Vilna”. Return
48. Return
49. “Hamagid” 1860 n°17. Return
50. Ibid 1869 n°30 supplement. Return
51. Ibid 1872 n°29 supplement. Return
52. Ibid 1874 n°11 supplement. Return
53. Ibid 1873 n°35 supplement. Return
54. Obod. 1877 n°22. Return
55. Quoted in “Hamelits” 1863 n°63. In “Hamelits” n°68 this is refuted by Shimon Zeev Halevi Natelzon from Vladislavove and Yisrael, son of R'S. Markovits of Suwalk. Return
56. “Hamelits” 1883 n°41. Return
57. Ibid 1891 n°45. Return
58. “Pravit. Vestnik” 1893 n°37, quoted in”Hamelits” n°44. Return
59. “Hedor” 1901 n°16. In “Hazman” of Petersburg 1903 n°6-7 a list containing names of draftees from Suwalk. Return
60. 1895 n°38. Return
61. 1895 n°287. Return
62. “Hapeles” Poltave 1905 p.255. Return
63. The problem of “draft-dodgers” across the border of Prussia on both soldiers and new recruits was not a purely Jewish one. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, when Jews were not even drafted into the Russian army, this was already a problem for the Czarist government. Russia held special negotiations on this subject with Prussia. In 1804 they came to an agreement, according to which Prussia had to repatriate all the Russian deserters and in return was allowed to buy Russian horses for its calvalry. Return

Translator's Footnotes

1*. The rest of this sentence seems to be a repetition, and I think he meant to say that they were among the first to immigrate to Western Europe, and among the first to immigrate to the United States Return
2*. Permission to remarry when there are no children Return
3*. These early Hebrew newspapers often published articles and letters from abroad. The fact that someone wrote for and was published in these periodicals did not make him a writer per-se, but it did show that he could write a decent Hebrew prose. Return
4*. The quotes and the sarcasm in text are the author's not mine Return
5*. There is something peculiar about this epitaph which I have translated literally from the Hebrew: there are two father's names and the date of death is 8 years later than the book in which it is published!Return
6*. The Suwalk little synagogueReturn
7*. Probably one of the Suwalk Shterns. Return
8*. Probably Ayzik Shumski. Return
9*. According to Encyclopedia, Maurice Bokanowski 1879-1928, was Minister of Navy in 1924 and Minister of Commerce and Industry 1926-1927 and killed in an air accident Return
10*. This last sentence was rewritten by me because of its convoluted style Return
11*. About the bad shepherds. Return


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