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[Pages 464-492]

Notes (cont.)

Appendix – Perpetrators and Accomplices
 
1200 Victor Klemperer, The Language of the Third Reich: LTI – Lingua Tertii Imperii - A Philologist's Notebook (London, Continuum, 2006), p.228 Return
1201 David S Wyman (ed), The World Reacts to the Holocaust (Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 1996), p.413. Return
1202 Robert N Proctor, Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis (Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1989) p.222. Return
1203 David Cesarani, Eichmann: His Life and Crimes (London: William Heinemann, 2004) p.23. Return
1204 Ibid., p.257. Return
1205 Ibid., p.280. Return
1206 Hannah Arendt, Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil (New York: Penguin Books, 1977). p.276. Return
1207 As Henry Friedlander comments, the term Schreibtischtäter is usually taken to mean those bureaucrats who never saw any of the victims their actions affected, but this was certainly not true of the managers of T4. [Henry Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995), p.194]. Return
1208 http://tinyurl.com/36h48sq (Accessed 10 January 2007). Return
1209 Götz Aly, Peter Chroust, Christian Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland: Nazi Medicine and Racial Hygiene (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1994), p. 39. Return
1210 Ernst Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich - Wer war was vor und nach 1945 (Frankfurt am Main: S.Fischer, 2005) p.151.
1211 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.33.
1212 Fischer had also been a great admirer of Mussolini, considering him, until Hitler came along, the only politician who was likely to “really carry out eugenic measures”. [Hans-Walter Schmuhl, The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics, 1927-1945: Crossing Boundaries (New York: Springer-Verlag, 2008), p.116].
1213 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.40-41.
1214 Ibid., p.113.
1215 Benno Müller-Hill, Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gypsies, and Others in Germany 1933-1945 (Woodbury: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1998), p.39.
1216 Richard Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler. Evolutionary Ethics, Eugenics, and Racism in Germany (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2004) p.226. The Kaiser Wilhelm Society, founded in 1911, was the umbrella body for the scientific institutes and other organizations operating under its authority. After the end of the Second World War the organization was renamed The Max Planck Society. The Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics ceased to exist in 1945.
1217 This medal, a leftover from Weimar days, was awarded to outstanding contributors to the arts, culture, the humanities and natural sciences, and economics. Only 38 were awarded by the Nazi regime.
1218 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.345, note 60.
1219 Michael Wildt, An Uncompromising Generation – The Nazi Leadership of the Reich Security Main Office (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2009) p.394.
1220 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.286.
1221 Ibid., p.300.
1222 Roderick Stackelberg, The Routledge Companion to Nazi Germany (London: Routledge, 2007)p. 194.
1223 It is also the title of a fictionalised biography of Hermann Göring by Ella Leffland.
1224 As Germany's leading publisher of medical works, Swiss born Lehmann, who joined the NSDAP in 1920, was hugely influential in the burgeoning racial hygiene/eugenic movement, so much so that in 1934 he became the first member of the Nazi party to receive the Golden Medal of Honour, aka the “Golden Party Badge” [Goldene Ehrenzeichen]. (Proctor, Racial Hygiene, pp.26-27). In the same year he was awarded the Nazi's highest scientific award, the Adlerschild des Deutschen Reiches. Lehmann died in 1935. (Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.362).
1225 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.222.
1226 Gerwin Strobl, The Bard of Eugenics: Shakespeare and Racial Activism in the Third Reich (Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 34, no.3, 1999), p.326.
1227 http://tinyurl.com/3589aj6 (Accessed 29 September 2008).
1228 http://tinyurl.com/3a37rhp (Accessed 4 October 2008).
1229 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.340, note 19.
1230 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.366.
1231 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.49.
1232 Ibid., p.48. As opposed to August Forel, who had been hailed as the grandfather of German eugenics. Well, we all had two grandfathers.
1233 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.367.
1234 Ibid., p.466.
1235 Mark B Adams (ed), The Wellborn Science: Eugenics in Germany, France, Brazil, and Russia (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990),- pp.14-16.
1236 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.478.
1237 Ulf Schmidt, Karl Brandt: The Nazi Doctor – Medicine and Power in the Third Reich (London: Hambledon Continuum, 2007), pp. 176-177.
1238 Robert Jay Lifton, The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide (London: Papermac, 1990) , p.30.
1239 Ibid.p.33.
1240 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.90.
1241 Ibid.p.175.
1242 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.513.
1243 In 1908, Kraepelin had deprecated modern social welfare initiatives that were keeping alive weak and sick individuals who in earlier times would have long since perished. (Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.85)..
1244 The institution was incorporated into the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in 1924. In 1954 it became known as the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry. [http://tinyurl.com/39lybye (Accessed 3 November 2008)].
1245 Dick de Mildt, In the Name of the People: Perpetrators of Genocide in the Reflection of Their Post-War Prosecution in West Germany. The `Euthanasia' and `Aktion Reinhard' Trial Cases (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1996), p.358, note 43.
1246 Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.225.
1247 Ibid.p.226.
1248 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.345, note 60.
1249 Paul Julian Weindling, Nazi Medicine and the Nuremberg Trials – From Medical War Crimes to Informed Consent (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), p 237.
1250 Ibid.p.41.
1251 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.516.
1252 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, pp.115-117.
1253 Stefan Kühl, The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism, and German National Socialism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), pp.28-31.
1254 Sheila Faith Weiss, Race Hygiene and National Efficiency: The Eugenics of Wilhelm Schallmayer (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987), p.38ff.
1255 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.639.
1256 http://tinyurl.com/37965o6 (Accessed 04 November 2008).
1257 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.43.
1258 Ibid.pp.104-105.
1259 Ibid.p.44.
1260 Weindling, Nazi Medicine and the Nuremberg Trials, p.239.
1261 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, pp.307-308.
1262 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.12.
1263 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.70.
1264 Ibid.,p.71.
1265 Ibid.
1266 Ibid., p.165.
1267 http://tinyurl.com/2w9je79 (Accessed 13 April 2008).
1268 Gitta Sereny, Into That Darkness - From Mercy Killing to Mass Murder (London: Pimlico, 1995), p.88
1269 In 1975, a trial against Allers was commenced by the Italian authorities in Trieste. Allers died in March of that year before a verdict could be reached (de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.344, note 13).
1270 Sereny, Into That Darkness, pp.79-80.
1271 Ibid., p.57.
1272 Ibid., p.89.
1273 Weindling, Nazi Medicine and the Nuremberg Trials, p.306.
1274 Michael S Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”: Nazi Euthanasia on Trial 1945-1953 (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2005), p.217.
1275 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.86-89.
1276 Ibid., p.226.
1277 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.16.
1278 Michael Burleigh, Death and Deliverance : “Euthanasia” in Germany c. 1900-1945 (London: Pan Books, 2002), p.133
1279 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.168.        
1280 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p.184.
1281 Ibid., p.180.
1282 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.167-169.
1283 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.134.
1284 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.34.
1285 There is a suggestion that Becker's enlistment in T4 came about as a result of the intercession of his cousin, who was married to Herbert Linden. (de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.345, note 23). See also Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p.166 and Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.74.
1286 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, pp. 176-177.
1287 Ibid., p. 179.
1288 Ibid., p.177.
1289 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.74.
1290 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p. 34.
1291 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.89-95; Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, pp.176-184.
1292 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.43.
1293 http://tinyurl.com/2u7c5y3 (Accessed 12 April 2008).
1294 Comparison has been made between the character of Bernotat and Christian Wirth. (Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp 203- 204).
1295 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.51.
1296 Ibid., p.198.
1297 Bronwyn Rebekah McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany (Chichester: Princeton University Press, 1999), p.229.
1298 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.194. Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp.144-145.
1299 Dire warnings of this kind were commonplace in T4. So far as is known, nobody was executed for violating the secrecy oath. The harshest punishment administered was incarceration in a concentration camp for a few months, admittedly no holiday, but not capital punishment either. (de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.338, note 69).
1300 de Mildt, In the Name of the People p.205.
1301 http://tinyurl.com/38ogv46 (accessed 12 April 2008).
1302 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.52.
1303 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.395, note 63.
1304 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.69.
1305 Ibid., pp.192-193.
1306 Ibid., p.40.
1307 Ibid., p.69.
1308 http://tinyurl.com/35a9pcs (Accessed 19 May 2008).
1309 http://tinyurl.com/3xv7z5s (Accessed 19 May 2008).
1310 Yitzhak Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987), p.161.
1311 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p. 39.
1312 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.52.
1313 Ibid., p.62.
1314 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.70.
1315 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.86.
1316 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p. 37.
1317 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.82.
1318 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp.274-275.
1319 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p. 342-343, note 15.
1320 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.68.
1321 William Sheridan Allen (ed), The Infancy of Nazism: The Memoirs of Ex-Gauleiter Albert Krebs 1923-1933 (New York: New Viewpoints, 1976), pp 246-248.
1322 Goebbels for one was far from impressed by Bouhler: “Bouhler is stirring up trouble for me with the Führer…But I defend myself vigorously. These little nonentities think that one Reichsleiter is equal to another. But it is not the title that counts, it is the quality.” [Fred Taylor (ed), The Goebbels Diaries 1939-1941 (London: Sphere Books Limited, 1983), p.300, entry for 6 April 1941].
1323 Stephen H Roberts, The House That Hitler Built (New York: Harper & Brothers,1938), p. 79.
1324 Allen, The Infancy of Nazism, pp 246-248.
1325 This was address of the NSDAP headquarters in Munich prior to the acquisition of Barlow Palace, the so-called “Brown House” in 1930.
1326 Gerald Reitlinger, The Final Solution: The Attempt to Exterminate the Jews of Europe 1939-1945 (Northvale: Jason Aronson Inc, 1987), p.127.
1327 Allen, The Infancy of Nazism, pp 246-248.
1328 Reitlinger, The Final Solution, p.79.
1329 Whilst killing on a gigantic scale in Poland these men remained on the payroll of T4.
1330 Gerald Reitlinger, The SS, Alibi of a Nation: 1922-1945 (New York: Viking Press, 1957)., p.282.
1331 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.68.
1332 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p.99.
1333 It may be considered curious that one could be a member of the SA (or indeed the SS) without joining the NSDAP. This has been explained as follows: “If at the time of National Socialism one was politically incriminated or suspect one could, without difficulty, become an SA member, but under no circumstances a Party member, because in regard to Party membership, and even ordinary Party membership, much higher political qualifications were required than in the case of the SA. There were certainly many SA members who joined this organization only to escape to some extent the persecution they had to expect because of their incriminating political record.” [http://www.tinyurls.co.uk/U13892 (Accessed 24 December 2008)].
The same criterion applied to the SS: “…among 118 SS officers, 89 were members of the NSDAP and 29 were not. It is interesting that even in the SS one third of the officer class (all volunteers) were not members of the Nazi Party.” [http://tinyurl.com/32bxcdj (Accessed 6 March 2008)].
1334 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.68.
1335 http://tinyurl.com/39s2mbh (Accessed 26 June 2008).
1336 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p.99.
1337 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.228.
1338 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp.262-263.
1339 http://tinyurl.com/3x82ct6 (Accessed 27 June 2008).
1340 Ernst Klee, Willi Dressen, Volker Riess (eds.), The Good Old Days – The Holocaust as Seen by Its Perpetrators and Bystanders (New York: Konecky & Konecky, 1991), pp 229-230. Oberhauser's memory regarding dates, like most other matters, was unreliable, probably deliberately so. Sobibor commenced killing operations at the beginning of May 1942, while the first transport to Treblinka arrived on 23 July 1942. However, Brack's alleged promise of a further supply of T4 staff seems quite plausible, since that is exactly what transpired during summer 1942.
1341 http://tinyurl.com/3x82ct6 (Accessed 27 June 2008).
1342 Weindling, Nazi Medicine and the Nuremberg Trials, p.140.
1343 http://tinyurl.com/38klxn3 (Accessed 8 September 2010)
1344 Yisrael Gutman (ed), Encyclopedia of the Holocaust (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1990), p.238
1345 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.182.
1346 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.167.
1347 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.133-134.
1348 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, pp.179- 187.
1349 Ernst Klee, Was sie taten – Was sie wurden: Ärzte, Juristen und andere Beteiligte am Kranken- oder Judenmord (Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1986), p.294, note 103.
1350 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.72
1351 Klee, Was sie taten – Was sie wurden, p.81.
1352 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.236.
1353 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p.32.
1354 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.97.
1355 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.41.
1356 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p. 36.
1357 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.42.
1358 Ibid., p.69.
1359 Ibid.pp.41-42.
1360 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.236.
1361 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.269.
1362 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.33.
1363 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.237
1364 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.192.
1365 Ibid., p.193.
1366 Ibid., p.42.
1367 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.67.
1368 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.42.
1369 Ibid., p.69.
1370 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.301.
1371 Klee, Was sie taten – Was sie wurden, p.70.
1372 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.194.
1373 Ibid., p.89.
1374 Ibid., p.194.
1375 Ibid., p.72.
1376 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.275.
1377 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.379.
1378 Shortly after commencing employment with T4, Lorent was taken on a guided tour of Hadamar, Bernburg, Sonnenstein, and Hartheim, where he witnessed the gassing of concentration camp prisoners, part of Sonderbehandlung 14f13. Lorent claimed to have been deeply shocked by what he had witnessed. He professed to have been equally horrified by what he encountered in the Aktion Reinhard camps. Neither experience persuaded him to change his occupation, which, considering his relationship with Brack, was undoubtedly possible if he had indeed wished to do so. (de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.93-94).
1379 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.345, note27.
1380 Ibid., pp. 90- 95.
1381 Klee, Was sie taten – Was sie wurden, p.294, note 104.
1382 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.191.
1383 Ibid., p.193.
1384 Klee, Was sie taten – Was sie wurden, p.294, note 104.
1385 Ibid., p.81.
1386 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.193.
1387 Ibid., p.71.
1388 Klee, Was sie taten – Was sie wurden, p.81
1389 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.191.
1390 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.581.
1391 Ernst Klee, “Euthanasie” im NS-Staat: Die “Vernichtung lebensunwerten Lebens” (Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1991), p.167.
1392 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.85.
1393 Klee, Was sie taten – Was sie wurden, p.295, note 111.
1394 Ibid., p.81.
1395 Ibid., p.82.
1396 Ibid., p.295, note 111.
1397 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.626.
1398 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.71
1399 Klee, Was sie taten – Was sie wurden, pp.33-37.
1400 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.626.
1401 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.82.
1402 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.273.
1403 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.645.
1404 The pseudonym was what passed for a joke in T4. “Vorberg” translates as “in front of the mountain.” “Hintertal” means “behind the valley”. (Schmidt, Karl Brandt, p.136.)
1405 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.84.
1406 Ibid., p.343, note 3.
1407 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.42.
1408 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.344, note 6.
1409 Ibid., pp.84-86.
1410 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp. 275-276.
1411 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.87-89.
1412 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.87.
1413 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.670.
1414 Wildt, An Uncompromising Generation, p.181.
1415 Omar Bartov (ed), The Holocaust: Origins, Implementation, Aftermath (London: Routledge, 2000) p.69.
1416 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.670.
1417 Ibid.
1418 Ibid., p.32.
1419 http://tinyurl.com/39s9ozy (Accessed 9 August 2008).
1420 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.220.
1421 Ibid., p.87.
1422 Ibid., p 219.
1423 Klee. “Euthanasie” im NS-Staat, p.195.
1424 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.34.
1425 Christopher R Browning, Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland (New York: HarperCollins, 1993), p.188.
1426 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp. 210-211.
1427 Klee, Was sie taten – Was sie wurden, p.152.
1428 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.381, note 15.
1429 Christopher R Browning, Fateful Months: Essays on the Emergence of the Final Solution (New York: Holmes & Meier, 1991), p.31.
1430 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p.167. There appears to be little additional biographical information regarding this important member of the “euthanasia” programme. “I'm sorry to have to say to you that I can't help you with the particular Becker you're referring to. He doesn't surface in our digital databank on the German trials at all” – [http://tinyurl.com/35e4mhr] – “and, as you say, Klee hardly mentions him in his books. Since Klee is the undisputed expert on the post-war careers of types like Becker, the fact that he doesn't mention him at all in his Was sie taten - Was sie wurden, or in his Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich suggests to me that Becker, in one way or another, vanished from the face of the earth at the end of the war.” (Dick de Mildt in private correspondence with the author, 20 May 2008).
1431 Schmidt, Karl Brandt,p.237.
1432 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp. 135-136.
1433 http://tinyurl.com/347mky3 (Accessed 27 December 2008).
1434 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.42.
1435 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p 103..
1436 Ibid., p 365, note 30.
1437 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p.130.
1438 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.44.
1439 Klee. “Euthanasie” im NS-Staat, p.228.
1440 http://tinyurl.com/34zq56u (Accessed 23 November 2008).
1441 http://tinyurl.com/33ahqs5 (Accessed 21 November 2008).
1442 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.64.
1443 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.11.
1444 Ibid., p.12.
1445 http://tinyurl.com/2uywdc2 (Accessed 19 August 2008).
1446 Andreas Ströhle, M. D., Jana Wrase, Ph. D., Henry Malach, M.D., Christof Gestrich, Ph.D., and Andreas Heinz, M.D., Images in Psychiatry: Karl Bonhoeffer [1868-1948] (American Journal of Psychiatry, 165: May 2008), pp.575-576.
1447 Ibid.
1448 http://tinyurl.com/32qttmd (Accessed 26 August 2008).
1449 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.240, de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.196.
1450 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.371, note 96.
1451 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.65.
1452 He was a student of Karl Bonhoeffer's in Berlin. (Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p 223).
1453 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.123-124.
1454 Borm claimed to have been asked by Blankenburg to serve in Lublin. Knowing of the extermination camps of the Lublin region, he refused – and suffered no consequences as a result of his refusal. (Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p 244).
1455 de Mildt, In the Name of the People,p.351, note 91.
1456 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.278.
1457 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.125.
1458 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.278.
1459 The following biographical material has largely been derived from Ulf Schmidt, Karl Brandt: The Nazi Doctor – Medicine and Power in the Third Reich (London: Hambledon Continuum, 2007).
1460 A number of different doctors treated Hitler for a variety of ailments over the years. Brandt's medical function as “escort physician” was limited to providing emergency treatment in the event of an accident. Unlike Theodor Morell, Ludwig Stumpfegger or Werner Haase, Brandt was never “Hitler's doctor” in the sense that he prescribed treatment for the Führer's numerous complaints, as he has many times been incorrectly described. (Weindling, Nazi Medicine and the Nuremberg Trials, p.140).
1461 Schmidt, Karl Brandt, p.78.
1462 Ibid., p.376.
1463 Ibid., p.336.
1464 Ibid., p.345.
1465 Weindling, Nazi Medicine and the Nuremberg Trials, p.270.
1466 Ibid., p.305.
1467 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.85.
1468 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.118-119.
1469 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p.225-226.
1470 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.85
1471 de Mildt, In the Name of the People,p.118.
1472 Ibid.pp.122-123.
1473 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p.213.
1474 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp. 278-280.
1475 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.85.
1476 Ibid.p.91.
1477 de Mildt, In the Name of the People,p.127.
1478 Ibid.,p.352, note 107.
1479 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance pp. 273-274.
1480 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.96.
1481 Robert S Wistrich, Who's Who in Nazi Germany (London: Routledge, 1995), pp.31-32.
1482 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.190.
1483 Schmidt, Karl Brandt, p.311.
1484 Ibid., p.308.
1485 Ibid., p.353.
1486 Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003), p.1156.
1487 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.97.
1488 By way of contrast vide the reduction of sentences in the cases of Bunke and Ullrich.
1489 de Mildt, In the Name of the People,pp.148-156, Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, pp.151-164.
1490 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.97.
1491 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p.121
1492 Michael H Kater, Doctors Under Hitler (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000), p. 128.
1493 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp.118-119.
1494 De Crinis has been described as the éminence grise of “euthanasia.” [http://tinyurl.com/2vh8z5b (Accessed 8 April 2008.)]
1495 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p. 37.
1496 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.119
1497 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p.63 (footnote).
1498 Ibid., p.121
1499 André Brissaud, The Nazi Secret Service (London: Corgi Books,1975), pp. 287-314.
1500 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p.121
1501 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.98.
1502 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.64.
1503 Ibid., p.103.
1504 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.123.
1505 Strous, Rael D, M.D., Dr. Irmfried Eberl (1910–1948): Mass Murdering M.D. (The Israel Medical Association Journal, Vol 11, April 2009) pp.216-218.
1506 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.210.
1507 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, pp.87ff.
1508 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.299, Sereny, Into That Darkness, pp. 157-163.
1509 http://tinyurl.com/34yg59m (Accessed 11 November 2008).
1510 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.261.
1511 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.128.
1512 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp.250-251.
1513 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.135
1514 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.103
1515 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.116.
1516 Klee, Was sie taten – Was sie wurden, p.118.
1517 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p.213.
1518 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.115-125..
1519 http://tinyurl.com/36h48sq (Accessed 4 December 2008).
1520 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.137.
1521 http://tinyurl.com/2veyvcy (Accessed 14 September 2009).
1522 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.141.
1523 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p.85.
1524 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.324, note 108.
1525 http://tinyurl.com/34oet2g (Accessed 26 February 2009).
1526 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.78; Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, pp.82-83.
1527 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p.86.
1528 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.78
1529 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, pp.86-87.
1530 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.144.
1531 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p.160.
1532 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, p.276, note 35.
1533 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.51.
1534 Klee, “Euthanasie” im NS-Staat, p.228, de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.346, note 13.
1535 http://tinyurl.com/3ame5sa (Accessed 14 November 2008).This quotation has been slightly modified in order for it to read more fluently.
1536 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.98-99.
1537 Ibid., p.346, note 15.
1538 Ibid., pp.166-167.
1539 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp.159-160.
1540 Thomas Röder, Volker Kubillus, Anthony Burwell, Psychiatrists-- the Men Behind Hitler: The Architects of Horror (Los Angeles: Freedom Publishing 1995), p.208
1541 http://tinyurl.com/33ahqs5 (Accessed 21 November 2008).
1542 http://tinyurl.com/38gz537 (Accessed 21 November 2008).
1543 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.192.
1544 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.150.
1545 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.348, note 56.
1546 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p.141.
1547 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.296.
1548 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.114-115.
1549 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.264.
1550 Klee, Was sie taten – Was sie wurden, p.95.
1551 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.198.
1552 “Habilitation - a second dissertation or qualifying scholarly paper written after the Ph.D., dissertation allowing the candidate to formally teach at a German university. A Habilitationschrift is the thesis written to fulfil this requirement.” [http://tinyurl.com/32lqbo5 (Accessed 13 October 2008)].
1553 Kater, Doctors Under Hitler, p. 131.
1554 Peter Padfield, Himmler: Reichsführer-SS (London: Papermac, 1990), p.535.
1555 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.203
1556 Florian P Thomas, Alana Beres, and Michael I Sheveli, “A Cold Wind Coming”: Heinrich Gross and Child Euthanasia in Vienna (Journal of Child Neurology, Vol.21, 2006), p.344.
1557 Gabriel M Ronen, Brandon Meaney, Bernard Dan, Fritz Zimprich, Walter Stögmann, Wolfgang Neugebauer, From Eugenic Euthanasia to Habilitation of ``Disabled'' Children: Andreas Rett's Contribution (Journal of Child Neurology, Vol.24, No.1, 2009), p. 120.
1558 Thomas, Beres, Sheveli, “A Cold Wind Coming”, pp.344-346.
1559 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.203.
1560 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.87
1561 Ibid, pp. 210-211.
1562 Claudia Koonz, The Nazi Conscience, Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2003, p.124.
1563 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.205.
1564 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.210
1565 Ian Kershaw, Hitler 1889-36: Hubris (London: Allen Lane, The Penguin Press, 1998)., p.487.
1566 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, pp.95-96.
1567 Ibid., pp.115-116.
1568 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.220.
1569 http://tinyurl.com/qjzto4 (Accessed 17 November 2008).
1570 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p.220.
1571 Susanne Heim, Carola Sachse, Mark Walker, (eds.), The Kaiser Wilhelm Society under National Socialism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), p.113.
1572 http://tinyurl.com/36h48sq (Accessed 17 November 2008).
1573 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p.228. Some 200 of the brains in Hallervorden's collection were those of Jewish typhus victims from Warsaw. (Weindling, Nazi Medicine and the Nuremberg Trials, p.74.)
1574 Weindling, Nazi Medicine and the Nuremberg Trials, p.96.
1575 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p.224. The collection of brains continued to be studied at the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research in Frankfurt until 1990, at which time the material was buried in a Munich cemetery. (Ibid). It was also revealed that The Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry had in its collection brain specimens from children murdered in the child “euthanasia” programme. These specimens came from children murdered at Eglfing-Haar. [http://tinyurl.com/qjzto4 (Accessed 17 November 2008)].
1576 Leo Alexander, Medical Science Under Dictatorship (The New England Journal of Medicine 241, 1949), p.40.
1577 Weindling, Nazi Medicine and the Nuremberg Trials, p.96.
1578 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.197-198.
1579 Ibid, p.371, note 96.
1580 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.236.
1581 Wildt, An Uncompromising Generation, pp.183-184.
1582 Eugen Kogon, Hermann Langbein, Adalbert Rückerl (eds.), Nazi Mass Murder: A Documentary History of the Use of Poison Gas (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993), p.38.
1583 Wildt, An Uncompromising Generation, p.186.
1584 Hilberg, The Destruction of European Jews, p.345.
1585 Wildt, An Uncompromising Generation, p.187.
1586 Ibid, p.363.
1587 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.240.
1588 http://tinyurl.com/36loptg (accessed 7 November 2008).
1589 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.579.
1590 Klee, “Euthanasie” im NS-Staat, p.228.
1591 Schmidt, Karl Brandt, pp.328-329.
1592 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.104.
1593 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.44.
1594 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.273.
1595 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.127.
1596 Klee, Was sie taten – Was sie wurden, pp.138-139.
1597 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.103 suggests an alternative pseudonym for Hennecke of “Dr Ott”.
1598 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp.148-149.
1599 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.245.
1600 Ibid., p.252
1601 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.116.
1602 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p. 37.
1603 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp 65-66.
1604 Sereny, Into That Darkness, p.57.
1605 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.117.
1606 Wistrich, Who's Who in Nazi Germany, p 107.
1607 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp.270-273.
1608 Ibid., pp.239-240.
1609 Ibid., p.195.
1610 Ibid, p.370, note 87.
1611 http://tinyurl.com/2vnkvtk (accessed 7 January 2009).
1612 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.371, note 96.
1613 http://tinyurl.com/36rljqm (accessed 7 January 2009).
1614 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.277
1615 Professor extraordinarius (ausserordentlicher Professor, ao. Prof.): a professor without a chair, or one subordinated to a professor with a chair. Professor ordinarius (ordentlicher Professor, o. Prof.): a professor with a chair.
1616 http://tinyurl.com/36zased (Accessed 4 September 2008).
1617 Mark Walker (ed), Science and Ideology – A Comparative History (London: Routledge, 2003), p.202.
1618 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.278.
1619 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.127
1620 Ibid., p.49.
1621 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.286.
1622 Marius Turda, and Paul J Weindling, (eds.) “Blood and Homeland”. Eugenics and Racial Nationalism in Central and Southeast Europe, 1900-1940, (Budapest: Central European University Press, 2007), p.329.
1623 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.49.
1624 Turda and Weindling, “Blood and Homeland”, p.323.
1625 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.169.
1626 http://tinyurl.com/3yah43m (Accessed 25 November 2008).
1627 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.294
1628 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.17.
1629 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp.250-251.
1630 http://tinyurl.com/36qwv5l (Accessed 26 November 2008).
1631 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.297
1632 http://tinyurl.com/2vy4w5h (Accessed 27 November 2008).
1633 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp.211-214.
1634 http://tinyurl.com/36k6ly3 (accessed 3 January 2009).
1635 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.232.
1636 http://tinyurl.com/2wutnhn (Accessed 3 January 2009).
1637 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.308
1638 Walker, Science and Ideology, p.202.
1639 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.66.
1640 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.317.
1641 Walker, Science and Ideology, p.202.
1642 http://tinyurl.com/3xon5ra (Accessed 27 February 2009).
1643 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.372, note 107.
1644 Ibid., p.372, note 109.
1645 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.154
1646 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.200-203.
1647 Ibid., p.372, note 123.
1648 Ibid., pp 204-205.
1649 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.348.
1650 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.140-145.
1651 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.369
1652 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.53.
1653 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.176-179.
1654 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, pp. 198-203.
1655 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.373.
1656 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.43.
1657 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.373.
1658 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.43.
1659 Ibid., p.200.
1660 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p.46.
1661 Schmidt, Brandt, p.215.
1662 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.376.
1663 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.87.
1664 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.379
1665 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.109.
1666 http://tinyurl.com/38gz537 (Accessed 18 September 2009.)
1667 Klee, “Euthanasie” im NS-Staat, p.229.
1668 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.222.
1669 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.198.
1670 Ibid., p.371, note 96.
1671 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.242.
1672 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.260.
1673 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p.194.
1674 Sereny, Into That Darkness, pp.240-241.
1675 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.395, note 49.
1676 An eleventh defendant, Kurt Küttner, died before proceedings commenced.
1677 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.260.
1678 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.396.
1679 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.106-107.
1680 Ibid., p.348, note 48.
1681 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, pp. 164-167.
1682 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.396
1683 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.189.
1684 Klee. “Euthanasie” im NS-Staat, p.228.
1685 Röder, Kubillus, Burwell, Psychiatrists-- the Men Behind Hitler, p.104.
1686 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.403.
1687 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.217.
1688 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.229.
1689 Ibid.
1690 Ibid., p.168.
1691 Ibid., p.229.
1692 http://tinyurl.com/2vaft5w (Accessed 19 May 2008).
1693 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, pp. 238-295; de Mildt, In the Name of the People pp. 108-112; Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, pp. 121-126.
1694 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.197.
1695 Ibid., p.371, note 6.
1696 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.415.
1697 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.366, note 96.
1698 Ibid., p.130, p. 186, p.352, note 119.
1699 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.422.
1700 http://tinyurl.com/33p4mzh (Accessed 2 December 2008).
1701 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.437
1702 In 1899 Kraepelin had suggested that heredity was “perhaps the strongest cause of mental illness,” and that it was the duty of the state to incarcerate the mentally ill for the sole purpose of preventing their reproduction. (Weikart, From Darwin to Hitler, p.137).
1703 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.91.
1704 Klee, “Euthanasie” im NS-Staat, p.228
1705 Schmidt, Karl Brandt, p.136.
1706 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p.158.
1707 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.449.
1708 Klee, “Euthanasie” im NS-Staat, p.228
1709 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.158-159.
1710 Ibid., p.360, note 57.
1711 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, pp.160-163.
1712 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.453.
1713 http://tinyurl.com/34zq56u (Accessed 5 December 2008).
1714 http://tinyurl.com/37o2qxu (accessed 5 December 2008).
1715 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.458.
1716 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.49.
1717 Michael Burleigh, Ethics and extermination: Reflections on Nazi genocide, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), p.245, note 23.
1718 Klee, “Euthanasie” im NS-Staat, p.228
1719 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.102.
1720 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p.120.
1721 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.101-103.
1722 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p 197.
1723 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.346, note 33.
1724 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.467
1725 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.360, note 57.
1726 Ibid., pp.156-160.
1727 Susan Benedict, Arthur Caplan, Traute Lafrenz Page, Duty and `Euthanasia': the Nurses of Meseritz-Obrawalde (Nursing Ethics, Vol. 14(6), 2007), p.784
1728 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.490.
1729 Weindling, Nazi Medicine and the Nuremberg Trials, p.159.
1730 Ibid., p.236.
1731 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.250.
1732 Much of the following biographical material has been derived from Mireille Horsinga-Renno, Cher oncle Georg: La bouleversante enquête d'une femme sur un médecin de la mort impuni (Strasbourg : La Nuée Bleue, 2006).
1733 Horsinga, Cher oncle Georg, p.89.
1734 Ibid., p.158.
1735 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.491.
1736 Ibid.
1737 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.224.
1738 However, he was never certified as a specialist in either neurology or psychiatry.(Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.58).
1739 Horsinga, Cher oncle Georg, p.54.
1740 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.225.
1741 http://tinyurl.com/33lh7pg (Accessed 22 August 2008). Nitsche was experimenting with the use of lethal injections as a killing method, and chose two junior physicians to assist him, Renno being one of them. (Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.224).
1742 Horsinga, Cher oncle Georg, p.25.
1743 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide , p.102.
1744 Horsinga, Cher oncle Georg, p.76.
1745 Ibid., p.97.
1746 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.218.
1747 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.491.
1748 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp.52-53. The first child victims arrived at the end of 1941 or the beginning of 1942. (Horsinga, Cher oncle Georg, p.100).
1749 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.133, p.152.
1750 Horsinga, Cher oncle Georg, p.92.
1751 Ibid., pp.201-202.
1752 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.83.
1753 Horsinga, Cher oncle Georg, p.168.
1754 Ibid., p.86.
1755 Sylvia Anne Hoskins, Nurses and National Socialism - a Moral Dilemma: One Historical Example of a Route to Euthanasia (Nursing Ethics, 12 (1), 2005) 79-91, p 86.
1756 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.197.
1757 Ibid., p.371, note 96.
1758 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.499.
1759 Wildt, An Uncompromising Generation, p.179.
1760 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.371, note 17.
1761 Wildt, An Uncompromising Generation, p.180.
1762 Angus Fraser, The Gypsies (Malden: Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2003), p.259
1763 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.215.
1764 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp.249-262.
1765 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.515
1766 Klee, “Euthanasie” im NS-Staat, p.229.
1767 Schmidt, Karl Brandt, p.246.
1768 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, pp.83-84.
1769 Schmidt, Karl Brandt, pp 247-249.
1770 Klee, Was sie taten – Was sie wurden, pp.184-185.
1771 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.533
1772 http://tinyurl.com/38gz537 (Accessed 18 September 2009.)
1773 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.541
1774 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.103 suggests a pseudonym for Schmalenbach of “Dr Blume”.
1775 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.222.
1776 Klee, “Euthanasie” im NS-Staat, p.229.
1777 Kogon, Langbein, Rückerl, Nazi Mass Murder, pp.41-42.
1778 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.546.
1779 Klee, “Euthanasie” im NS-Staat, p.228.
1780 Alexander Mitscherlich, and Fred Mielke, Doctors of Infamy: The Story of the Nazi Medical Crimes (New York: Henry Schuman, 1949), p.93.
1781 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.128.
1782 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p 125.
1783 McFarland-Icke, Nurses in Nazi Germany, p.231.
1784 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp.179-181.
1785 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.352, note 109.
1786 Ibid., pp.128-129.
1787 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.551.
1788 At least one source incorrectly describes Schneider as Austrian (Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p.35).
1789 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp.117-118.
1790 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.401, note 6.
1791 Ibid., pp. 303-304.
1792 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp.130-131.
1793 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, pp. 202-219
1794 http://tinyurl.com/38souvw (Accessed 13 December 2008).
1795 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.196.
1796 Ibid., p.371, note 96.
1797 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.559.
1798 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, pp 172-176.
1799 Klee, “Euthanasie” im NS-Staat, p.228.
1800 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp. 99-101.
1801 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.570. Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.103 suggests a pseudonym of “Dr Keim” for Schumann, and attributes the pseudonym of “Dr Blume” to Schmalenbach.
1802 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.220.
1803 Ibid., p.92.
1804 Ibid., p.148.
1805 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp. 82-83.
1806 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.269.
1807 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p 126.
1808 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp. 183-184.
1809 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.592
1810 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp. 103-104.
1811 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p 170.
1812 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.62.
1813 Ibid., pp.104-105, page 347, note 40.
1814 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.52.
1815 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p 171.
1816 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.594
1817 Kater, Doctors Under Hitler, p. 61.
1818 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.201.
1819 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.107, p.113.
1820 Ibid., p.52.
1821 http://tinyurl.com/2udwb3y (Accessed 19 December 2008).
1822 Klee, Was sie taten – Was sie wurden, p.85.
1823 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p 167.
1824 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.112-113.
1825 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.601
1826 Francis R Nicosia, and Jonathan Huener (eds.), Medicine and Medical Ethics in Nazi Germany: Origins, Practices, Legacies (New York: Berghahn Books, 2002), p.82.
1827 Klee, “Euthanasie” im NS-Staat, p.228.
1828 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p.91.
1829 This reasoning is remarkably similar to that advanced by certain leaders of the Judenrate in the ghettos of eastern Europe, justifying the sacrifice of part of the community in order to save the remainder. See, for example, Chaim Rumkowski in Lodz, Jacob Gens in Vilna, and Mosze Meryn in Sosnowiec. Of course, there were others like Adam Czerniakow in Warsaw, or Elchanan Elkes in Kovno, who either chose suicide rather than condemn their fellow Jews, or steadfastly refused to cooperate with the murderers despite the risks involved. [http://tinyurl.com/357bx8q (Accessed 22 December 2008)].
1830 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, pp.148-149.
1831 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.196.
1832 Ibid., p.371, note 96.
1833 Ibid., pp.145-149.
1834 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.635.
1835 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.116-118.
1836 Ibid., pp.122-123.
1837 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p.213.
1838 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.125-126.
1839 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.636.
1840 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.200.
1841 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.44.
1842 Ibid., p.66.
1843 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.641
1844 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.50.
1845 Klee, “Euthanasie” im NS-Staat, p.228.
1846 Schmidt, Karl Brandt, p.238.
1847 Ibid., p.265.
1848 http://tinyurl.com/3x2p5wp (Accessed 23 December 2008).
1849 Nicosia and Huener, Medicine and Medical Ethics in Nazi Germany, p.100.
1850 Schmidt, Brandt, pp.265-276.
1851 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.649.
1852 Eric Joseph Epstein and Philip Rosen, Dictionary Of The Holocaust (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1997), p.206.
1853 Kater, Doctors Under Hitler, p. 20.
1854 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p.35.
1855 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, p.45.
1856 Weindling, Nazi Medicine and the Nuremberg Trials, p.251.
1857 Proctor, Racial Hygiene, pp.195-196.
1858 Ibid., pp.204-205.
1859 Schmidt, Karl Brandt, p.80.
1860 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, p.50.
1861 Wolfgang, Weyers, A. Bernard Ackerman, (ed), Death of medicine in Nazi Germany: Dermatology and Dermatopathology Under the Swastika (Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1998) – passim.
1862 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.652
1863 Klee, “Euthanasie” im NS-Staat, p.170.
1864 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p.129.
1865 Lifton, The Nazi Doctors, pp.100-101.
1866 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, pp.76-90.
1867 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.97-98.
1868 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.658
1869 Weber and Müller were both infected with tuberculosis as a result of dealing with a shipment of children from Scheuern. They asked Bernotat to suspend further transports in their absence. Immediately following their return to duty the fatalities re-commenced. (de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.352, note 114).
1870 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.129-131
1871 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, pp. 135-144.
1872 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.267.
1873 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.132.
1874 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.669
1875 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p.190.
1876 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.44.
1877 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.103.
1878 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.53., p.66.
1879 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.352, note 107.
1880 http://tinyurl.com/35dpf7o (Accessed 27 December 2008).
1881 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.669
1882 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.138-140.
1883 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p.206.
1884 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.671
1885 Susan Benedict and Tessa Chelouche, Meseritz-Obrawalde: a `wild euthanasia' hospital of Nazi Germany (History of Psychiatry, Vol. 19 (1), 2008), p.71.
1886 Ibid., pp 73-75..
1887 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp. 96-97.
1888 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.671
1889 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.353, note 130.
1890 Ibid., p.352, note 124.
1891 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p.141.
1892 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp. 132-135.
1893 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.671
1894 Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p.208.
1895 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp. 135-138.
1896 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.675
1897 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.56. In his legitimate capacity as a police official, Widmann had once to reconstruct how two people had died from the inhalation of carbon monoxide fumes. (Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.120).
1898 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.209.
1899 Wildt, An Uncompromising Generation, p.186.
1900 Kogon, Langbein, Rückerl, Nazi Mass Murder, pp.52-53
1901 George J Annas and Michael A Grodin, The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), p.83.
1902 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.179-180.
1903 Susan Benedict and Jochen Kuhla, Nurses' Participation in the Euthanasia Programs of Nazi Germany (Western Journal of Nursing Research, Vol. 21(2), 1999), pp. 254-255.
1904 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.180.
1905 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.682.
1906 Klee, “Euthanasie” im NS-Staat, p.228.
1907 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.145.
1908 Aly, Chroust, Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland, p.82.
1909 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.687.
1910 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.222.
1911 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.350, note 83.
1912 Wrona was also a member of the German Labour Front, the National Socialist Welfare Organisation, and the National Socialist Women's League. (de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.368, note34).
1913 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.368, note 35.
1914 Müller had escaped from captivity in 1945 and was never traced. In her absence, and thus her inability to refute the accusation, the defence was able to present her as the true culprit; Wrona, it was claimed, had merely been an uncomfortable bystander. (de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.352, note 119).
1915 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.319.
1916 Ibid., pp.185-187.
1917 http://tinyurl.com/2uwx9qp (Accessed 29 December 2008).
1918 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.251.
1919 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.196.
1920 Ibid., p.371, note 96.
1921 Jules Schelvis, Sobibor – A History of a Nazi Death Camp (Oxford: Berg, 2007), p.247.
1922 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p.73.
1923 Robin O'Neil, Belzec: Stepping Stone to Genocide (New York: JewishGen Inc, 2008), p.47.
1924 Ibid., p.104.
1925 Ibid., p.125.
1926 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.101.
1927 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.394, note 39.
1928 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.30
1929 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.211.
1930 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.124.
1931 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.250.
1932 Joshua D Zimmerman, Jews in Italy Under Fascist and Nazi Rule, 1922-1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), p. 249.
1933 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.247.
1934 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.249 -250.
1935 A number of sources incorrectly state that Bauer died in Berlin-Tegel prison. The judgement by the Hagen court against Karl Frenzel of 4 October 1985 stated: “`…Durch Beschluss des Senats von Berlin vom 30. November 1971 wurde die weitere Vollstreckung der Strafe mit Wirkung vom 22. Dezember 1971 im Gnadenwege ausgesetzt.' Bauer ist inzwischen verstorben am 4. Februar 1980.” (“…By a resolution of the Senate of Berlin of 30 November 1971 the further enforcement of the punishment [against Bauer] was suspended. As an act of clemency a pardon was granted on 22 December 1971. Bauer died on 4 February 1980.”) I am grateful to Dick de Mildt for providing me with this information. Although only a detail, the fact that Bauer died a free man is important.
1936 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.248.
1937 Ibid., pp.84-85.
1938 Miriam Novitch, Sobibor – Martyrdom and Revolt (New York: Holocaust Library, 1980), p. 152.
1939 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p.193.
1940 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.399, note 95.
1941 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.248.
1942 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.120.
1943 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.214.
1944 Ibid., p.219.
1945 Ibid., p.291.
1946 Ibid., p.290.
1947 Ibid., pp.276-277.
1948 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.246.
1949 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.292.
1950 http://tinyurl.com/35rftgt (Accessed 24 September 2009).
1951 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.38.
1952 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p.172.
1953 Ibid., p.174.
1954 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.181.
1955 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.162
1956 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.213.
1957 Ibid., p.219.
1958 Ibid., p.275.
1959 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p.70.
1960 Sereny, Into That Darkness, p.202.
1961 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p.190.
1962 Sereny, Into That Darkness, p.238.
1963 Gutman, Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, p.530
1964 Alexander Donat (ed), The Death Camp Treblinka: A Documentary (New York: Holocaust Library, 1979), p.277
1965 Klee, Dressen, Riess, The Good Old Days, p.226.
1966 There were actually three trials of personnel who served at Treblinka – the first, of Josef Hirtreiter was held at Frankfurt in 1951. The second, major, trial of 10 defendants was held in Düsseldorf in 1964/65. The third, of Franz Stangl also took place in Düsseldorf in 1970. Hirtreiter's trial is usually disregarded for the purpose of numbering, so references herein to the first and second Treblinka trials are to the trials held in Düsseldorf.
1967 Sereny, Into That Darkness, p.241.
1968 Klee, Dressen, Riess, The Good Old Days, p.291.
1969 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.259.
1970 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.250.
1971 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.209-210.
1972 Ibid., pp.223-224
1973 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.36.
1974 Kurt Ticho, My Legacy: Holocaust, History and the Unfinished Task of Pope John Paul ll (Wlodawa: Muzeum Pojezierza Leczynsko- Wlodawskiego, 2008), p.89.
1975 Ibid., p.96.
1976 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.281-282
1977 Schelvis, Sobibor, pp.87-88
1978 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p.192.This tu quoque type of reasoning, aimed specifically at the Americans and the British, is popular among certain critics of allied wartime policy, as if the bombing of enemy civilians as part of an overall strategy to win the war was in any way comparable to the murder in cold blood of non-combatants on racial, political, or economic grounds. When the war was won, the bombing immediately stopped; where the Nazis occupied, the killing immediately began.
1979 Thomas Toivi Blatt, From the Ashes of Sobibor: A Story of Survival (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1997), pp.235-242.
1980 Schelvis, Sobibor, pp.250-254.
1981 Ibid., p.254.
1982 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.211-212
1983 Ibid., p.221.
1984 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.99.
1985 Ibid., pp.100-101.
1986 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p.43.
1987 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.287.
1988 Ibid., pp.276-277.
1989 Ibid., p.279.
1990 Ibid., pp.287-290.
1991 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.255.
1992 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.195.
1993 Ibid., p.253
1994 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p.315.
1995 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.195.
1996 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.2.
1997 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.252-253
1998 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.255.
1999 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.392, note 28.
2000 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.195.
2001 O'Neil, Belzec, p.118.
2002 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.256.
2003 Ibid., note 41. Lerner refers to killing “Greischutz” with an axe (Novitch, Sobibor – Martyrdom and Revolt, pp.112-113).
2004 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.204
2005 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.267
2006 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.184-185.
2007 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.243.
2008 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.215
2009 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.376, note 46.
2010 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p.70.
2011 http://tinyurl.com/354ch7c (accessed 25 October 2008).
2012 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.247
2013 O'Neil, Belzec, pp.30-34.
2014 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.379, note 79.
2015 Rudolf Reder, Belzec (Oswiecim: Fundacja Judaica Panstwowe Muzeum Oswiecim-Brzezinka, 1999), p.137.
2016 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.247.
2017 Ibid., p.258
2018 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.99.
2019 Ibid., p.206.
2020 Ibid., p.281.
2021 O'Neil, Belzec, p.30.
2022 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.210.
2023 An extraordinarily large number of defendants claimed to have been employed in the Hadamar kitchens at the time that the mass gassings took place there, which suggests either a remarkable quantity of catering staff - or a good deal of questionable testimony.
2024 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.221.
2025 Ibid., pp.254-255.
2026 Ibid., p.392, note 30.
2027 Reitlinger, The Final Solution, p.136.
2028 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.249.
2029 Ibid., p.255
2030 http://tinyurl.com/33wchvq (Accessed 2 January 2009).
2031 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.206.
2032 Ibid., p.243.
2033 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.268-269.
2034 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.257.
2035 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.209.
2036 Ibid., p.223.
2037 Schelvis, Sobibor, pp 244-245.
2038 Ibid., p.257.
2039 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.285-287.
2040 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.257.
2041 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.238.
2042 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.209.
2043 Ibid., p.221.
2044 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, pp.71-72.
2045 Schelvis, Sobibor, pp.190-191.
2046 La Risiera was an abandoned rice mill in the San Sabba suburb of Trieste. It was intended to serve as a transit camp for the deportation of Italian Jews to German concentration camps, primarily Auschwitz. However, according to Italian sources, it also served as a killing centre; more than 3,000 Jews and Italian and Yugoslav partisans were murdered there. Erwin Lambert constructed a crematorium at La Risiera in early 1944. (O'Neil, Belzec, pp.197- 199).
2047 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.221
2048 Ibid., pp. 276-277.
2049 Ibid., p.294.
2050 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.238.
2051 Ibid., p.278.
2052 Ibid., p.207, Bryant, Confronting the “Good Death”, p. 130.
2053 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.241.
2054 http://tinyurl.com/32bz6tn (Accessed 12 January 2009).
2055 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.258.
2056 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.211.
2057 Ibid., p.221.
2058 Ticho, My Legacy, p.92.
2059 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.391, note21.
2060 Ibid., pp.251-252.
2061 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.354
2062 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.213.
2063 Ibid., p.222.
2064 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p.40
2065 Kogon, Langbein, Rückerl, Nazi Mass Murder, p.132.
2066 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p.123.
2067 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.267.
2068 Ibid., p.292.
2069 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.238.
2070 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.223.
2071 Ibid., p.262.
2072 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p.122.
2073 Richard Glazar, Trap With A Green Fence: Survival in Treblinka (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1999), p.47
2074 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.261.
2075 Ibid., p.264.
2076 Ibid., p.212.
2077 Ibid., p.223.
2078 O'Neil, Belzec, p.93
2079 Glazar, Trap With A Green Fence, p.47
2080 Samuel Willenberg, Revolt in Treblinka (Warsaw: Zydowski Instytut Historyczny, 1992), pp.61-63. Miete is referred to as “Mitte” throughout this memoir, another example of the problem for survivors of correctly identifying perpetrators by name.
2081 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.260-261.
2082 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp.238-239.
2083 Sereny, Into That Darkness, p.84.
2084 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.222.
2085 Ibid., pp 264-265.
2086 Ibid., p.324.
2087 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p.28.
2088 Schelvis, Sobibor, pp. 161-162.
2089 Ibid., p.259.
2090 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp.233-234.
2091 Kogon, Langbein, Rückerl, Nazi Mass Murder, p.50.
2092 http://tinyurl.com/37h8dsg (Accessed 13 January 2008
2093 http://tinyurl.com/2uzsfal (Accessed 13 January 2009).
2094 Schelvis, Sobibor, pp. 259-260.
2095 http://tinyurl.com/3yscb6v (Accessed 18 November 2008).
2096 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.394, note 39. This Nowak was in charge of the undressing barracks at Sobibor, which would appear to be a description of Anton Julius Nowak.
2097 http://tinyurl.com/37h4af4 (Accessed 18 November 2008).
2098 O'Neil, Belzec, p.328.
2099 Schelvis, Sobibor, pp. 259.
2100 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.440
2101 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.213.
2102 O'Neil, Belzec, p.208.
2103 Claude Lanzmann, Shoah – The Complete text of the Acclaimed Holocaust Film (New York: 1995), pp. 53-54.
2104 Sereny, Into That Darkness, p.113, footnote.
2105 O'Neil, Belzec, p.207.
2106 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp. 276-279.
2107 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.485
2108 Sereny, Into That Darkness, p.53.
2109 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.225.
2110 Sereny, Into That Darkness, p.138.
2111 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p.188.
2112 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.261.
2113 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, pp.239-240.
2114 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.223.
2115 Ibid., p.268.
2116 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.261.
2117 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.214.
2118 Ibid., pp 219-220.
2119 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.71
2120 Ibid., p.261.
2121 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.400, note 132.
2122 Ibid., p.295-296.
2123 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.242.
2124 Glazar, Trap With A Green Fence, p.113.
2125 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp 265-266.
2126 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.596.
2127 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p.168.
2128 At his (Stangl's) trial, Prohaska admitted to having taken an intense dislike to Stangl. However, despite considering Stangl “unprincipled ” (a not unreasonable assessment), Prohaska denied having persecuted Stangl in any way. (de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.375, note 40).
2129 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp 216-218.
2130 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.207.
2131 Ibid., p.205.
2132 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.225.
2133 Ibid., p.298.
2134 Ibid., p.299.
2135 Glazar, Trap With A Green Fence, p.46.
2136 Zimmerman, Jews in Italy Jews in Italy Under Fascist and Nazi Rule, p. 249.
2137 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.298
2138 At Stangl's trial, the Berlin historian, Dr Wolfgang Scheffler, estimated the total figure for the number of Treblinka dead at 900,000. (Donat, The Death Camp Treblinka, p.14). Stangl, of course, did not arrive at Treblinka until the camp had been operational for five weeks, during which time approximately 312,500 Jews had already been murdered. (Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p.87).
2139 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.300.
2140 Gutman, Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, p.1408. (Sereny, Into That Darkness, passim).
2141 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.615
2142 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.240.
2143 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.216.
2144 Suchomel claimed not to know why he had been ordered to T4, nor the reason he had been sent to Hadamar. (Sereny, Into That Darkness, p.56).
2145 Dieter Allers, who was in a better position to know than most, had no doubt about how Suchomel became a T4 operative. “…He had a pal from his home town who was already in there as a photographer and they fixed it between them.” (Ibid., p.80).
2146 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.225.
2147 Ibid., p.266.
2148 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.615
2149 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.266.
2150 Lanzmann, Shoah, p. 43 ff.
2151 Gitta Sereny, The German Trauma: Experiences and Reflections 1938- 2000 (London: Allen Lane, The Penguin Press, 2000), p.310.
2152 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.99. p.204, pp.206-207.
2153 O'Neil, Belzec, p.183.
2154 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.263.
2155 Ibid., p.131, note 14. The date of Tauscher's suicide is mis-stated as 1963.
2156 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.207.
2157 Ibid., p.280.
2158 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.263. Robert Jührs testified that Unverhau was an active participant in the execution of the last Jewish workers at Sobibor at the time of the camp's liquidation. (Schelvis, Sobibor, p.191).
2159 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.208.
2160 Ibid., pp. 276-277.
2161 Ibid., p.279.
2162 Ibid., p.293.
2163 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.264
2164 Ibid., p.61
2165 Ticho, My Legacy, p.110.
2166 Andrew Zielinski, Conversations With Regina (Wlodawa: Muzeum Pojezierza Leczynsko- Wlodawskiego, 2008), pp.89-90
2167 Ibid., p.173.
2168 The uprising was organised by a newly arrived group of Jewish Soviet soldiers led by Aleksander Aronowich Pechersky. Wagner was overheard telling Frenzel, “Leg die Russen um” (“Do the Russians in”). It is possible that he intuitively suspected something was afoot. (Ticho, My Legacy, p.110).
2169 Schelvis, Sobibor, p.264.
2170 Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, p.680.
2171 O'Neil, Belzec, p.30.
2172 Sereny, Into That Darkness, p.81.
2173 O'Neil, Belzec, p.33.
2174 Ibid., p.33.
2175 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p.182.
2176 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.203.
2177 Either Wirth made a slip of the tongue in referring to the Reich rather than the Führer Chancellery, or he was attempting to inflate his importance. A third alternative, of course, is that the witness misheard or misunderstood this phrase.
2178 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p.124.
2179 Sereny, Into That Darkness, p.54.
2180 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.241
2181 Donat, The Death Camp Treblinka, p.109.
2182 Ibid. p.112-113.
2183 Ibid., p.159. The real names of very few of the death camp personnel were known to the prisoners. Some guards were given nick-names (for example, Fritz Küttner was called “Kiewe”, Otto Stadie “Fesele” [“barrel”]); others were known only by their first names, actual or assumed, such as Josef Hirtreiter. In his groundbreaking essay, “The Hell of Treblinka”, initially published in November 1944 and largely based upon the testimony of survivors, Vasily Grossman was able to identify the monstrous Hirtreiter only as “Sepp”. [Vasily Grossman, The Road, (London: MacLehose Press, 2010) p.149]. In some cases surnames were misheard by prisoners; Abraham Krzepicki refers to Max Bielas as “Bieler” (Donat, The Death Camp Treblinka, p.131); Moshe Bahir names Karl Frenzel as “Frantzl” (Novitch, Sobibor – Martyrdom and Revolt, p.153). Richard Glazar wrote: “Almost everyone is given a nickname…We only know their real names from what we have heard. We don't know how they are spelled” (Glazar, Trap With A Green Fence, p.46). Such difficulty in matters of identification could later have potentially serious consequences for defendants, as well as causing a major problem regarding intended or actual prosecutions. See, for example, the case of Ivan Demjanjuk.
2184 Sereny, Into That Darkness, p.262.
2185 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p.183.
2186 Donat, The Death Camp Treblinka, p.273.
2187 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p.184. The Lazarett was a killing site within the camp disguised as a “hospital”, where the sick, the incapacitated, the infirm or elderly arrivals, or anybody else an SS-man decided to kill, were shot. The bodies of those dead on arrival were also disposed of here.
2188 Ibid., p.183.
2189 Friedlander, Nazi Genocide, p.206.
2190 O'Neil, Belzec, p.209.
2191 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p.208
2192 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.215-216.
2193 Ibid., p.224.
2194 The degree of brutality was, of course, relative. As one witness commented: “Anyone who did not continuously shoot or whip [the prisoners] belonged to the `Good'” (de Mildt, In the Name of the People, p.399, note 106).
2195 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp.283-285.
2196 Schelvis, Sobibor, pp. 265-266.
2197 de Mildt, In the Name of the People, pp. 200-201.
2198 Ibid., p.320.
2199 Ibid., p.294.
2200 Ibid., pp.276-277.
2201 Ibid., p.279.
2202 Ibid., p.294.

 

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