Memorial Book of Krynki
(Krynki, Poland)

5316' / 2347'

Translation of Pinkas Krynki

Edited by: D. Rabin

Published in Tel Aviv by Former Residents of Krynki
in Israel and the Diaspora, 1970



Project Coordinators

Michael Palmer


Our sincere appreciation to Chaim Sheinberg, for Former Residents of Krynki in Israel,
for permission to put this material on the JewishGen web site.

Thanks to Monica Reiss for her help in planning the translation project

This is a translation from: Pinkas Krynki; Memorial Book of Krynki, ed. D. Rabin,
Tel Aviv: Former residents of Krynki in Israel and the Diaspora, 1970

Note: The original book can be seen online at the NY Public Library site: Krynki (1970)

Purchase details for a printed copy of this book can be found at

This material is made available by JewishGen, Inc. and the Yizkor Book Project for the purpose of
fulfilling our mission of disseminating information about the Holocaust and destroyed Jewish communities.
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Yiddish TOC translated by Dora Rytman and Judie Goldstein

Hebrew TOC translated by Sara Mages

To you Krynki / Baruch Niv [H] 5
To you Krynki (Krinek) / Benedict Nisht [Y] 7
“Pinkas Krynki” / The Editorial Board [H] 9
The “Pinkas Krynki” [Y] 11
With gratitude and blessing [Y] [H] 14
A praise to the hard working initiators / The Editor [Y] [H] 15
Krynki map 24
From the history of the Jews in Krynki / Dov Rabin 25-30
From the distant past [H] 25
“The Writ of Privilege” [H] 25
The Burgher's Attack on Jewish Rights [H] 26
Krynki – A Community Member of the Council of Lithuania [H] 27
The Krynki Community Rebels [H] 28
Krynki's Jews in the 19th century [H] 29
Chapter on the fires [H] 30
From the history of the Jews in Krynki / Dov Rabin 31-37
From the distant past [Y] 31
The description of the emergence of the community [Y] 31
The bourgeois against the rights of the Jews [Y] 32
The Krynki community, Kehila, at its beginning [Y] 33
Krynki a community in Lithuania [Y] 33
The government assembly and its meeting in Krynki [Y] 34
The Krynki people revolt [Y] 35
Krynki Jews in the 19th century [Y] 35
During the Polish uprising in 1863 [Y] 36
Krynki produces textile; chapter on the fires [Y] 37
Bibliography/Sources [H] 38
About Jewish Life in Krynki: during the second half of the 19th century until 1896 39-52
About Jewish Life in Krynki: during the second half of the 19th century until 1896 / D.R. [H] 40
Through the decades / Ab[raham] Miller 40
Chapter on textile production [Y] 40
Krynki in Confusion [Y] 41
The Fires [Y] 41
The Shtetl Is Rebuilt [Y] 42
The Beginning of the Tannery / A.B. Miller 42
People Become Tanners / Hillel Katz-Bloom 44
From Tanners to Leather Manufacturers / Ab[raham] Miller 45
The First Tanners [Y] 45
Krynki Rabbinate / Dov Rabin
Religious Leaders of Krynki [H] 47
About Two Heads of the Rabbinical Court / Moshe Zinovich [H] 48
Krynki Rabbinate / Dov Rabin [Y] 49
The First Rabbis [Y] 49
Preachers [Y] 50
The “Haskalah” – Rustling Winds of the Haskalah Movement [H] / Dov Rabin 51
“Enlightenment” Winds [Y] 52
In the Flourishing Years of Krynki (1897-1915) / D. Rabin 53-61
In the flourishing period of Krynki (1897- 1915) / Dov Rabin 62-93
General overview [Y] 62
The Jewish population [Y] 62
The economic state and the aspirations of the Krynki Jews [Y] 62
Tanning, the life of Krynki [Y] 63
The first strike [Y] 66
Krynki a town of Torah [Y] 66
Under Russian cultural influence [Y] 66
The beginning of Krynki Zionism [Y] 67
The Tannery Town of Krynki in creativity and struggle
The tannery center
Krynki a town with a name / Mordecai V. Bernstein [Y] 68
The tannery / Shmuel Geler [Y] 68
The Strike Period
The condition of the Jewish tannery workers and laborers / M.V. Bernstein [Y] 69
The beginning of the strike movement / H. Weinberg (Hershel Pinkes) [Y] 69
Before the start of the strike / Yossel Cohen [Y] 70
My debate with the rabbi / H. Weinberg [Y] 71
Terror and arrests / Yossel Cohen [Y] 72
The first victory / Hillel Katz-Blum [Y] 72
The workers became aware of their power / A.B. Miller [Y] 73
The second tanners strike [Y] 73
The prolonged tanners battle for a humane existence / Sofia Dubrow Ehrlic [Y] 73
Revolutionary activity
Beginning of the revolutionary movement in Krynki / Dov Rabin [Y] 75
The revolutionary propaganda / Betzalel (Alter) Patchebutski [Y] 76
The activities of anarchists
The beliefs of the anarchists - terror - acts. Demonstrations of the anarchists [Y] 77
Niamke the anarchist [Y] 78
The activities of the Krynki anarchists outside of their shtetl [Y] 79
The workers take over the power in Krynki / Aba Lev-Btz (Alter) Patshebatski [Y] 80
A S. Lutz revives the “Bund” / Nechum Bliacher-M. Friedman [Y] 82
From the cultural-social life in Krynki. A center of Torah 83-89
Culture and Society / Moshe Tzniowicz [Y] 83
Zionist Activity / D. Rabin [Y] 85
The Zionist Movement in Krynki at the Beginning of the Century / Baruch (Bendet) Niv [Y] 85
In Education and Culture / D. R. [Y] 86
Di Hebrayishe Lehrehrkes - The Hebrew Teachers / Baruch (Bendet) Niv [Y] 88
The First World War [H]  
Mutual aid to the refugees [H] 93
The First World War 94-110
The beginning of Russian defeats
Relief to homeless refugees / Bendet Nisht(B. Niv) [Y] 94
At the end of the summer 1915 / D. Selkof [Y] 94
Under the German occupation (Fall 1915 - Spring 1919) [H]  
Under the pressure of the occupier / Dov Rabin [H] 95
In Starvation and Distress / Shamai (Shima) Lider [H] 97
The German occupation (Fall 1915 - Spring 1919)
Under the pressure of the occupier / Dov Rabin
Under oppression and great needs [Y] 98
The trades during the destitute times [Y] 99
In the abandoned tannery places / Shmuel Geler [Y] 100
Jewish cultural resurrection / D. R__N [Y] 100
The “Literary Society” and its struggles / Israel Vaner [Y] 101
Zionist activities and Hebrew education; The “Zionist Center”; “Tzeirei Zion”; The Hebrew School / Baruch Niv [H] 104
The Hebrew elementary school / Benedict Nisht [Y] 105
Struggle with Germans for teaching in Yiddish / Sarah Fel-Yelin [Y] 106
During the time of the revolutions
When the Germans Left; The Rule of the Workers Council / Shamai (Shima) Lider [H] 107
During the time of the revolutions
The workers reign in Krynki / Israel Stolarski [Y] 108
The activities of the workers regime and its demise / Wolf Ekstein [Y] 108
Activities of the “Bund” during the war years / Hershel Giteles Augustovski [Y] 110
A song about the war years / AB Miller [Y] 110
Jewish Krynki between the Two World Wars (May 1919 – September 1939) 111-145
In Krynki After the First World War / Zeev Tzur [H] 111
The Jewish Community in Krynki Between the Two Wars / Dov Rabin [H]
Torah and Traditional Devotion in Krynki
Torah and Tradition in Krynki / Hanoch Sorski [H] 122
Rabbi Chizkiyahu Yosef Mishkowski / David Mishkovski [H] 122
Rabbi Shmuel Leb, may G-d avenge his blood, a rabbinical judge and rabbi / Hanoch Soraski [H] 125
Hosts of Torah and Religion / Hanoch Soraski
Houses of worship and regular minyanim in Krynki [H] 125
Cheders, Teachers, Personalities, Organizations [H] 127
Reb Shmuel Glembocki (The Rebbetzin's) / Chaya Glembutski-Rabinowitch [H] 127
Agudas Yisrael and its Youth in Krynki / Hanoch Soraski [H] 128
Krynki's Zionism and its Activities
The Aims and Status of the Movement / by D. Rabin [H] 128
The Jewish Education Enterprise
The Hebrew School / Efraim the son of Efraim [Afrimzon] [H] 130
More About our School During the Changing of Ruling Authorities / Shamai (Shima) Kaplan [H] 132
The Hebrew High School / Efraim the son of Efraim [Afrimzon] [H] 134
With the Hebrew Teachers in Krynki / Arnold Rozenfeld [H] 135
An Energetic Pioneer for the Hebrew School / Daniel Perski [H] 136
In Conclusion by the publisher [H] 137
At the Margins of the Hebrew School
A Libel Against the Teacher Etel / Efraim Afrimzon [Ben Efraim] [H] 138
An Incident in the Literary Society Theater / Shamai (Shima) Kaplan [H] 139
Labor Zionism and Aliya
Hechalutz / D. R. (Hechalutz) [H] 139
From the Labor Zionist Movement / Shmuel Harbarm-Krupnik
The Hechalutz Chapter [H] 141
The Purging of Vessels on the Eve of Passover [H] 142
The Hechalutz Carpentry Workshop [H] 142
The Left Leaning Poalei Tzion Party 143
The Heshel Sapirsztejn Zionist library; For the Benefit of the National Funds; The Cherut-Hatechia Organization [H]
Jewish Sport Groups
‘Maccabi’ [H] 143
The ‘Bar Kochva’ Soccer Team [H] 144
‘The Young Chalutz’ [H] Dvora Levin-Shepets [H] 144
The Momentous Activity of ‘The Young Chalutz’ / Haim Sheinberg [H] 144
Under the Renewed Polish Reign (May 1919 - September 1939) 146-166
General overview / Dov Rabin
The Beginning of Polish Rule [Y] 146
Jews and Christians in Krynki [Y] 146
Economic discrimination [Y] 147
Krynki – An “Economic Ruin” [Y] 149
Dynamism & Mutual Aid Initiatives [Y] 149
The Jewish Public Life
Social Competition
Vigilance and Activity [Y] 151
Ideologies and Political Currents [Y] 151
The Competition of Social Forces [Y] 151
The Bund [Y] 152
The Communists [Y] 153
Education & Culture
The Secular School in Yiddish [Y] 153
The Hebrew School [Y] 154
Libraries [Y] 156
The Zionist Movement
Trends Within the Movement and What they Supported [Y] 157
The Hekhalutz Aliya to Eretz Israel [Y] 158
The Life Pulse Of Krynki / Shmuel Geler  
The Economic Life of the Jews [Y] 159
Religious Life
Torah and Traditional Devotion in Krynki [Y] 162
Rabbi Reb Khizkiyahu Yosef Mishkovski / David Mishkubski [Y] 163
Krynki Melamdin / Betzalel (Alter) Patshebutski [Y] 164
Two Reb Shmuels [Y] 164
Reb Shmuel “der Rebetsin's” [Y] 165
Reb Shmuel Glembutski / Yishie Drayzi [Y] 165
Once there was our Krynki [H] 167-176
Our Krynki / Frida Zalkin-Kushnir [H] 167
Seven days in our town / Shmuel Geler [H] 168
Krynki welcomes the Shabbat [H] 170
Shabbat evening [H] 171
In the atmosphere of Judaism and Zionism / Yehudah Eckstein [H] 172
From the way of life /Ashe Golob [H] 172
A story about an informer / Efraim Ben-Efraim [H] 173
Our Shtetl Krinik 175-188
From my childhood year / Beilke Shuster - Greenstein 175
Krinik / Avrom Soyfer 176
The weekday Krinik / Shmuel Geler 180
On a market day [Y] 181
The dear Sabbath comes [Y] 183
Friday evening [Y] 184
Baruch Vladek visits the eternal light / Daniel Charney 185
The “Skif” / Hershel Zakheim 186
From the Krynki “Hakhalutz” / Shmuel Herbarem-Krupnik 187
A summary [Y] 188
Memorable Characters of Old Krynki
Rabbi David Moreni – A Landlord from Those Days / Yechiel Kotik [H] 189
The Lifesaving Act of Rabbi Yossaleh / Yishai Dryzik [H] 189
Kopel Zalkin – Pioneer Krynki Tanner / Y. G. Steinsapir [H] 190
Yankel – My Teacher and Grandfather / Moshe Weinberg (Pinkas) [H] 190
Two characters: Pinchas the Builder & Rabbi Shmuel Tentser / Avraham Miller [H] 191
Study Group Teachers / Berl Zakon [H] 191
The Polish Doctor / D. Selkoff [H] 192
Krinik in the Past: From the Distant Past 193-203
From my Contact with Krynik and Krynkers / Yehazkel Katyk 193
Krynker Thieves [Y] 193
David Moreynu [Y] 193
Yosel Lieder [Y] 195
Reb Yosele Hatzadik (what people said) / Issy Drayzik 195
From the Period of Krynker Revolutionaries I See Everything Again (a poem) / Yosel Cohen 196
My First Master / A. M. Weinberg (Meshal Pinkus') 197
My Journeys to Krynik / Sam Levin 199
The Attempted Assasination of a Manufacturer / Betzalel (Alter) Potchebutski / Nachum Anschel Knischynski 200
“Niomke Anarchist” (As told by his older brother) / Lipa Friedman 201
Krynker “Revolutionaries” Who Went Abroad / Betzalel (Alter) Patchebutzki 202
Socialist Activities of a Proletarian High School Student / Sarah Fel-Yellin 202
The Great Fire [Y] 203
A Worker's Reading Circle [Y] 203
Description and memories 204-221
My Kavkaz (mountain) / Wolf Ekstein 204
Our shtetl in the past / Avram Miller 205
The waters in Krinik [Y] 205
The market place and the streets [Y] 206
Count Varion stacks tree bark for Krinik [Y] 206
A cloud burst [Y] 206
The tanneries in the past [Y] 207
The artisans [Y] 207
Nice citizens, Maggids, Hassidim, Cantors [Y] 208
From the respected citizen of the community [Y] 208
Types from among the “common people” [Y] 208
Triple storied names [Y] 209
The pastimes of the children [Y] 209
During the reconstruction of Krinik [Y] 209
Mentally ill, dark souls (underworld) [Y] 210
Dark “souls” [Y] 210
Krinker healers - doctors [Y] 210
Pharmacists and midwives [Y] 211
Healers, exorcists and other healers [Y] 211
Something more about a Polish doctor / D. Selkof 211
Krinik Of My Memories / Berl Zakon (Belartzer) 213
Krinker Manufacturers [Y] 213
Fires [Y] 214
Great men of the Torah [Y] 214
Luminous figures 215
Special common people [Y] 215
Remember / Moishe Weinberg (Pinkes) 216
The Krynki life-style
Not a fanatical Community / Berl Zakon (Belartzer) 217
The Sabbath and High Holidays; The Holy Sabbath [Y] 217
Days of Awe [Y] 218
Sukes [Y] 218
Hanukah and Purim [Y] 219
The dear Passover [Y] 219
Shavuos [Y] 219
Tishebov [Y] 219
“Linat Hazedek” [Y] 219
The mentally ill, confused people, and nicknames / Betzalel Patschebutski 220
A disturbed person [Y] 220
Seasonal disturbed people [Y] 220
An Exorcist [Y] 220
Nicknames [Y] 220
Nicknames according to Chaim-Opstam [Y] 221
An error / A. Fridenstein 221
Notices and Lists 223-224
Yiddish names of the Krinik streets [Y] 223
Names of regions [Y] 223
Jews on the Krynki Town Council [Y] 223
Dedication of the “Public Heder” [Y] 223
“Krinker Vakhnshrift” [Y] 223
“Funken” [Y] 223
“The young revolutionaries” [Y] 223
A book about Krynki and Krynkers [Y] 224
Investigator, man of letters and world scientist – a Krynker [Y] 224
The only female judge in the Israeli army – with a Krynki connection [H] 225
Additions 225-228
Fundraising in Krynki in 1903 for the victims of the Kishinev pogroms [H] 226
At the outbreak of the Storm 1939-1941 [H] 229-231
At the Outbreak of World War II / Fear and Terror [H] 229
22 Months Under the Protection of the Red Army / Temporary Rescue and Anxieties [H] 229
Teaching in Krynki During Soviet Rule / Arnold Rozenfeld [H] 230
From Krynki to the Land of Israel via the Soviet Union and Syria / Yehudah Eckstein [H] 230
The Remnants of Hechalutz Hatzair / Chaim Sheinberg [H] 231
At the outbreak of the Storm 231-234
Jews in Krynki under Soviet reign / Koshnir Alihou and Fride Zelkin 231
The beginning of WWII / Bielke Shuster-Greenstein 232
On the eve of Russian invasion / Avraham Sofer 233
Under the reign of the Red Army / B. Shuster-Greenstein 233
Destruction and Might – The Destruction and end of the Jewish Community of Krynki / The editor 235-260
Killing and the Ghetto - At the Beginning of the Nazi Invasion [H] 237
Flames and the First Murder – Polish Jew Hatred, Decrees, and Degradation [H] 237
The Judenrat and its Tasks [H] 238
Imprisonment in the Ghetto [H] 238
During the Time of Confinement – Slavery, Crowding, and Hunger [H] 239
Torment and Evil – The Terrifying “Feldwebel” [H] 241
The Bloody Day of Passover Eve – The Hymn of the Murderers, and “Business” – The Slaughter [H] 242
The Absorption of Deportees: Epidemics – And They Tortured Them with a Pool [H] 243
In the Final Months of the Ghetto: Inclinations to Revolt [H] 243
The Annihilation of the Community/ The Editor
The liquidation of the Ghetto
The Scroll Of Kelbasin
In the Valley of Death / Dov Rabin
The “Gathering camp” and its “commanders” [H] 245
In Rintzler's Hell [H] 245
How I survived Kelbasin's hell / Feivel Wolf [H] 247
In the survivors' camp / Avraham Sofer [H]
Unable to escape; Krynki's Judenrat
Our Krynki Holocaust Tribulations / Eliyahu Kushnir
The Border Pharmacy [H] 250
The Empty Ghetto [H] 251
In the Tannery with the Remaining [H] 251
Hiding Underground in a Crate [H] 251
Sheltered in Sodom by Two Righteous People [H] 252
An additional man in the den of evil [H] 253
Approach of the Red Army [H] 253
The Goyim Take Revenge On Our Saviors [H] 253
To Auschwitz with the Krinkers / Avraham Sofer [H] 254
Jumping From the Death Train and Arriving in Bialystok / The Editor [H] 254
In Auschwitz / Avraham Sofer [H] 255
Facing death; In Birkenau [H] 255
Facing a woman survivor from Krynki [H] 256
A rebellion in the death camp [H] 257
Krynki's Partisans / The Editor [H] 259
The “Maksim” group; In the “Frojs” Battalion; Krynki's Partisans and fighters – alone in their units [H] 260
Destruction and Heroism 263-318
A dream (a song) / Sarah Fel-Yelin 263
The Cataclysm - Nazi Germany Attacks Russia / Avraham Sofer 264
The Downfall Of The Jewish Community Of Krynki / Lola Wolf-Resnik 264
The Jewish Quarter Is Bombed And Destroyed [Y] 264
The Mass Murder At The Town Pastures [Y] 265
“Better We Should Be Sacrificed For The Sake Of The Town Rather Than The Town Be Sacrificed For Us” [Y] 265
The Polish Anti-Semites Take Revenge On The Jews [Y] 266
Edicts And Persecutions [Y] 266
We Are Closed Up In A Ghetto [Y] 266
The Judenrat [Y] 267
Life And Scenes Of The Krynki Ghetto [Y] 267
Jew-Baiting And Murders [Y] 269
The “Twenty Men Action” [Y] 269
The Murderous Sergeant [Y] 270
Hunger And Epidemics [Y] 270
The Pre-Passover Action [Y] 270
Brestivitzer Jews Are Transferred To Krynki [Y] 271
The Ghetto Is Divided [Y] 271
The Liquidation Of The Ghetto [Y] 271
The Work Camp And It's Liquidation [Y] 272
In the Ghetto / Avraham Sofer 273
Deterioration and Overcrowding [Y] 273
Bloody Friday [Y] 274
“One Should Escape to the Forests” [Y] 274
The Nazi Murderers and their Polish Collaborators / Chaim Weiner 275
The Liquidation of the Ghetto / Avraham Sofer 275
The Scroll Of Kelbasin / Dov Rabin 277
The Chief Murderer and his “Court Sentence” [Y] 277
Rintzler's Hell [Y] 277
The Struggle For Survival / Feivel Wolf 279
Early Tribulations [Y] 279
And It Began Like This [Y] 280
In The Krynki Ghetto [Y] 281
The Massacre Before Passover [Y] 282
Before The Destruction [Y] 282
Inside The Kelbasin Camp [Y] 284
In Rinzler's Hell [Y] 284
On The Way To Death [Y] 286
Do Not Forget, Remember! (poem) / Chaim Sheinberg 288
After the Departure for Treblinka / Feivel Wolf 289
In the Grodno Ghetto [Y] 292
The Factory-Camp / Abraham Sofer 293
The Last Road [Y] 295
Jumping From the Death Train and Arriving in Bialystok / The Editor 297
In Auschwitz / Abraham Sofer 298
With Krynki Jews in Birkenau [Y] 298
Our First Victims in the “Work” Camp [Y] 299
The Period of “Kanada” [Y] 300
The Krynki Mutual Aid [Y] 300
The Krynki Girl [Y] 301
The Crematoria Are Burning [Y] 302
Let Us Blow Up the Crematoria! [Y] 303
Shlomoh Avnet Killed in the Battle [Y] 303
Struggling & Wandering / Feivel Wolf 305
The “Big Action” (Slaughter) in Grodno [Y] 305
Escaping from Grodno [Y] 306
Wandering – Homeless [Y] 307
My Brother Leaves [Y] 310
I Join the Partisans [Y] 311
Krynki Partisans / The Editor 312
More about Moshe Slapak and his Krynki partisan group / Shmuel Geler 313
Partisans and Krynki fighters; Jews and their unity [Y] 315
A Krinker “organizes” a Passover Seder in a German concentration camp [Y] 316
Exhumation of the Krynki martyrs / Shmuel Wolf and Heschel Eizen 317
The roster of the victims. The victims of the bloody Passover-eve [Y] 318
On the Ruins of Jewish Krynki: My Shtetel, Krynki / Sarah Fel-Yelin 318
On our ruins (from my visit)/ Baruch Niv [H] 319
With the Krinkers - on the way to Israel / Arnold Rozenfeld [H] 321
After the Holocaust 322-325
On the ruins of the Jewish Krinek / Baylka Shuster-Greenstein 322
On the cemetery of our home town / Sarah Fel-Yelin 322
On our ruins. My last visit / Benedict Nisht 323
Necrology [Y] 328
They Fell for the Defense of Israel's Birth [Y] 333
        Yisrael Korngold [Y] 
        Tuvia Gendler [Y] 
        Yehuda Zhack [Y] 334
        Nakhum Nisht [Y] 
        Ya'ir Friedman [Y] 335
        Yitskhak Khefer [Y] 
Monument On The Field Of Ashes At Treblinka [Y] 338
Perpetuating And Remembering [Y] 339
Krynker Yizkor Committee [Y] 340
This Is How We Began Trees–Memorial candles for our martyrs [Y] 342
A Children's House In The Name Of Our Murdered Community [Y] [H] 343
Pictures [Y] 344
Our Written Grave Stone [Y] [H] 346
A Memorial Book about the Destruction of Krynik [Y] [H] 347
Memorial Services For the Krynker Martyrs [Y] 348
Krynkers Around The World (Pictures) 350
With the conclusion of the “Pinkas” / Dov Rabin [H] 359
The Final Word [Y] 361
Aid Index of Topics [Y] [H] 363
In Conclusion [Y] [H] 370
After The Book Was Completed [Y] [H] 371
More Names Of Krynker Fighters Who Perished [Y] 371
Personalities (Pictures) [Y] 372
Organized Community Events [Y] 372
Krynki Today … (April 1967) [Y] 373
Supplementary Material
(Not included in the Yizkor book)
Synagogues in Krynki
Cemetery in Krynki
You Tube video from Krynki, Poland

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