Table of Contents

 

Vocabulary List for Brzeziny Yizkor Book

©Bussgang 2013 Fay Bussgang

(Words not in Yiddish or English are marked: [G] German, [H] Hebrew, [P] Polish, [R] Russian)
in a foreign language that are capitalized are usually not italicized unless name of a publication

A “action” [round-up for forced labor or deportation]
admo”r (pl admorim) [respected leader—Hasidic]
af kest [receiving room and board at in-laws]
ahavat yisroel [love of Israel in the broad sense, meaning all Jews][H]
Akdomes [hymn recited first day of Shavuos]
Aktion [round-up for forced labor or deportation][G]
alef-bes [ABC's––alphabet]
aliye [call to read from the Torah]
aliye [immigration to Palestine]
“Aliye Grabski” [wave of immigration named for Władysław Grabski, Polish prime minister of finance who had imposed harsh economic measures on Jews, causing them to make aliye in increasing numbers]
alter bokher [older bachelor]
alteste [elder]
apikorses [heresy]
apteczny skład [drugstore][P]
arbet-heym [workers home]
arendarz [leaseholder][P]
arendarz targowy [market leaseholder][P]
arshin [measure equal to 28 inches][R]
Ashmodai [the king of demons]
askonim [workers for the community]
asore-haruge-malkes [“the ten martyrs”––sages put to death by Roman Emperor Hadrian]
av-bes-din haglil [chief judge]
av-horakhamim [god of mercy]
ayen-hore [evil eye]
aynkoyf-gelt [ initiation fee]
 
B bagrut exam [Polish matura, exam that qualified one to enter university]
bajka [fable][P]
balebotim (pl. of balebos) [householder/houseowners/men of stature]
balebos (pl. balebotim) [householder/houseowner/man of stature]
baleboste [homemaker]
balebotishe [of high standing—adjective]
balegoles [wagon drivers]
bal-khuv [taskmaster]
bal-koyre [Torah reader]
bal-magiye [examiner of Torah scrolls, mezuzes, etc to check for mistakes]
bal-mekubl [mystic]
bal-mide [person of high moral character]
bal-moyfes [miracle worker]
bal-musef [leader of musef, extension of morning prayer]
bal-pilpul [hair splitter]
bal-rakhmones [person of compassion]
bal-shakhres [leader of morning service]
bal-tekeye [blower of the shofar]
bal-tfile [prayer leader]
bal-tsdoke [charitable person]
bal-tshuve [newly observant]
Baraita [oral law not in Mishne]
Bar'chu prayer [a call to prayer]
bar mitsve [coming-of-age ceremony at age 13]
bas [daughter]
Beit Ha-am [House of the People][H]
belfer [assistant teacher][P]
ben-bayes [member of the household]
besdin shtub [room where rabbi's court was held]
besmedresh/bes hamedresh (pl. bote-medroshim)[house of prayer/study]
besmedresh bokhoyrim [religious scholars]
besmedroshl [small house of prayer]
besoylem [cemetery]
bes-tfile [house of prayer]
bes-vaad lekhokhmim [wise men's house of council].
beysakneses [synagogue]
beysakvores [cemetery]
beysamigdesh [Temple in Jerusalem]
bikel [pejorative term for Russian]
biker-khoylim [Y] bikur chejlim [P] [society to visit the sick]
bikhlekh [booklets]
bime [raised platform in synagogue]
birzhe [office][R]
bojówka/komando bojowe [fighting squadron][P]
bokher (pl. bokhoyrim) [student]
bokhoyrim (pl. of bokher) [students]
borkhashem [blessed be God's name]
bote-medroshim (pl. of besmedresh)[houses of prayer/study]
Boże Ciało [Corpus Christi holy day][P]
bramkarz [goal keeper][P]
bricha [organized escape of Jewish survivors from Eastern Europe]
britchke [half-covered carriage]
brokhes [blessings]
bubele [matzo meal pancakes]
burka [hooded greatcoat/cloak][P]
burmistrz [mayor][P]
 
C cantonist [youngster forced to serve 25 yrs in army under Czar Nicolas]
capital [owners of enterprises, those with capital investment, as opposed to workers]
challah [braided holiday bread]
chałat [caftan]
chałupnicy (pl. of chałupnik) [cottage workers][P]
chałupnik (pl. chałupnicy)[cottage worker][P]
chalutz (pl. chalutzim) [pioneer]
chalutzim (pl. of chalutz) [pioneers]
chlebny kwas [drink made from fermented bread][P]
cholent [dish of meat and vegetables kept warm from previous day so as not to cook on the Sabbath]
ciocia [aunt][P]
czar [leader of Russia]
 
D dardeke [youngest children]
dardeke-melamdim [teacher of youngest children]
daven [pray]
dayan (pl. dayonim) [judge]
dayonim (pl. of dayan) [judges]
Days of Awe [days between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur]
daytchish geklayt [dressed like Germans, i.e., modern]
denar [old Polish coin, smaller than a grosz]
din (pl. dinim) [religious law]
dinim (pl. of din) [religious laws]
dires [housing, place to stay]
dorf [village]
dorf-geher [village trekker]
dorf-loifer [village trekker]
do widzenia [good-bye][P]
dozor [Jewish community official/overseer]
dreier [a three-cent piece][G]
dreydlekh [spinning tops]
droshe [sermon]
droshim [interpretations]
drużyna (pl. drużyny) [team][P]
drużyny (pl. of drużyna) [teams][P]
Duma [Russian parliament]
dunam [approximately 1/4 of an acre]
 
E e”h [olev hasholem––may he/she rest in peace]
ell [unit of measurement]
El Mole Rakhamim [God of Compassion—memorial prayer for the dead]
Enlightenment [intellectual movement that advocated Reason as the primary basis of authority]
Eretz Yisroel [Land of Israel]
eruv [fence inside which carrying an object on the Sabbath is permitted]
esrog (pl. esrogim) [type of citrus used in Sukes celebration]
etat [Jewish community assessment based on financial standing]
Eyn Yankev [certain stories from the Talmud]
 
F felczer [health practitioner/barber-surgeon][P]
ferfel [pasta],
florin [gold coin]
flower days [days when flowers were sold to raise money]
folks-shul [folk school]
frum un fray [observant and non-observant]
fun dor tsu dor [from generation to generation]
 
G gabe (pl. gaboim) [treasurer/trustee]
gaboim (pl. of gabe)[treasurers/trustees]
gafir [constable] [Turkish]
galanteria [haberdashery][P]
gamzu letoyve [it's all for the best]
Gan Eden [Paradise (Garden of Eden)]
gantse geshikhte [whole story]
gaon [eminent scholar]
Keren Kayemet L'Yisroel [Keren Kayemet Brigade]
gefilte fish [ground fish patties]
gehenem [hell]
Gemore [second part of Talmud, commentary on the Mishne]
gemore-keplekh (pl. of gemore-kop) [Gemore-learned heads]
gemore-kop (pl. gemore-keplekh) [Gemore-learned head]
gimnazjum [secular secondary school][P]
gmiles khesed [interest-free loan]
gmiles-khsodim-kase [interest-free loan fund]
gmina [community][P]
gmina (pl. gminy) [administrative district][P]
gminy (pl. of gmina) [administrative districts][P]
gorzelnia [distillery][P]
goy (pl. goyim) [non-Jew(s)]
goyish [non-Jewish]
griskelekh [buckwheat cakes]
groschen [Austrian coin]
grosz (pl. groszy) [100th of a zloty][P]
groszy (pl. of grosz)[100th of a zloty][P]
Groyse Fenster [High Society]
grzywna (pl. grzywny)[old Polish coin][P]
grzywny (pl. of grzywna)[old Polish coins][P]
gubernia [province]
guilder/gulden [Austrian coin]
 
H hadres-ponem [person of stately appearance]
Hagada [story of Passover]
orkhim [hospitality to guests]
hakhokm [the sage]
hakhshara [training for immigration to Palestine]
hakofes [procession with Torah scrolls on Simkhes Torah]
halakha [Jewish religious law]
Hallel [hymn of praise]
Handelskammer [chamber of commerce][G]
hashkoma [first prayer upon awakening]
Hasidic “courts” [followers of certain rabbi]
Haskole [Enlightenment]
haskore [memorial service for the dead]
Havdole[ceremony at close of Sabbath]
hazikhroynes [memoirs]
hekdesh [shelter for the poor]
Heshayne Rabe[last day of Sukes]
heter hoyroe [permission to function as a rabbi]
hetman [military chief][P]
heymish [homey]
hi”d [may the Lord avenge his blood]
hidd [bravo]
hob [bonnet]
Holy Scriptures [Hebrew Bible]
hora [Israeli national dance]
Horav [title for rabbi]
hoyroe rabones [higher learning at level of rabbi]
hyantveltiker [modern]
 
I IŁ [Israeli pound (lira)]
intelligentsia [salaried workers such as bookkeepers, sales clerks, etc.––white collar, not intellectual elite as in U.S.]
 
J Judenaltester [Jewish elder][G]
Judenrat [Jewish council][G]
Judenrein [cleansed of Jews][G]
 
K kabole [Jewish mysticism]
kadesh [Kaddish––mourners' prayer]
kahal [Jewish community/community council]
kalkes [small prickly fish]
kamashnmakher [spats/gaiter maker]
kapelmayster [conductor]
kapelye [band]
kase rabones [rabbinic seat]
kashemakheray [kasha-making shop]
kashrus [rules of kosher]
kasztelan [local administrator][P]
katazir [fabric finishing][P]
kaznodziestwo [parish headquarters][P]
kedusha [sanctification]
kdoyshim (pl. of kodesh) [holy persons/martyrs]
kdoyshim-otehoyrim [sainted martyrs]
kdushes [prayers of sanctification]
kehile [Jewish community/community council]
kehile kdushe (pl. kehiles kdushes) [sacred community]
kehiles kdushes (pl. of kehile kdushe) [sacred communities]
kest [room and board at in-laws as part of marriage agreement]
kest-eser [young man supported by kest]
ketuba [marriage contract]
keyn ayen hore [no evil eye should harm them]
keyn-yirbu [may they increase]
“Khad Gadye” [An Only Kid––Passover song]
khadorim (pl. of kheyder) [Jewish elementary schools]
khalemoyed [intermediate days—between first and last days of a holiday]
khalutz (pl. khalutzim) [pioneer(s)], see chalutzim
Khanike [Hanukkah––Festival of Lights]
khasene [wedding]
khasonishe nigunim [cantorial melodies]
khaverim un khavertes [friends, comrades––male & female]
khazn (pl. khazonim)[cantor]
khazonim (pl. of khazn)[cantors]
khutspe [chutzpa–nerve]
kdoyshim (pl. of kodesh) [holy persons/martyrs]
kherem [excommunication]
khevre [society]
kheyder (pl. khadorim)[Jewish elementary school]
kheyder-khaver [school friend]
kheyder-yingl [schoolboy]
khokhem-bashi [chief rabbi]
khokhmim [wise men]
kholile [God forbid]
khosn [groom].
khosn-bokhoyrim [marriageable young men]
Khoyshen Mishpat [third part of Shulkhn Orekh]
Khumash [Torah]
khupe [wedding canopy]
khurbn [destruction]
khutspe [chutzpa–nerve]
kidesh [Kiddish––benediction over wine]
kidesh [collation]
Kinderrein [cleansed of children][G]
Kislev [name of a month][H]
kitl [robe-like garment]
klal [community][H]
klal yisroel [the Jewish people][H]
klekoydesh [clergy]
klezmer (pl. klezmorim)[musician]
klezmorim (pl. of klezmer) [musicians]
klipeh [stick used in game to hit ball]
klole [curse]
kodesh (pl. kdoyshim) [holy person/martyr]
kolonialny [grocery store] [P]
komando bojowe [fighting squadron][P]
Kol Nidre [plaintive prayer on Yom Kippur eve]
komisyonerin [agents on commission]
komornik [court officer][P]
kopek [Russian money, 100th of ruble]
koved [honor]
Koved zayn ondenk! [Honor to his memory!]
Koyen [Cohen––a descendant of the priestly caste]
krankn-kase [fund for the sick]
Krauts [Germans]
Kreischef [district head][G]
kugl [noodle pudding]
kupkes [women's caps]
kuptches [merchants]
kvitlekh [informal IOU notes]
kvitlekh [notes of supplication]
kvorim [graves]
 
L łabędź [a swan] [P]
Lag b'Omer [end of mourning—33rd day of the Omer, the days following Pesakh and before Shavuos—for a plague that occured at the time of the Bar Kokba Revolt in the first century. Jews traditionally do not have celebrations such as weddings or anniversaries during the first part of the Omer.]
lamed-vovnik [one of 36 mythical good men]
Landrat [district council/chief of district council][G]
landslayt [fellow townspeople]
landsman (pl. landsmen) [fellow townsperson]
landsmanshaft [society of fellow townspeople]
landsmen (pl. of landsman)[fellow townspeople]
ławnik [member of town council][P]
lechayim [to health]
Leib-arzt [physician][G]
lererin [teacher][H]
leystn [remnants]
Litvak [Lithuanian, but used as pejorative term for all Russians]
lomer [lame]
los [lot/fate––also to draw lot for conscription][P]
loy yekhrets [hush money]
lulav (pl. lulavim) [palm branch(es)]
 
M Mafter [special aliye before the reading of the meludash [young]Haftorah]
maftir [final Torah portion on Shabes]
magazine[small clothing enterprise]
magaziner [owner of small clothing enterprise]
maged (pl. magidim) [itinerant preacher]
magidim (pl. of maged) [itinerant preachers]
magshimim [achievers]
Maharsho [1555–1631 commentary on Talmud]
makhloykes [quarrel]
makhzoyrim [holiday prayer books]
mangle [device that presses fabric by passing it through heated rollers]
Margrabia [Margrave—title of nobility]
mark [German money]
marynarka [man's jacket][P]
mashke [liquor]
maskil (pl. maskilim) [supporter of Haskole––Enlightenment]
maskilim (pl. of maskil) [supporters of Haskole––Enlightenment]
matbeyes [coins]
matse [matza–unleavened bread]
matse-shmure/shmure-matse [strictly supervised matse]
matseyve [gravestones]
maymer [learned treatise]
maymer khazal [wise saying from the Bible repeated in the Talmud]
mayminim [believers]
mayrev [evening prayer]
maysim-toyvim [good deeds]
mazl [luck]
mazel tov [congratulations]
medine-geyers [poor wanderers]
Medines Yisroel [State of Israel]
medresh (pl. medroshem) [creative interpretation of the Scriptures]
medroshem (pl. of medresh) [creative interpretations of the Scriptures]
Megile [Purim story of Ester]
Megiles Brzezin [scroll of story of Brzezin]
Megiles-Eykhe [Book of Lamentations]
mekhitse [separation]
mekhutn [father of son- or daughter-in-law]
mekhutnestes [in-laws]
melamdes [teaching]
melamdim (pl. of melamed) [teachers]
melamed (pl. melamdim) [teacher]
Melave Malka [escorting the bridal queen—festive meal after Shabes]
meludash [young]
melumed [learned man]
memunim [appointed officials]
menaker [one who removes forbidden fat and veins from meat]
mesekhte [a Talmud tractate]
meshgikhim [supervisors]
meshorshim [servants]
meshugene [crazy/crazy one]
meshulokhim [solicitors of money for yeshivas]
mesivta [yeshiva of a higher level]
meyukesdiker [of aristocratic lineage]
meyukhsim [men of stature]
meyvinim [connoisseurs]
mezuze [small tube attached to doorpost that contains inscribed parchment]
mikve (pl. mikvoes) [ritual bath]
mikvoes (pl. of mikve) [ritual baths]
minkhe [afternoon prayer]
minyen (pl. minyonim) [quorum of ten males]
minyonim (pl. of minyen) [quorums of ten males]
Mishne [Jewish code of law]
mishpokhe [family]
misnagdim (pl. of misnaged) [opponents of Hasidism]
misnaged (pl. misnagdim) [opponent of Hasidism]
mit rat un tat [with advice and deed]
mitsve [commandment/good deed]
mitsve-freyd [joyful deed]
mohel [one who performs circumcisions]
moyre hoyroe [rabbi who renders decisions on matters of rabbinic law]
moyre tsedek [a guide to justice]
moyreynu [our scholar––a title of distinction]
moytse-shabes [close of Shabes].
moytse-yomtov [close of a holiday]
musar [ethical teachings]
[additional morning prayers]
 
N nadn [dowry from wife's family]
nafta [kerosene][P]
nakhes [pleasure]
nefoshes [souls]
negine [vocal music]
Neilah Service [closing of the gates, Yom Kippur]
nemen [treasurer]
Tamid [Eternal Light]
Neustadt [former name of Nowy Korczyn]
nign (pl. nigunim) [melody]
nigunim (pl. of nign) [melodies]
nizanim [budding beginners]
nokhnames [cash on delivery]
nosheray [snacks]
 
O olev hasholem [e”h––may he/she rest in peace]
omed [synagogue lectern]
ornkoydesh [Holy Ark where Torah scrolls are kept]
ohel [structure over a grave]
oylem-habe [world to come]
oylim [immigrants]
oyrekh [guest, usually one visiting from another community]
 
P palant [game similar to baseball][P]
PaRDeS [acronym for the four levels of understanding of the Scriptures]
paritz [H] pooretz [Y] [nobleman]
parnes (pl. parnesim) [elected leader]
parnes hakodesh [monthly leader]
parnesim (pl. of parnes)[elected leaders]
parshe [Torah section of the week]
peos [long side curls/sidelocks]
Pesakh [Passover––celebration of exodus from Egypt]
peyrek [chapter from a holy text]
pidyen (pl. pidyones) [payment]
pidyones (pl. of pidyen) [payments]
pilka [coarse/homespun cloth]
piłka [ball][P]
pilpul [subtle argumentation on Talmudic texts]
pirkhei kehune [young disciples]
piyyut [liturgical poem]
pood [measure of weight][R]
porlekh [sets (trousers and vest)]
posek (pl. psukim) [verse of sacred text]
poskim [post-Talmudic commentator]
powiat [county][P]
powiat town [county seat][P]
poysek [arbitrator/rabbi who makes legal decisions]
pretensje [money claimed to be owed][P]
prisutstvie [(recruitment) office][R]
propinacja [place where alcohol is produced/ franchise to produce alcohol][P]
przewozowe [toll/transport fee][P]
pshetl [hair-splitting argument]
psukim (pl. of posek) [verses of sacred text]
ptscha [jellied calves feet]
Purim [holiday celebrating saving of Jews by Queen Esther]
Purim-shpilers [Purim reenactment players]
 
R r”l [may God protect us]
rabeim (pl. of rebbe) [Hassidic rabbis]
rabonim (pl. of rov) [official town rabbis]
rakhmones [compassion/mercy]
rashoynim [the first prophets]
Reb[title of respect]
rebbe (pl. rabeim) [Hassidic rabbi]
Rebbe ben Yokhai[founder of kabole]
rebbe's court [circle of followers]
rebetsn [rabbi's wife]
refue shleyme [complete recovery]
Reshkhoydesh [first day of the new moon]
rogalik (pl. rogalki) [crescent roll][P]
rogalki (pl. of rogalik) [crescent rolls][P]
rogatka [toll][P]
roshekool [community leaders]
rosheshive [board of a yeshiva]
Rosheshone [Rosh Hashanah––New Year]
roshim [heads of the community]
roshinkes un mandlen [raisins and almonds (a song)]
rov (pl. rabonim) [official town rabbi]
royfe [health practitioner]
rozlewnia [bottling works][P]
ruble [Russian money]
rynek [market square][P]
rzeka [stream/river][P]
 
S s''m [H] centimeters
Sanhedrin [supreme judicial court in ancient Palestine]
Sanhedrin Ktane [Lesser Sanhedrin/religious courts]
sążeń (pl. sążnie) [approximately six feet][P]
sążnie (pl. of sążeń) [lengths of about six feet][P]
schmooze [chat]
sędzia [referee/judge][P]
Sefer Brzezin [Book of Brzezin––Brzeziny Yizkor Book]
sefer hazikaron [memorial book]
Sejm [Polish parliament][P]
Senate [Polish Senate]
serwantka [glass cabinet][P]
seyfer-toyres [Torah scrolls]
seyfrim-stam [scribes who wrote Torahs, tfilen, and mezuzes]
sfire [counting of the Omer, the 49 days after Passover]
Shabes (pl. Shabosim) [Sabbath day]
shabesdike [fit for the Sabbath, Sabbath-like]
Shabes Mevarchim [the Sabbath on which one blesses the month]
Shabes Reshkhoydesh [first Sabbath of the month]
Shabes Shuvah [Shabes between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur]
Shabes-Yontov-dike Yidn [Sabbath-Holiday Jews]
Shabosim (pl. of Shabes) [Sabbath days]
shakhmat [chess]
shalakhmones [presents exchanged by friends and neighbors on Purim]
shaliakh tzibur [prayer leader]
shamasim (pl. of shames) [sextons/synagogue caretakers]
shames (pl. shamasim) [sexton/synagogue caretaker]
Shas [Talmud]
Shavuos [holiday commemorating the giving of the ten commandments]
shekel(s) [Israeli coins, formerly certificates of membership in the World Zionist Organization]
Shem (the) [the name of God]
sheve brokhes [seven blessings given at a wedding]
sheygets [non-Jewish male/smart aleck]
sheyres-hapleyte [few remaining survivors]
sheytl [wig]
sheytl ivre [a reading in Hebrew]
shfas-emes [source of truth]
shidekh (pl. shidukhim) [match between people, usually bride and groom]
shidukhim (pl. of shidekh) [matches between people]
Shikkun Brzezin [Brzezin housing project]
shikse [non-Jewish female]
shirhamayles [songs of praise]
Shir Hashirim [Song of Songs]
Shisha S'darim [the six Orders of the Mishne]
Shishi [sixth aliye, a very desirable portion]
shiva [seven days of mourning]
shiveh tuveh hoyer [town's seven best men]
shkutsim [smart alecks]
shlep [carry]
shlush sudes [evening meal at end of the Sabbath]
shmayim [appraisers]
shnayder-shtetl [tailoring town]
shnekes [squirts]
shofar [ceremonial ram's horn]
shoktim (pl. of shoykhet) [ritual slaughterers]
sholem/sholem aleykhem [greetings, hello, good-bye]
sholem bayes [domestic harmony]
shoykhet (pl. shoktim) [ritual slaughterer]
shoyresh-neshume [the roots of one's soul]
shpatzirin [to stroll]
shtadlan [intermediary]
shtet [town]
shtetele [very small town]
shtetl (pl. shtetlekh) [small town]
shtetlekh (pl. of shtetl) [small towns]
shtibl (pl. shtiblekh) [Hassidic house of prayer]
shtiblekh (pl. of shtibl) [Hassidic houses of prayer]
shtiker lebn [pieces of life]
shtikl gvir [something of a rich man]
shtot [city]
shtraymekh [caps edged with fur]
shu”b [abbreviation of Hebrew term for shoykhet]
shul [synagogue]
Shulkhn Orekh [book of rules governing the life of Orthodox Jews]
Shvat [name of a month][H]
shveyger [milk dealer]
shviger [mother-in-law]
shvitz [steam bath]
sidur (pl. sidurim) [daily prayer book]
sidurim (pl. of sidur) [daily prayer books]
sidurl [small daily prayer book]
simkhe [joyful celebration]
simkhele [small celebration]
Simkhes Toyre [festival marking the completion of the cycle of reading the Torah]
simkhe-vesosn [holiday joy]
slikhes [penitent prayers]
smikhes [ordination of rabbi]
sondek [godfather] [P]
soyfer [scribe]
soyne Yisroel [anti-Semite]
stara rzeka [old river] [P]
starosta [local administrator][P]
Stätt [a fixed seat] [G]
majątków [100 estates] [P]
strażacki [firemen's][P]
stritsl [type of strudel]
sude [celebratory meal]
suke (pl. sukes) [booth]
sukes (pl. of suke) [booths]
Sukes [Feast of Tabernacles]
 
T taiga [forest][R]
talesim (pl. of talis) [prayer shawls]
talis (pl. talesim) [prayer shawl]
talmed-khokhem [Talmudic scholar] (pl. talmide-khakhomim)
talmed-toyre [Jewish elementary school]
talmidim [students]
Talmud [collection of Jewish laws and traditions, consisting of the Mishne (code of law) and the Gemore (commentary on the Mishne)]
Tanakh[Holy Scriptures, not Old Testament]
tashlikh [casting away of sins]
tates un zeydes [fathers and grandfathers]
tchayne [teahouse]
tekhum-shabes [distance an observant Jew does not exceed on Shabes]
Temple [Temple in Jerusalem]
Temple Azara [outer room containing the altar upon which sacrifices were offered]
Tevet [name of a month][H]
tfile [prayer]
tfile belakhesh [prayer under one's breath]
tfilen [phylacteries]
Tfile Zoka [prayer on Yom Kippur forgiving others]
tfutses Yisroel [Jewish Diaspora]
tikun olam [repair of the world]
tish [rebbe's table]
Tisha b'Av [day commemorating destruction of Temple in Jerusalem]
tish-zitser [follower of a rebbe—sits at his table]
towarzystwo [society/association][P]
toye-voye [a void]
toysfes [supplementary commentaries]
trayf [non-kosher]
trepy (pl. of trep) [shoes with wooden soles, clogs][P]
tsadik (pl. tsadikim) [saintly person]
tsadikim (pl. of tsadik) [saintly people]
tsdoke [charity]
tsenerl [10 groszy]
tshuve [repentence]
tsimmes [stewed fruits and/or vegetables]
tsitses [ritual tassels on the four corners of undergarments]
tsores [troubles] dim. tsurelekh
tsvelf shures
[divorce]
Tu B'Shvat [holiday on which trees are planted]
tuvey-hoyir [esteemed elders]
tuvim [elders]
Tzafnat Paneach [Discloser of Secrets––a compilation of responsa on the Talmud and Jewish law]
Tzena Urena [book with Torah and Haftorah weekly portions written in Yiddish for women]
 
U umkum [total destruction]
 
V verst [Russian measure of distance =.66 mile]
videh [confession of sins]
Volksdeutsche [ethnic Germans][G]
voyle yungen [tough youth]
 
W walka [fight][P]
War of Independence [Arab-Israeli war of 1948]
well-to-do
wojewoda [governor of province][P]
województwo [province][P]
War II [not Second World War]
wycieczki [excursions][P]
 
Y ym”sh [may their name be erased]
yasher-koyech! [Well done!]
yatke [butcher shop]
Yavneh school
yekl [German Jew]
yeshiva [Jewish school of advanced religious instruction]
yidele [little Jew]
yidishe medines [Jewish state]
yidishkeyt [Jewishness/Jewish customs]
yikhes [distinguished lineage]
yikhesdike [distinguished]
yikhes-shidekh [match with someone of distinguished lineage]
yishev (pl. yishuvim) [Jewish settlement]
yishuv [Jewish community as a whole]
yishuvim (pl. of yishev) [Jewish settlements]
yizkor [memorial]
yom hamise [day of death]
Yomim-Naroyim [Days of Awe between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur]
yomim tovim [holidays]
Yonkiper[Yom Kippur––Day of Atonement]
yontov [holiday]
yortsayt [anniversary of death]
Yoyre-Deye [second part of Shulkhn Orekh]
yubilar [honoree]
Yudn-late [yellow Star of David]
 
Z z”l [of blessed memory]
zts”l [may the memory of a righteous person be blessed] [of blessed righteous memory] [of sainted memory]
ztsk”l [the holy righteous of blessed memory]
Zalesice [on the edge of the forest]
zikhroynes [memoirs/recollections]
zkhoyr bris [remember the covenant]
złoty [Polish currency]
zman [semester]
zmires [Shabes songs]
żupica [caftan][P]
zvodne [platoon commander][R]
zvorny [Russian man, possibly misspelling of zvodne][R]
Żdo Palestyny [Jews to Palestine]! [P]

 

Style Sheet for Brzeziny Yizkor Book

©Bussgang 2013 Fay Bussgang

A afterward (not afterwards)
among (not amongst)
anti-Semitism
anti-Zionism
armed forces (no capitalization)
Army – capitalized only if specific army: Anders Army, Polish army, Allied armies
 
B book of chronicles (general term, not specific title)
British Mandate government
buttonhole-making trade
 
C Catholic––use Roman Catholic
Communism
Communist
Communist Party
Congress Kingdom of Poland
Congress Poland
cotton-padding
Creation (capitalized)
Crown Poland
czar
 
D DATES: month + day, year (September 1, 1939,)
daven [pray] (italicize davening, davened)
daycare
Days of Awe
denar (italics, since not in dictionary) - coin
 
E Eretz Yisroel
 
F Fascist
Fate (capitalize when personified)
father (lowercase as descriptor), Father (cap as name)
florin (roman, no italics)
fundraiser
 
G Gemore
General Government (territory within Poland)
get-together
ghetto (not capitalized): Łódź ghetto
grosz/groszy (sing./ pl. roman type) – Polish coin
guilder/ gulden (roman) – Austrian coin
 
H Hakofes [procession with Torah scrolls]
Hanukkah (see Khanike)
Hasid
Hasidic
Haskole [Enlightenment]
Havdole
Holy Scriptures (don't use Old Testament)
 
I IŁ [Israeli pound, used with numbers]
Internet (not web unless for specific page)
 
J journeyman-tailor
 
K kadesh [Kaddish]
khalutzim, see chalutzim [pioneers]
Khoyshen Mishpat [third part of Shulkhn Orekh]
kidesh [Kiddish]
kopek (roman) [Russian money, 100th of ruble]
 
L Ladies (not Women's) Auxiliary
Lag b'Omer
Left (capitalize for political Left)
life style
 
M made-to-order tailors
make-shiftloom
mark (no italics) [German money]
Medines Israel
Megile-Eykhe [Book of Lamentations]
mikve, pl. mikvoes (italics)
Mishne
mitsve (italics)
mother (lowercase as descriptor), Mother (cap as name)
 
N NUMBERS: Generally humanities style––spell out numbers up to and including 100 and round numbers in hundreds, thousands, millions. Use digits in tables or in series where number is important.
Needleworkers Union (no ' )
 
O Old Testament (use Holy Scriptures)
 
P percent (use with numeral, write out, unless in table: 5 percent)
Pesakh
Purim
 
R rank-and-file
ready-made clothing
Right (capitalize for political Right)
Roman Catholic, not Catholic alone
Rosheshone [Rosh Hashanah]
ruble (roman) [Russian money]
 
S Sanhedrin (roman, except in book title)
Sejm (roman)
sex (use gender instead when appropriate)
Shabes
Shas [Talmud]
Shem (use “the” beforehand) [the name of God]
Shiveh Tuveh Hoyer [Town's Seven Best Men]
shtetl (italicized)
Simkhes Toyre
spread-out town
“style” requires “the.” In the Gothic style, not in Gothic style
Sukes
 
T Tanakh [Holy Scriptures]
Tailors Union (no apostrophe)
tailor-workshops
Tailors Union, Needleworkers Union (no apostrophe after s, attributive rather than possessive)
TIME OF DAY: Spell numeral used with o'clock (six o'clock), use numerals for exact time with a.m. and p.m. in small caps
TITLES: Caps when immediately precede personal name and are used as part of name or when used in place of first name (General Bór); lowercase when used not as part of name but as descriptive tag (mayor of town).
toward (not towards)
 
U United States (spelled out unless used as adjective (U.S. Senate)
 
V Va'ad Arba Aratzot (roman)
Va'ad Haglil (roman)
 
W War of Independence (Arab-Israeli War 1948)
well-to-do
World War I (not First World War)
World War II (not Second World War)
 
Y YIVO Institute for Jewish Research
Yon Kiper [Yom Kippur]
Yomim-Naroyim [Days of Awe]
Yoyre-Deye [second part of Shulkhn Orekh]
 
Z złoty (sing. & pl.,) [Polish money] (italicized if used with diacritic)


Denominations of money mentioned.
[If in dictionary, use roman, otherwise, use italics]

 

Place Names Mentioned in Brzeziny Yizkor Book

(Alternate names are in parentheses)

©Bussgang 2013 Fay Bussgang

denar [old Polish coin, smaller than a grosz]
dreier – 3 penny coin [G]
florin – old Polish gold coin [P]
grosz, groszy – Polish coin(s) [P]
grzywna [P] – old Polish coin
guilder/ gulden – Austrian coin
kopek [R] Russian coin, 100th of a ruble
mark [G]– German money
ruble [R]– Russian money
tsenerl [Y] ten groszy
złoty (sing and pl) [P] – originally less than a grzywna, later equal to 100 groszy
A Africa
Aleksandrów
America
Amshinov (Mszczonów)
Argentina
Arizona
Arkhangelsk
Asiatic Russia
Auschwitz (Oświęcim)
Australia
Austria
 
B
Bad Reichenhall
Bad Worishofen
Bakhmut
Baku
Balta
Baltic Sea
Będków
Beirut
Belgium
Belotserkovka
Belz
Berdichev
Bergen-Belsen
Berlin
Bessarabia
Biała [Piotrków province]
Białystok
Bielawy
Bielska
Błaszki
Bohemia
Boston
Bratoszewice
Brazil
Brest-Litovsk (Brisk de-Lita)
Brisk de-Lita (Brest-Litovsk)
Brooklyn
Brownsville
Brussels
Brześć-Kujawski
Brzezin (Brzeziny)
Brzeziny (Brzezin)
Brzeziny (Löwenstadt)
Brzeźnica
Budapest
Bug River
Bydgoszcz
Bzura River
 
C California
Camp Drancy
Camp Fernwald
Canada
Cardiff, Wales
Chełmno
Chemnitz, Germany
Chicago
China
Chojna
Ciechanów
Ciechanowiec
Ciosny
Congress Poland
Constantinople
Crown Poland (Kingdom of Poland)
Cyprus
Czarna River
Czerwona Ruś (Red Ruthenia)
Częstochowa (Tshenstokhova)
 
D Dachau
Danzig (Gdańsk)
Dayton, Ohio
Detroit, Michigan
Dir Alban
Długie
Dmosin
Dnipropetrovsk (Ekaterinaslav)
Dobra
Donetsk
Drobnin
Drohiczyn
Duchy of Warsaw
Działoszyn
East Pomerania (Pomorze [P])
 
E Eastern Europe
Egypt
Ekaterinaslav (Dnipropetrovsk)
Elbląg
Elizavetgrad (Kirovohrad)
England
Eretz Yisroel
Europe
 
F Feldafing
Florida
France
 
G Gąbin
Galicia
Gałków
Gałkówek
Gdańsk (Danzig)
Ger (Góra Kalwaria)
Germany
Głowno
Gniezno
Góra Kalwaria (Ger)
Gostynin
Gozlin
Grabów
Greater Poland
Gritse (Grójec)
Grodzisk
Grójec (Gritse)
Grunwald
Grzmiąca
 
H Hague
Haifa
Halberstadt
Har Hatsofim
Har Tsion (Mount Zion)
Holland
Hungary
 
I Inowrocław
Iran
Iraq
Irkutsk
Israel
 
J Jamnia (Javneh) [in ancient Palestine]
Japan
Javneh (Jamnia) [in ancient Palestine]
Jeżów
Jerusalem
 
K Kalisz
Kałuszyn
Kamenetz (Kamieniec)
Kamieniec (Kamenetz)
Kasrilevke
Kaunas (Kowno)
Kavkaz
Kętrzyn
Kfar Hasidim
Kfar Saba
Kfar-Ono
Khabarovsk
Kharkov
Kibbutz Kiryat [Anavim]
Kibbutz Yagur
Kielce
Kirovohrad (Elizavetgrad)
Kiryat Ono
Kishinau (Kishinev)
Kishinev (Kishinau)
Kock (Kotsk)
Kołacin
Kolah
Koło
Koluszki
Kotsk (Kock)
Kowno (Kaunas)
Kozienice
Kraśniewicz
Kraśnik
Kraków
Krakówek
Krynki
Kujawa
Kutno
 
L Lakewood, New Jersey
Łaskowice
Lasocin
Latrun
Łazisko
Łaznów
Łęczyca
Leżajsk (Lizhensk)
Lemberg (Lwów/Lvov/Lviv)
Lesser Poland
Leszczyny
Leszno
Libava [Latvia]
Lipiny
Lithuania
Little Russia
Litzmannstadt (Łódź)
Lizhensk (Leżajsk)
Ł(Litzmannstadt)
Łomża
Los Angeles
Löwenstadt (Brzeziny)
Łowicz
Lublin
Lugansk
Lutomiersk
Lviv (Lemberg/Lvov/Lwów)
Lvov (Lemberg/Lviv/Lwów)
Lwów (Lemberg/Lviv/Lvov)
 
M Majdanek
Maków
Malbork (Marlborg)
Małczew
Manchester
Manchuria
Marlborg (Malbork)
Martef HaShoah (Chamber of the Holocaust)
Mazovia (Mazowsze [P])
Mazowsze [P] (Mazovia)
Melbourne
Miami
Michałowska [now part of Chełmno]
Międzyrzecz
Migdal Tsedek
Mikołajew
Minsk
Mlava
Mogielnica
Montenegro
Montreal
Moscow
Moszczenice River
Mount Herzl
Mount of Olives
Mroga Dolna
Mroga River
Mrożyca River
Mszczonów (Amshinov)
Munich
 
N Nancy, France
Natanya
Nemen River
Nesher
Neustadt (Nowy Korczyn)
Neustadtel (Nowe Miasto)
New East Prussia
New York
Niesułków
Nowe Miasto
Nowy Korczyn (Neustadt)
Nowy ącz
 
O Odessa
Odra River
Opatów
Osada
Osiny
Ostrowiec
Oświęcim (Auschwitz)
 
P Pabianice
Palestine
nr Rogów
Paris
Petach-Tikvah
Petersburg
Philadelphia
Piaseczno
Piątek
Pilica
Pilica River
Piotrków
Pithiviers nr Paris
Płock
Płońsk
Poddębice
Podolia
Poland
Pomerania (Pomorze [P])
Pomorze [P] (Pomerania)
Popień
Posen (Poznań)
Poznań (Posen)
Probaken nr Brzeziny
Prussia
Przysucha (Pshischa)
Pshischa (Przysucha)
 
Q Qalanswa
 
R Radom
Radzyń
Rajgród
Rawa
Rawa Mazowiecka
Red Ruthenia (Ruś Czerwona)
Rhodes
Rio de Janiero
Rogów
Rokociny
Romania
Rosh Ha-Ayin
Rostov
Rozprza
Ruda Guzowska
Ruś Czerwona (Red Ruthenia)
Russia
Rychwał
 
S Safed
Sandomierz
Sao Paolo
Serbia
Shanghai
Sheikh Jarrah
Siberia
Siedlce
Sieradz
Sierpc
Silesia
Skierniewice
Sobota
Sochaczew
South America
South Prussia
Soviet Union
Spain
St. Petersburg
Stawianen
Stockholm
Stryków
Stuttgart
Sulejów
Sweden
Syria
Szczuczyn
Sztum
Szydłowiec
 
T Tel Aviv
Telsiai (Telz) [Lithuania]
Telz (Telsiai) [Lithuania]
Teolin
Thorn (Toruń)
Tobolsk
Tomaszów
Toronto
Toruń (Thorn)
Treblinka
Tshenstokhova (Częstochowa)
Turkestan
Turkey
 
U Ujazd
Ukraine
United States
 
V Valozhyn [Belarus] (Wołożyn, Poland)
Vienna
Vilna (Vilnius/Wilno)
Vilnius (Vilna/Wilno)
Vladikavkaz
Vladivostok
Volhynia (Wołyń)
 
W Wały
Warka
Warmia
Warsaw
Warta
Western Europe
Wielkopolska [Greater Poland]
Wieluń
Wilno (Vilna/Vilnius)
Winnipeg
Wiślica
Witkowice
Wola Cyrusowa
Wolbórka River
Wołożyn, Poland (Valozhyn, Belarus)
Wołyń (Volhynia)
Wrocław (Breslau)
 
Y Yaarot HaCarmel (Carmel Forest)
Yakutsk
Yekaterinaslav (Dniprepotrovsk)
 
Z Zawiercie
Zduńska Wola
Zgierz
Zhvanets (Zwianiec)
Zwianiec (Zhvanets)
Żarnów
Żelichów
Żychlin
Żyrardów

 

Organizations and Publications in Brzeziny Yizkor Book

[Organizations are not in italics, but newspapers and journals are]

©Bussgang 2012 Fay Bussgang

A Aguda = Agudas Yisroel
Agudas Herzl [Herzl Organization]
Agudas Yisroel [non-Zionist Orthodox party]
Akhdes Yungen [United Youth organization]
Al HaMishmar [On Guard] [split from Histadrut]
American Jewish Congress (U.S.)
American Red Cross (U.S.)
Anders Army [Free Polish Army WWII]
Arbeter Tsaytung [Workers Newspaper]
 
B BKS [Brzeziński Klub Sportowy––Brzezin Sports Club][P]
Beit Ha-am [House of the People][H]
Beit Yaakov [schools for girls]
Betar [Revisionist Zionist Youth][Betar is an acronym for Brit Trumpeldor—Covenant of Trumpeldor].
Biker Khoylim [Y] Bikur Chejlim [P] [Society to Visit the Sick]
Black Hundred [reactionary league in Russia]
Brzeziner Relief Committee (U.S.)
Brzeziner Workers Union (U.S.)
British army
British Eighth Army
British Mandate Government
Bund [Jewish Socialist Labor Party]
 
C CARE (U.S.)
CENTOS [Centralne Towarzystwo Opieki nad Sierotami i Dziećmi Opuszczonymi—Headquarters of Societies Caring for Orphans and Abandoned Children][P]
CISZO [Centrale Jidysze Szuł – Organizacje—linked to Bund]
CYSHO [Central Yiddish School Organization]
Christian Synod
Cloak and Dressmakers Union (U.S.)
Clothing Workers Union
Commercial Employees Union
Communist Party
 
D Das Kind [The Child––publication]
Der Tog [The Day––NY newspaper]
Di Breziner Untershtitsung Farayn [The Brzeziner Benevolent Society](U.S.)
Duma [Russian parliament]
 
E Ekstrablat [Extra Paper]
Endeks [“NDeks”––members of National Democratic Party in Poland (anti-Semitic)]
Et Livnot [Time to Build—Zionist youth organization that split from Histadrut]
 
F Folkist Party [proponents of Jewish autonomy within Poland]
Folksblat [People's Newspaper]
Folkstsaytung [People's Newspaper]
Forverts [Forward––NY Yiddish newspaper]
Fraydenker [Free Thinker––newspaper]
Freynt [Friend––newspaper]
 
G Gedud Keren Kayemet L'Yisroel [Keren Kayemet Brigade]
General Government [part of Poland occupied by but not incorporated into Germany]
Gestapo [abbreviation for Geheime Staatspolizei, German secret police][G]
Gordonia [Zionist pioneer youth movement named for Aaron David Gordon]
Gwiazda (Stern) [Star—sports club][P]
 
H HIAS [Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society]
Haganah [underground paramilitary organization in Palestine]
Haidamak [paramilitary bands, mostly Cossacks]
Hakoach [The Power––sports club of Hitachdut]
Hamelitz [The Advocate––newspaper]
Ha-Mizrachi Hatzair [religious Zionist youth]
Hanoar Halomed Vehaoved [combined organization of Hanoar Halomed and Hanoar Haoved, both Zionist youth organizations]
Hanoar Halomed [Studying Youth]
Hanoar Haoved [Working Youth]
Hanoar Hatzioni [Zionist Youth]
Hapoel Hatzair [non-Marxist labor party––now called Mapai]
Hashomer Hadati [youth scout movement]
Hashomer Haleumi [The National Guard], later Hanoar Hatzioni
Hashomer Hatzair[Young Guards––Zionist youth organization]
Hatzair Hatzioni [Zionist Youth]
Hatsefirah [The Dawn—a Hebrew-language newspaper]
Hattechija [Revival––Zionist association] (transliterated Hatchyo in Działoszyce)
Hechalutz [pioneer movement]
Hechalutz Klal-Tzioni [General Zionist Pioneers]
Herzliya [Revisionist Zionist Youth]
Hilfs-Komitet [Relief Committee]
Histadrut [Zionist Labor Federation]
Hitachdut [Federation—Zionist Labor Party]
 
I International [International Ladies Garment Workers Union](U.S.)
Irgun Yotzei Brzezin b'Yisrael [Organization of Former Residents of Brzezin in Israel]
 
J JCA [Jewish Colonization Association]
JOINT [American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee]
Jewish Brigade [army formed in Palestine under British command]
Jewish Historical Institute [Żydowski Instytut Historyczny][P]
Jewish Savings and Loan Society
Judenrat [Jewish council][G]
 
K kahal/kehile [Jewish community/community council]
Kasa Oszczednościowa [Savings Bank][P]
Keren Hayesod [United Israel Appeal]
Keren Kayemeth [Jewish National Fund]
Khevre Eyn-Yankev [“Jacob's Spring” Society]
Khevre Kedishe[Burial Society]
Khevre Khayotim [Tailors Society]
Khevre Tehilim/Tilim [Psalms-reciting Society]
Khovevei Sfat Ever [Lovers of the Hebrew Language][H]
Khovevei Zion [Lovers of Zion][H]
Kinyan Seyfrim [Society to Acquire Religious Books]
Kotsker Khsides[Kock Hasidic movement]
Kupat Kholim [Workers Care and Insurance Cooperative in Israel]
Kurski Archive [in Bund Archive at YIVO]
 
L (If Yiddish/Hebrew, use Lodz, not Łódź [P])
ŁKS [Łódzki Klub Sportowy––Łódź Sports Club][P]
Landrat [district council/chief of district council][G]
Lines Hatsedek [Sheltering the Righteous—society to care for the sick]
Linas Hacedek [Polish spelling]
Literarishe Vokhnschrift [Literary Weekly]
Lodzer Hakoakh [Lodz Power–sports club]
Lodzer Morgenblat [Lodz Morning Paper]
Lodzer Togblat [Lodz Daily Paper]
Lodzer Veker [Lodz Awake––newspaper]
Lovers of Yiddish Literature
 
M MOPR [Mezhdunarodnoye Obshtchestwo Pomoshtchi Revolutioneram––International Society for the Aid of Revolutionists][R]
Maccabi [Jewish sports league]
Mapam [United Workers Party––in Israel]
Master Tailors Union
Meat Masters Union
Meat Workers Union
Mizrachi/Misrahi [Orthodox Zionist party]
Morgn Zhurnal [Morning Journal]
 
N Needleworkers Union
Nichum Aveylim [Society to Comfort Mourners]
 
O ORT [Organization for Rehabilitation and Training]
 
P PKO [Polish Guardian Bank][P]
PPS [Polish Socialist Party][P]
Poale Mizrachi [religious Socialist Zionist party]
Poale Zion [Marxist Zionist labor party]
Polish army
Polish Union of Construction Workers
Prąd [Stream (sports club under influence of leftists)][P]
Producers Association of Ready-Made Clothing
 
R Red Magen David [Red Star of David––Israeli Red Cross]
Royte [Reds––Communist Party]
Russian Social Democratic Party
 
S SS [Schutztaffel––elite military unit of Nazi party][G]
Sanhedrin [supreme judicial court in ancient Palestine]
Sanhedrin Ktane [Lesser Sanhedrin/religious courts]
Sejm [Polish parliament][P]
Senate [Polish Senate]
S'feld [Domain––literary publication]
Shikkun Brzezin [Brzezin housing project][H]
Shiri Erev [Evening Prayer Group][H]
Shnayder Minyen[name of prayer house for tailors]
Sholem Aleichem Folk Institute (U.S.)
Shomrei Emuna Yisroel [Guardians of the Faith of Israel]
Shveln [Thresholds––literary publication]
Socialist Artisans Central
Society for Workers Evening Courses
Stern [Star––sports club]
Stormtroopers [Nazi paramilitary group]
 
T TKO [Towarzystwo Kultury i Oświaty––Society for Culture and Education][P]
TMS [Towarzystwo Miłośników Sportowych––Society of Sports Lovers][P]
TSKŻ [Towarzystwo Spółeczno-Kulturalne Żydów—Social and Cultural Association of Jews][P]
Tailors Union
Tarbut [secular Zionist educational organization]
Teutonic Order of the Knights of the Cross
Togblat [Daily Paper]
Transportation Union
Tsukunft [Bund youth organization]
Tydzień Piotrkowski [Piotrków weekly newspaper]
 
U United Jewish Appeal (U.S.)
United Jewish Welfare Fund (U.S.)
 
V Va'ad Arba Aratzot[Council of the Four Lands][H]
Va'ad Haglil, pl Va'adi-Haglilim[District Council][H]
Vegn [Paths––literary publication]
 
W WIZO [Women's International Zionist Organization]
Warsaw Clothing Exchange
Warsaw Credit Bank
Wehrmacht [regular German army][G]
Workers Cooperative
World Zionist Organizaton (WZO)
Wzajemny Kredit [Credit Cooperative][P]
 
Y YIVO Institute for Jewish Research
Yad Hashisha Kupat Gmiles-Khesed [The Helping Hand Fund]
Yavne schools [founded by Mizrachi]
Yevsektsiia [special section for Jews in the Communist Party][R]
Yungt Veker [Youth Awake––newspaper]
Yung Yidish [Young Yiddish––Yiddish cultural group]
Yung Yiddish [Young Yiddish––journal in Łódź]
 
Z Żydowski Instytut Historyczny [Jewish Historical Institute][P]
[TSKŻ, Żydów, Żydowski – the dot over the capital Ż can be seen only in certain size fonts.]

 

Table of Contents


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