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[Page 212]

Torah & Hasidism


The Houses of Worship in Our City

by Abraham-Isaac Murik

Edited by Karen Leon

The houses of worship in our city were mostly built of wood and situated close to each other. Each of these synagogues, and their congregations, were followers of one of the many Hasidic Rebbes.

The Great Synagogue was built on Ulica Handlowa. Both Hasidim and Mitnagdim attended the Great Synagogue. Rabbi Hechtman, the ritual slaughterer and meat inspector, Shlom'keh, and all of the wealthy and influential Jews of Sarny had their places on the eastern side of the synagogue. The Holy Ark, which adorned the eastern wall, was the product of outstanding artisans and woodworking craftsmen. The dedication of the Ark was a major event for all of the worshippers and all of the Jews of the city.

The pharmacists, Levin and Barzam, and Yerusalimsky, the son-in-law of Rabbi Hechtman were among the worshippers at the Great Synagogue. Craftsmen and ordinary Jews were comfortable praying here, as well as the idlers of the city, such as Menashe the porter, and Meir the water carrier.

The services were conducted by Sirota and others, cantors who were famous throughout the Jewish world at that time. People with strong dispositions were selected as Gabbaim. The struggle over the position of the Gabbai began at the time of the High Holy Days. The arguments resulted in a physical fight several times.

One could hear the Misheberach blessing chanted from the bima of the Great Synagogue in honor of the heads of state during the national holidays in May and November. The teacher, Grosskopf, also delivered a speech in Polish, which was totally incomprehensible to his listeners.

The Kupitzskaya (Merchants) Synagogue was situated near the Great Synagogue. The building was adorned both outside and inside. Its whitewashed walls could be seen from a distance. Chestnut and birch trees were planted on its east side to provide shade. Everything in this house sparkled, and everything was anointed in the color of oil. Many merchants worshipped here. They were known to start services late and finish early. Mr. Joseph Kharpak served in the capacity of Gabbai here for many years. He was the father of Eliyahu, Israel, Bezalel, and Chaim, who today live in The Land.

The Stolin synagogue was located on the Ulica Szkolna. The worshippers here were in the habit of drawing out their fervent prayers accompanied by a great deal of singing. Cantors did not have an entre here, as was the custom among Hasidim. The services were led by Rabbi Kunda, Pinia Mush'keh's Kipperman, and the ritual slaughterer and meat inspector, Pesach Elyah. Services were led in front of the ark during weekdays, on the Sabbaths, and High Holy Days.

The voices of those studying the Mishna, and those reciting Tehillim, emanated from the shtibl until the late hours of the night. The synagogue of the Berezne Hasidim had residential rooms in the basement, below the house of worship. The common folk of Sarny, the merchants who roamed the neighboring villages, and the residents of the Ulica Szeroka, came here to pour out their hearts before the Creator. The bath house and the Hekdesh (poor house) were near this synagogue. As part of their routine wanderings, the paupers of Wolhyn stopped here and lodged for the Sabbath. They were accorded the fourth and fifth Torah aliyah, but were usually left without a meal invitation. Despite all of the good intentions of the Berezne Hasidim, due to their limited circumstances they simply lacked the means to host these paupers. This synagogue began Sabbath prayers early, and its worshippers were among the first to return to their families for the Sabbath repast.

The Stepan synagogue was constructed in the final years before the outbreak of the First World War. It was located behind Rosenberg's passage near a pond where the people came for Tashlikh on Rosh Hashanah. My father attended this house of worship, and generously gave money to assure its construction and maintenance. The Stepan Hasidim, who up to that time had been spread out among the other synagogues, now had their own house of worship, and they were privileged to be visited by their Rebbe.

A synagogue was built for the people of the (Poleska) neighborhood, on the other side of the railroad tracks. This synagogue expanded as the population grew.

For all of us, the synagogues were places of inspiration, and where we could pour out our souls. We entered them in times of joy and sorrow. From the early hours of the morning until the very late hours, you could encounter Jews worshipping in each location. If you wanted to see the Jews of Sarny, to listen to their conversations and learn about their issues, all you needed to do was cross the threshold of a synagogue.

Congregants were joyful on the Sabbath days when the Rebbe came to pray with his followers. Songs emanated from the synagogues. On Saturday nights, after the end of the Sabbath, musicians played, with Gabriel of Dabrowica, the clarinet player, at the lead. The dedication of Torah scrolls to the synagogues was accompanied by large crowds of people, in processions through the streets of the city, with torches lighting the way.

Young men studied in the Yeshivas of these synagogues. There, they heard emissaries from The Land, and other lecturers, speaking to them from the bima. These dedicated scholars were destroyed, and no longer exist.

[Page 213]

The Synagogue of the Hasidim of Stolin-Karlin

by Asher Miasnik

Edited by Karen Leon

There were seven synagogues in our city: the Great Synagogue, under the authority of Rabbi Hechtman z”l; the synagogue (shtibl) of the Stolin-Karlin Hasidim; that of the merchants (Kupitzskaya); the Hasidim of the ADMo”R, Our Master, Our Teacher, Our Rabbi Mosheleh of Stolin under the authority of Rabbi R'Aharon Kunda; the Berezne Hasidim; the synagogue of the Stepan Hasidim on the Poleska side of the town; and lastly, the Zionist synagogue.

The synagogues in Sarny were always full. The Sabbath day felt like a festival day, not only by the Jewish residents, but also among the majority of the gentiles. The sense of the tranquility of the Sabbath completely penetrated into Sunday as well. The Jews never opened their businesses or workshops on the Sabbath.

After the death of the Rebbe Israel Perlov of Stolin z”l, the Stolin Hasidim split into two camps. The elders among the Hasidim selected R' Elimelech of Karlin to lead them, and the young adhered to R' Moshe of Stolin. This dispute between the two camps spread to every congregation and town, including Sarny. However, despite the differences in opinion that occasionally led to ad hominem attacks, the general conduct of the Hasidim of the synagogue of Stolin-Karlin was exemplary. This was the case whether it pertained to the serious conviction of their prayer, in the sense that “every bone in my body speaks out,” the intent of the soul, or in the joy of life and the casting off of the ongoing course of real life. When you attended the Stolin synagogue, you found that for which your soul yearned.

The Hasidim who worshipped in the Stolin synagogue were God-fearing Jews. They served as role models for many, and contributed to the praiseworthy name of the town in the entire vicinity.

Rabbi Aharon Kunda, the Rabbi of the synagogue who came to our city after the Russian Revolution, was an honest and God-fearing man. With his sweet voice, he led services in front of the ark on the Sabbath and the High Holy days.

The Headmaster of the Yeshiva, Rabbi Chaim-Mendl Kostromecky, was a modest and self-effacing man. He was satisfied with few possessions, and wore the same clothing and boots, always clean and shiny, all year long. Rabbi Chaim-Mendl served as a Headmaster in a number of cities before he came to our town. Among his hundreds of students were important personalities of the Jewish world, including the sons of the Rebbe, R' Israel'keh. During the 1930s and 1940s, he supervised a Yeshiva in the Old City of Jerusalem, and it was there that he died during the War of Independence. It is said that when some of his relatives came and begged him to leave that dangerous place, he replied, “I too, am a soldier, and I stand to defend the Holy City of Jerusalem.”

Among the prominent Hasidim of Sarny were: R' Herschel Bergman, R' Pesach Borko, R' Zvi Turkenitz, the Head of the Talmud-Torah, R' Pesach Elyah Ka”tz, the ritual slaughterer and meat inspector, R' Pinchas (Malkeh's) Zandweiss, renowned leader of prayers with an unusually powerful voice, R' Eliezer Zhuk (The Big One), R' Eliezer Susnik (The Little One) the Gabbai of the Tehillim Recitation Group, R' Shlomo Sofer, the embodiment of the self-effacing Hasid, at one with his God, to whom he clung with his entire heart, and who drowned in the mikvah, R' Shlomo Wolf's, and R' Shlomo-Mendl Roseman, R' Yehoshua the Dairyman (Der Milkhiger), R' Asher Aharon Gimpel, R' David Kornblum (The Pole), R' Benjamin Kantorowicz, R' Yehuda Pearlstein, and his son, Noah, R' Ze'ev Pikman and his son Moshe, R' Mych'eh Levin, known for his leadership of the Neilah Service, R' Yaakov Geifman, the Gabbai of the Synagogue.

My father, Aharon Miasnik, served as a Gabbai. My father always donated to charity and needy causes, and engaged in Hakhnasat Orkhim, graciously welcoming Yeshiva students to our home. Each Sabbath we had a guest or a Yeshiva student at our table. My father was deeply committed to the ADMo”R of Karlin, and assisted in the preparations for the receptions for him and his disciples. He personally baked the challah for these visits, and cooked the fish. There was no limit to the effort he exerted in order to properly receive Hasidim, who came from the vicinity and from afar. The visits of the ADMo”R to Sarny were momentus. Hundreds of Hasidim and Rabbis from near and far came to spend the Sabbath in his presence. The worship and the tisch, the table of the Rebbe, was specially prepared, and a singular kind of mood reigned over everything, particularly the melodies and dances.

As it grew dark on the Sabbath, the Hasidim of Stolin-Karlin in Sarny, gathered around tables in the synagogue for Shalosh Seudot, the third meal of Shabbat, where they enjoyed a slice of challah, the tail of a herring, joyous songs and sorrowful melodies.

After nightfall on Saturday, several groups assembled for a Melave Malka, a special after- Sabbath repast. The Jews of the city found it difficult to let go of the Sabbath, and so the Melave Malka allowed them to hold onto it a little longer. The men consumed unpeeled potatoes cut into halves or thirds, soup made from boiled bones, cabbage or beets, and a bit of strong liquor to revive the soul. In addition to the food, the primary focus of the celebrations were songs at the conclusion of the Sabbath, the melodies associated with the courtyard in Stolin, tales of the Righteous, and in the end, Hasidic dances of great feeling and arousal, which continued until midnight.

The Hasidim of Sarny were a joyous group. When the substantive repasts at the Rebbe's Tisch failed to satisfy them, or they were just plain carried away, and seized by a mood of joy and mischievousness, they visited the courtyards of Hasidim whose wives were known to be particularly stingy, to coerce the sale of chickens or some other good tasting food to them, and arrange a kumzitz with friends and neighbors. R'Aharon Gittl's from Berezne, and R' Shmaryahu Frankel from Dabrowica, both close to Sarny, were appointed to secure the fowl and cooked goods. Those days during which the Rebbe visited the city were like a free-for-all. The Hasidim would unburden themselves from work, family concerns, and the issues of earning their living. Most of the hours in the day were spent together with their comrades in the proximity of the Rebbe.

The holidays of Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah were joyful. The Jews set aside their suffering, worries, and anxieties about their everyday existence during these festival days. It was as if Jews changed their very skin, donning glee and exhilaration, and they stood as masters of joy at the gates of their courtyards. Men, women, and children streamed to the Hakafot at the shtibl of the Stolin Hasidim. The joy that accompanied the singing, during the Hakafot captivated the congregation. Those who were privileged to carry the Torahs during Hakafot were blessed that they should be able to do the same again the following year. The dancing that occurred around the Torah scrolls, was a beautiful, gratifying, sight.

The Hasidim recited the prayers early on Simchat Torah, and concluded them rapidly while making mischief and carrying out pranks. While the words were still between their teeth, they were already on the way to arrange Kiddush at the homes of their comrades. They gathered at the home of a friend, swallowed a drink, tasted the cookies and confections prepared by the woman of the house, sang and danced. They bestowed blessings on the master of the house and the members of his family, and hurried off in order to do the same at the next house, so as not to insult anyone close to them.

The children especially anticipated the arrival of Simchat Torah. The Hasidim arranged special programs for the children. The teacher, R' Joseph Njavozny, nicknamed “Moshiach,” was transformed into a “new person” on that day. Immediately after the morning Shacharit prayers, he stood on a table wearing an oddly decorated hat on his head, and a jacket made of coarse flax, as was the habit of the villagers. By his side was a sack of spoiled pears and candies. R' Joseph cried out using the tune of the Thirteen Attributes of the Rambam. After finishing a verse, he announced, “Sacred Flock,” and the children standing about him responded with bleating sounds, “Me-eh...” They immediately spread out on the floor in order to be able to grab up as much of the candies that R' Joseph scattered about. In honor of Simchat Torah, R' Pesach Borko, generally a taciturn, modest and self-effacing but respected man, donned a cylindrical top hat, decorated with colored feathers, or a multi-colored woman's hat. He went out with his Hasidic comrades and friends in song and dance at the front of the courtyards, escorting joyous children, who had attached themselves to the procession.

A joy of this kind suffused the shtibl on other Jewish festivals and religious celebrations, as well as during the observance of Yahrzeit for the various deceased ADMo”Rs. The Hasidim knew the secret of how to transcend the sordidness of their drab day-to-day lives and rise above the travails of making a living, the worry over taxes, and the anxiety of raising children. In communal prayer, in the flow of life, in the sorrowful melodies until the soul expired, in dance, and in living for the moment, they succeeded in creating a spiritual life that enabled them to forget their poverty and deprivation.

There were disputes as well in the shtibl. Periodically, differences of opinion arose with regard to the appointment of a Gabbai, or the succession of an ADMo”R to the rabbinical chair, and the like. These differences were not permanent. The festivals, the prayers and the communal feasts, all served as a binding force, and united their hearts.

The Hasidim of the shtibl donated to charitable causes. They had a great love for the Land of Israel. The ADMo”Rs of Stolin visited the Holy Land many times, and considered settling there. Their melodies and songs were collected into the hearts of their progeny who made aliyah, and who reached the shores of The Land during every aliyah.

[Page 216]

The Hasidim of Stolin-Karlin

by Dr. Ze'ev Rabinovich

Edited by Karen Leon

The resonance of generations, images of pious lives who lit up the sordid darkness of ordinary people with the light of eternity, rise before us. It is a one-hundred-eighty-year history, replete with struggle. It began with harsh persecutions and expulsions, and, after many ups and downs, ended with a complete victory. The value of the Hasidim of Karlin is not measured in comparison to its influence on Hasidic movements that arose after it in Poland and the Ukraine, but rather, in its own time. The force of its initiatives, neither static, nor dynamic, represents one of the first of the branches of the Hasidic movement. In the initial days of this movement, Rabbi Dov Ber, known as the “Great Maggid,” established his Bet HaMedrash in the village of Mezhyrichi in the south of Wolhyn. His disciple, R' Aharon HaGadol, settled in the outskirts of the Lithuanian city of Pinsk, in Karlin, the center of Hasidism in the north, approximately 1765.

The regard for this northern center, in contrast to the center in the south, was so great, that the Hasidim bore the sobriquet as a “Mezhyricher,” or a “Karliner.” This is what we learned in the first of the reports from the era of the disputes that arose against the Hasidim, “As a name to characterize them, the Hasidim of our time were called “Mezhyricher or Karliner.” In his autobiography, the philosopher Shlomo Maimon, who lived in the early days of the Hasidic movement, wrote that the Hasidim of his time made pilgrimages to the two cities, Karlin and Mezhyrichi. The French tourist Gregoire, who visited Poland at that time, indicated that the new sect of Hasidim were called “Karliner'' after the place where the movement was initiated. Reports found in St. Petersburg from the years 1796-1801, when the Russian regime intervened in the dispute between the Mitnagdim and the Hasidim, the Hasidim were called “Karliner,” despite the fact that at that time, all of the branches of Hasidism, and the ruling houses of its Rebbes, had already expanded throughout Poland and Russia. R' Schneur Zalman of Liadi, the founder of Chabad, was referred to in these reports as “the leader of the Karliners.” As it was said, “the head of the Hasidim.”

The outstanding reputation of the Hasidic center in Karlin came about not only as the first of its kind chronologically, but it was also great in a geographic sense. The Hasidim of Karlin were pioneers in the concept of Hasidism in scholarly Lithuania. R' Aharon HaGadol attempted to spread the Hasidic doctrine from Karlin, which was an island in the middle of the Lithuanian sea of Mitnagdim. Through excerpts dated 1769 from the municipal Pinkas of the city of Njasviz, discovered before the war in the Stolin courtyard, containing by-laws and guidance of R' Aharon HaGadol, we know about the great extent of his influence at that time throughout the entire area.

Despite harassment and excommunications promulgated in the principal Lithuanian congregations, and especially in his city of Pinsk, R' Aharon HaGadol was responsible for igniting the flame of Hasidism. In accordance with his final will, the following inscription appears on his grave. “He devoted himself, with the full commitment of his soul, to this endeavor.”

This was the first “aliyah” in the movement. During the first excommunication, pronounced in 1772, R' Aharon died at the age of 36. “The fire of God that burned within him, consumed him.” The magnificent Sabbath song, Ya Ekhsof Noam Shabbat, written by R' Aharon, is sung by Hasidim on the Sabbath to this day. I am often dismayed that this lyrical song was not included in the Sefer Shabbat that was published in The Land. From his written doctrine, it is appropriate to underscore this magnificent Sabbath song.

After the death of R' Aharon, his pupil and friend, R' Shlomo of Karlin, tried to preserve his legacy. However, he too was harrassed and excommunicated, and was compelled to leave the cradle of Hasidism in Karlin, in 1784, to seek refuge in the city of Ludomir (Volodymyr-Volynsky). And with the absence of this righteous man, the influence of the movement in Karlin disappeared. The synagogues were closed, and the Hasidim were hounded without end.

This was a time of decline for the Hasidism of Karlin. R' Shlomo remained in Ludomir, where he was martyred by Cossacks in 1792 during their war against Poland. He became famous in the Hasidic literature as “Moshiach ben Joseph” whose fate was to be killed before the coming of Messiah, the son of David.

During his exile in Ludomir, R' Shlomo's preeminent student was the son of R' Aharon HaGadol, known as the First R' Asher. After the death of his teacher, R' Asher returned to the area where his father resided. At this time, he did not yet have the temerity to return to Karlin because of the level of harassment of Hasidim there. Instead, he lived in the town of Stolin, close to Pinsk. From that time on, the Karlin Hasidim were also called the Stolin Hasidim. During the years 1796-1801, a famous dispute broke out against the Karlin Hasidim, led by the Pinsk Rabbi, R' Avigdor. This dispute reached all the way to the Supreme Senate in St. Petersburg, and led to the arrest and imprisonment of the Tzaddik R' Schneur Zalman of Liadi, and also of R' Asher of Stolin. The day of R' Asher's release is considered a day of celebration, and it happens to fall on the lighting of the fifth candle of Hanukkah. With the victory of the Hasidim, and after their assumption of control over the communal institutions of Pinsk, R' Asher I returned to the cradle of Hasidim of Karlin, after 1810, and he remained there until he died in 1826.

During the time of R' Asher, the second expansion in the Karlin movement began. This occurred after the period of decline that existed in the time of his teacher, R' Shlomo. The expansion reached its zenith in the time of his son, R' Aharon the Second, who served as the Rebbe for nearly 50 years, until 1872. He was a dynamic leader and strengthened the edifice erected by his grandfather and his father.

His father's book, Beyt Aharon, encapsulated the lore of Karlin. R' Aharon HaGadol rejected sorrow. He believed that being sorrowful was not a transgression, but it engendered a deadening of the soul more so than any sin of prohibition that was found in the Torah. R' Aharon II was not satisfied with the rejection of sorrow. He demanded rising to a higher level and to live in a continuous state of joy. Many still recall the optimism that he instilled into the hearts of his followers. Many of the famous melodies associated with Karlin-Stolin were created during the years of R' Aharon II. Before, and during the time of R' Aharon II, the Karlin Hasidism exhibited a very specific proscribed appearance, which served as a connection to the way a person related to his fellow man, and also in the way one served one's Creator.

(From the 'Ohr Zarua' Collection)

[Page 218]

Hasidic Customs in My Father's House

by Shlomo Zandweiss

Edited by Karen Leon


Traveling to The Rebbe

The stories of what transpired in the Rebbe's courtyard, the Hasidim coming to Stolin from the four corners of the earth: from Russia, Poland, Lithuania, and from the cities of the Land of Israel – Hebron, Safed, and Tiberias; the description of the Tisch; events that were arranged, and the communal prayer accompanied by the sweet melodies of the leaders of the services, R' Yaakov Telekhaner, and my father v”g, all of these aroused a yearning within me, going back to my childhood, to visit Stolin. The question was, how I could accomplish this trip when my older brother, Aharon hy”d, had the priority to do so. There was no way our mother would agree to both of us traveling together.

I constantly thought about taking this trip, and in my childish mind, I considered methods to achieve my objective. First of all, I sought the closeness of my father. From time to time I demonstrated my knowledge of the Stolin style of prayer. I knew how to align the words of the blessing, “to differentiate between day and night” in the recitation of the morning prayers. During the reading of the weekly Torah portion on a Sabbath morning, where the text was read in Hebrew and Aramaic, or attending the synagogue of the Stolin Hasidim when the portion regarding ritual sacrifices was read, I ended with an emphasis together with all of the Hasidim, with the sentence, “In order to fulfill the commandment of performing the mitzvah, Daka min HaDaka (a delight, the finest of the fine). In singing Kol Mikdash on the Sabbath nights, I imitated my father in the style of R' Aharon of Karlin, separating the words mechalelo into mechal-lo and poalo into poal-lo (he is forgiven).

I excelled in the rendition of the sacred melody of the lyric poem Ya Ekhsof, by R' Aharon of Karlin. Similarly, I assiduously followed my father's directions with regard to my behavior. During Sabbath feasting, I refrained from putting my hands on the table or leaning my head against my hands. I did not anticipate my father's litany by so much as even a single word, in the singing of songs. My father was alert to these sorts of things. He was known to say, “from the day the Holy Temple was destroyed, along with the altar, the table serves in its place, and we arrange all of our feasts on this altar.” When we walked to synagogue, I took extreme care not to step ahead of my father, especially on the Sabbath. I walked with a measured pace, and with great care.

It is written, “Remember the Sabbath day and sanctify it,” meaning, remember it all of the days of the week. Preparations for the Sabbath began in our home on Friday morning. In addition to the baking, cooking, cleaning and straightening the house, every member of the household prepared themselves personally for the Sabbath by visiting the bath house, the barber, and trimming our nails. My father shined his shoes while uttering a phrase attributed to the ADMo”R, R' Abraham Yehoshua Heschel of Opatow, “Jews have no concept of how great the reward is, for the shining of one's shoes on the eve of the Sabbath. As it is said, how beautiful your appearance is when you are shod.” After this, while it was still daylight, we inspected the oil lamps and the candles ensuring they lit properly, and lastly, we sweetly recited passages from the Song of Songs.

At the end of all this trying, I finally received my father's consent to make the trip, but my brother, Aharon, still had to agree. In the end, everything fell into place, and I, as a ten-to-eleven year old child, joined my father on his trip to Stolin.

There were many preparations to make before the trip began, both at home and in the synagogue, and the details were endlessly revisited. The names of the travellers were noted, and counted, in groups of ten. The groups sang old melodies and rehearsed new melodies. The costs of the trip were collected for those of limited means among the Hasidim. The fever-pitch of travel reached its zenith in the final 2-3 days before the trip began. Since Sarny was a crossroads in the connection of Kiev to Kovel and Rovno to Vilna, guests from near and far were welcome in our home.

Members of the household packed my father's travel valises, and took great care not to overlook any requirement. He needed his tallit and two pairs of tefillin: one in the style of Rashi, and one in the style of Rabbeinu Tam. Other items included his kittl, his copy of Khok L'Israel, and several other books. On top of all this, he needed four or five kapotes, different ones for prayer, for daily general use, for the bath and one, shined and dyed, for sitting at the Rebbe's Tisch. In addition to being the leading solo of the choir, known in Yiddish as a kapelyeh, my father was also the leader of those who served at the Tisch events. I can still see, in my mind's eye, all of the servers attending the tables, wearing brand new shoes, passing the dishes from one to another.

About two to three days before Rosh Hashanah, all of the trains going in the direction of Horyn-Stolin were full of Hasidim who journeyed from all ends of the country. They traveled from Warsaw, Kovel, Ludomir, and Rovno. They came from the direction of Kiev, from Olevsk, Korosten, Luhyny, and Slovechne. In addition, Hasidim rode by wagon from the near-by towns and villages. Riding In wagons and in railroad cars, Hasidim toasted each other with L'Chaim while they demolished lekakh, or rolls and eggs. They sang Stolin melodies, got up to dance, and participated in the afternoon Mincha service.

Even the train conductor was slightly disoriented, speaking half in Yiddish and half in the local non-Jewish language. He walked from car-to-car, and announced, quoting from Exodus 14:25,

“Speak unto the Children of Israel, and they will travel. Division in half is legitimate, into thirds, or quarters, not so.” He had a silent agreement between himself and the Hasidim that everyone traveling without a ticket could discharge their obligation by paying half the fare. The Hasidim filled the Horyn station from all points of debarkation. These Hasidim arrived by carriage or steamboat from the Pinsk vicinity from the towns of Turau and David-Horodok.

The initial encounters among them could be compared to a time when members of a family meet when they are invited to the same wedding. There were rather few Jewish wagon drivers and they had to make a number of round trips to be able to transport all of the Hasidim. Also, many of those from the towns came on their own wagons, upholstered in grass and fresh cut hay, offering a service to the Jews, and thereby earning a few extra kopecks without any additional effort.

When the Hasidim reached Stolin every hotel room, and every room in private homes, were filled. Many of the Hasidim made do, by organizing themselves in barn lofts upholstered with freshly cut, newly mown hay. Up until even the last moment, one could see lights in most of the houses, and sense the feeling in the air that the High Holy Days were approaching. The smell of cooking fish and of baking challah and other items, hung in the air. Hasidim returned from the various mikva facilities, with their beards and side locks dripping water, and prepared themselves for the encounter of peace with the Rebbe, and the prayer of Zokher HaBrit.

On the eve of the holiday I took a walking tour with my friend Chaim, who had also come to Stolin. He showed me the living quarters of the Rebbe and the reception rooms for the Hasidim. There were two sukkot: a smaller one for the family and a large, spacious sukkah, for the reception of the host of Hasidim and the arrangement of the feasts. A Holy Ark stood in one of the sukkot, which held a Torah scroll that had been personally written by the hand of the Rebbe, R' Aharon of Karlin. With the approach of the High Holy Days, this Torah scroll was carried to the Great Synagogue, accompanied by singing and dancing. Chaim showed me where the choir rehearsals were held, the courtyard where the large kitchens were located, the house in which the Rebbetzin lived, the mother of the Rebbe R' Israel'keh, the various mikva locations, and the courtyard of the spacious stables, in which the horses and carriages were quartered.

The Rebbe loved talking about large choirs and carriages that had many pairs of horses hitched to them. The Hasidim did not accept the Rebbe's words literally, that his true intent was directed towards the carriages.

Finally, we arrived at the synagogue courtyard, where all kinds of goods were sold on platforms. I could not conceive of a marketplace more splendid than the one in the synagogue courtyard in Stolin. What was not there? The choicest and most beautiful prayer shawls, with resplendent neck decorations, Mahzors of every description, prayer books, sets of the Shas, Mishna, sacred books, and the miracles of the Holy Men, lulav and etrog plants from the Holy Land, and Cyprus, candlesticks of copper and silver, regular menorahs, and Hanukkah menorahs. There were etrog boxes, spice boxes, and redolent tobacco containers, carved from wood, or poured from silver, decorated in the image of the Kotel, the Machpelah Cave, the grave site of mother Rachel, and other sacred locations in Jerusalem, Hebron, Safed and Tiberias. The eye could not be sated from the array of all these goods and sacred finery. And my limited youthful head was overwhelmed by everything that was revealed before it, in a panoply of color.

Before the start of worship, my father cautioned me not to get too far away from him. He sat me on a window sill, which was about a meter deep, in the Bet HaMedrash. I sat there for the entire duration of the service along with several other boys, and watched what was taking place in the Great Bet HaMedrash. I saw the Rebbe and his six sons enter the Bet HaMedrash, dressed in their new, silk kapotes, shtreimels on their heads, and white socks on their feet. A shudder engulfed the host of thousands, as one. At a sign from the Rebbe, Menashe the Shokhet approached the prayer lectern, and with a loud proclamation, initiated the prayer with, “Ashrei yoshvei beytekha…” The prayer, accompanied by song, is etched in my memory as if it took place barely two or three days ago, even though the reality is that decades have already gone by.

Similarly, the entourage going to Tashlikh in Stolin, is etched in my memory as well. Thousands of Hasidim, and residents of the town descended on the streets that led to the Horyn River, outside of the town. Gardens, porches, and byways were full of people. As the Hasidim returned from Tashlikh, the day grew dark. Hundreds of lights pierced the encroaching darkness through the windows of houses, to light the way for those who were dancing with fervor.

[Page 220]

How I Earned a Portion in the World to Come

by Moshe Borko

Edited by Karen Leon

One of the most popular and most active of the community workers in Sarny, was R' Pinchas Zandweiss, or as he was generally called, Pinia Mushkeh's. As a formidably God-fearing man, he was someone who literally gorged himself on the fulfilment of mitzvot. Consequently, he was always on the lookout for any mitzvah that he could perform to enlarge his portion in the World to Come. He was naturally drawn to the issue of assuring that Torah instruction was provided for the poor young children of Sarny. Together with the second consistently dedicated community activist in Sarny, the ritual slaughterer and meat inspector, R' Pesach-Elyeh Katz, they founded the Sarny Talmud Torah. However, since they had not properly attended to all of the formalities that were demanded by the Polish regime involved in founding a community school, the Talmud Torah remained their own private school.

As the years passed and the numbers of children attending increased, the school developed nicely. The teachers engaged by the Talmud Torah inculcated Torah into the young Jewish children of Sarny.

The budget of the Talmud Torah was funded by levies on, and collections from, the local Jewish populace, and, understandably, there were always deficits. Insurance for the teachers, particularly insurance for hospital care, which was compulsory in Poland, was never addressed. As a result, conflict between the management of the Talmud Torah and the teachers began a few years before the war. When the teachers complained to the authorities, the local hospital demanded that the Talmud Torah pay the required insurance premiums plus interest and penalties on the delinquent amount. This added up to a sum of approximately 4,000 zlotys. To secure this debt, a lien was placed on the private homes of Messrs. Zandweiss and Katz, who, as previously mentioned, were considered to be the official owners of the Talmud Torah.

Sarny Jews often sought my assistance from my office in Warsaw. One day I received an alarming letter from Messrs. Zandweiss and Katz, to help them out of their misfortune, and, simultaneously, save the Talmud Torah from going under.

The matter was very complicated. It took me a long time and extensive negotiations with the central office of hospital care in Warsaw, to get them to consent to lower the demanded sum to 360 zlotys, and to have it paid in twelve monthly instalments. All of the interested parties were satisfied by this reduction, particularly Messrs. Zandweiss and Katz. Once again, the Talmud Torah was able to function normally.

When I returned to Sarny for the first time after this, R' Pinchas Zandweiss visited me to thank me for working out the solution to this potential financial misfortune. At the same time, however, he demanded a mitzvah and an agent's fee from me, consisting of providing a contribution to help underwrite the costs for poor children to attend the Talmud Torah. He made this demand with complete earnestness and conviction, and he argued that in our Jewish prayers, we intone, “and the study of Torah stands in opposition to all the others,” and consequently, he could not simply set aside his part of this obligation to perform so great a mitzvah, which he had placed before me.

I know that my success in resolving the issue of the Talmud Torah became known beyond Sarny, because a short while thereafter, I received a letter from the Rebbe of Stolin, with a request to help him resolve a loan issue.

The Rebbe of Stolin, R' Moshe'leh, had obtained a large loan from Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego (Polish National Development Bank) in order to build a new, large house in Stolin. It was a short term loan to last for three years. However, the Rebbe was not able to pay the large payments with high interest on time, and the bank threatened to sell the house.

I went to the central office of the B.G.K. once, then again, and yet another time, and in the end, succeeded in replacing the 3-year loan with a longer term, 15-year loan, at a lower rate of interest. The annual obligation then became one which the Rebbe was able to properly pay.

The Rebbe was satisfied with the solution. I received a postcard from him immediately, with thanks and praise, “for the boon that you produced on my behalf,” and ended with many blessings, etc.

I sent this postcard to my father in Sarny. My father z”l, in turn, showed it to the Hasidim in the Stolin shtibl. Despite the fact that the prominent Hasidim were followers of the Karlin Rebbe, R' Melech'keh, the warm blessings of R' Moshe'leh, or as they called him, “the Rebbe's Brother,” made a strong impression. But it was R' Pinchas Zandweiss, a close friend of my father z”l, who was most touched. He gave my father a friendly pat on the back, and said, “You have a sort of unkosher success here, Pesach'l! You have the opportunity to get yourself into the Garden of Eden without other hard work. Through the mitzvah regarding the Talmud Torah, and the blessings from the Rebbe, your Moshe'leh is assured a portion in the World to Come. Nu, since I know your relationship with your son, he won't simply stand by and leave you on the outside!”

This remark was not intended as criticism or a joke. It was said with complete seriousness, and meant earnestly by a pious, observant, God-fearing Jew, with an uncorrupted faith.

[Page 222]

The Dynasty of the Berezne ADMo“R's

by Rabbi Aharon Peczenik

Edited by Karen Leon



R' Shmuel'keh Peczenik k”mz


The reputation of Berezne was well known especially in the cities and towns of Wolhyn and Polesia, because of the Hasidic dynasty that came to take up residency there at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Those who owned the land in these Jewish towns realized that Hasidism was in ascendancy at that time, and they sought to increase their wealth by supporting this growth. As Jews fervently adhered to their Hasidic leadership, the nobility pursued the courtyards of the Rebbes. The noble of Berezne attracted one of the Hasidic leaders, Rabbi Yekhiel Mikhl Peczenik, who lived in Stolin, a town in Polesia that had its own Hasidic dynasty, to move to Berezne. The noble allotted him a parcel of land and offered assistance in constructing a house. And so, R' Yekhiel Mikhl settled in Berezne along with the members of his family, and he became known as R' Mikhl'eh of Berezne, from which the Berezne dynasty began.

R' Yekhiel Mikhl was the son of R' David HaLevi, the Maggid of Stepan, a student of the Maggid of Mezhyrici, grandson of Rabbi David HaLevi, author of Turei Zahav, son-in-law of the Hasidic leader, R' Yehkiel Mikhl the Maggid of Zlotshov (Zolochiv). While still residing in Stolin, R' Mikhl'eh of Berezne spent day and night in Torah study and supervised the town's Bet HaMedrash together with his only son, R' Yitzhak, the son-in-law of R' Aharon of Chernobyl. His wife was a storekeeper. She provided for the sustenance of her husband and son who dedicated themselves entirely to the work of The Creator. Accordingly, it was not normal practice for the Chernobyl dynasty, which had already earned a good reputation in the Jewish world, to enter into a marriage with Rebbe Mikhl'eh, as he was a pauper, and considered a man of low spirit. The reputation of the groom, R' Itzik'l the only son of R' Mikhl'eh, had preceded him; he was exceptionally talented intellectually, a righteous individual, and greatly admired in Chernobyl.

The Berezne dynasty prospered and grew substantially, especially during the days of R' Itzik'l of Berezne, who attracted throngs of Hasidim. It was reported that he was a holy man, and a doer of miracles, and even many Christians came to him seeking salvation and support. Berezne Hasidim staked out its base in the heartfelt, and simple, untrammeled faith of the people. There were many scholars and people of repute, who traveled to Berezne, but most of those who came were drawn from the simple masses with unswerving and unbounded faith. They stood by the Rebbe, and loved him in the manner of children who follow a mother who is dedicated to their welfare. Tailors, shoemakers, craftsmen, and small-scale retailers from Wolhyn, and even more from Polesia, placed their heart's trust in him, and turned over the fate of their lives into his hands.

R' Itzik'l of Berezne spent much of his time in other cities and towns, educating Jews in the performance of good deeds, and directing them to place their trust in The Creator, Blessed be His Name.The Jews shared whatever occurred to them in their lives with the Rebbe. Either it was good things that the Rebbe had helped to bestow upon them, or, God forbid, bad, so that he could interdict its effects. On the day of their encounter with the Rebbe, whether it was when they traveled to him, or whether it was at some other opportunity to meet, every heart rejoiced, and they were able to bear exhaustion and heartache. The hour arrived for the elevation of the soul for everyone.

R' Itzik'l of Berezne died in Berezne in the year 5625 (1865). His son, R' Yossl'eh who took his seat, only “reigned” for four years, and he departed this world in 5630 (1870). However, he left behind a legacy of wondrous deeds in these four years. He died at the age of 36, but despite his young age, he was revered by his Hasidim. His manner of death, itself, was a matter to arouse wonder. Hasidim gathered with him for Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, but he detained them until after Simchat Torah. The Rebbe said to everyone, “Don't have regrets, remain!” Towards evening on Simchat Torah, he called his sons to him and instructed them how they are to comport themselves. He spent the entire evening with the Hasidim, and before morning arrived, hurried to the mikva to perform ablutions, returned, and gave up the ghost in his Bet HaMedrash.

When R' Yossl'eh died, his oldest son was eighteen years old. At the time, his grandmother, Perl'eh, and the father of his grandfather, Rabbi Aharon of Chernobyl, who died in 5652 (189 2) were still alive. R' Aharon had three sons . He designated the oldest, Rabbi Shmuel, to fill the seat of his father. Rabbi Shmuel was my father's father. He led the Berezne Hasidim for forty-nine years, and died in Berezne in 5675 (1917). He was the son-in-law of the renowned Rebbe of Belz, Rabbi Issachar-Dov Rokeach z”l.

With the passing of R' Shmuel'keh, his son, R' Itzik'l took the chair in Berezne. His second son, R' Nahum'keh, resided in Dabrowica, and the third, R' Yossl'eh settled in Sarny.

This dynasty sprouted another branch that was, the Rabbi R' Chaim'keh Taubman of Berezne, the son-in-law of R' Itzik'l. This planting also put down roots of sons, and the sons of sons, who continued the rabbinic dynasty until the Day of Anger that fate had designated for all of them.

(From the Wolhyn Folio Volume 5706)

[Page 223]

The Berezne Rebbe and His Hasidim in Sarny

by Y. L. Yonatan, z”l

Edited by Karen Leon


R' Aharon Taubman k”mz of Berezne   R' Gedaliah Taubman k”mz of Berezne


The Establishment of a Branch in Sarny

Sarny occupies a special place among my memories. Sarny was close to my town, and acquired a uniquely distinguished position under the influence of my grandfather, the Rebbe Chaim'keh of Berezne.

During the years 1905-1910, word spread that “there is a way to make a living in Sarny.” The depot for the movement of all trains to all of Polesia was transferred to Sarny, and hundreds of families of workers and laborers came to reside in the town. Rubin & Schooss, the principal large firm in Warsaw that handled forest products, bought up all the forests in the area, and its export center was designated to be in Sarny. A manufacturing facility and a woodworking factory began to develop. An outpouring of sawed lumber was distributed to faraway places from Sarny. Jews uprooted themselves from nearby villages, Viniaczy, Sikhov (Sukovolya), Rafalovka, and opened stores, inns, and other businesses in Sarny. There were hundreds of businesses and the numbers continued to grow and expand.

With the arrival and establishment of the Jews in Sarny, consideration was given for the need for religious facilities, a spiritual leader, a Ritual Slaughterer and Meat Inspector, a Menaker to de-vein the kosher meat, a bath house and mikva. But who should be selected to be the Rabbi? And who is to be the Ritual Slaughterer and Meat Inspector? Why this one, and not the other? Differences of opinion of this sort were also part of the general community experience. All of this was debated, agreed to and compromised over. Then the hour had arrived, also to bring in a Rebbe, a “Good Jew,” on one of the Sabbaths. To whom did Sarny belong? Was it mainly to the Rebbe in Stolin, but also in part to Berezne and Trisk?

The Stolin Hasidim, like their Rebbe, the Yenuka prodigy, R' Israel'keh k”mz, were men of fervent disposition and will and strong in their faith. They were the first to establish a branch in the new town. After them came the Hasidim of Trisk, and then, the Hasidim of my grandfather, the Rebbe of Berezne.

How was this done? How does one establish the assignment of the rabbinical seat to one Rebbe or another in a new location? It is actually very simple. First of all there was the minyan. In the house of a Hasid, a room is set aside that was turned into a synagogue on the Sabbath. If the master of the dwelling was of the Stolin persuasion, it was understood that this became the foundation for a Stolin synagogue. The Hasidim close to the Stolin creed gathered there for a minyan, and the same was true of every other minyan.

The Berezne Hasidim attached themselves to those who had come from Berezne, and to those who had left the villages and moved to the city.

R' Abraham Yaakov Fogel rounded up the odd, unattached people into his house, as if it was a “sanctuary for dropped sheaves,” and founded the Berezne minyan. An invitation from the Rebbe came as a sign of affiliation to a special Sabbath connection, to be connected with Hasidism, and fear of God. I recollect that when my grandfather k”mz visited Sarny, there was a very heightened state of activity in the courtyard, as they planned for him and anticipated his arrival.


These are the travels of my Grandfather

My grandfather, R' Chaim'keh, was not inclined to undertake travel for the sake of receiving tribute. Along with every monetary donation he received, was a note that told of tribulations, the sorrow in raising children, illness or want. These notes caused him heartache, and weakened and oppressed his spirit. To the extent that he could, he would avoid, or delay, his annual rounds to the nearby villages and towns. However the time finally arrived, when he was compelled to go out. His two sons depended on him, and ate at his table, and his sons were themselves encumbered with children of all ages, including my father R' Aharon k”mz, and my uncle, R' Gedaliah hy”d.

R' Chaim'keh put off his trip from week to week, until it was conveyed to him, both subtly and with a broad hint, that his debt at the stores in the market, the butcher shop and fish store, was increasing. It was at that point that the decision to travel was finally made. These were the days of MarHeshvan. It was rainy, and the cold and dampness pervaded everything, “reaching the innermost ribs.” The rain was intermingled with snowflakes that melted as they fell, creating a sloppy wetness underfoot.

First came the packing of R' Chaim'keh's suitcase. Well, not exactly a suitcase, but a sort of peculiar container called a seped, a sack made of leather that had four compartments on its four sides, with cover straps to tie it closed. A sack of this type was filled, to its entire capacity, with all manner of odd devices: two vessels for washing the hands, a copper bowl, silver medallions, a silver platter with cups, a pillow and blanket, clothing for the Sabbath, a circular box container, which held the streimel and the books of the Holy ShL”H, Bnai-Issachar, and Noam Elimelekh, and the Pentateuch, the Khok, the Zohar, and the Tikunim.

The wagon driver, a non-Jew, and his helper, lifted up this mass with great difficulty, and placed it in the wagon. The wagon was lined with grass cuttings to provide comfort and support and a sitting place for my grandfather and two of his Gabbaim, who escorted him on his travels for four to five weeks, until l Hanukkah.

The plan was to spend the Sabbath in Sarny, and after that, a Sabbath in Rokitno, a Sabbath in Klesev, and two Sabbaths in Olevsk.

Sarny was a Sabbath stop, but there were several other stops along the way. One night was spent lodging in Tynne at the home of R' Shmuel'li. R' Shmuel'li had been advised of my grandfather's visit in advance. By the evening of my grandfather's arrival, all the Jews in the village, comprising two or three minyanim, came to R' Shmuel'li's home. They took off their weekday kapote that was redolent with the odor of oil, salted fish, and cinnamon, and put on their Sabbath finery. They ringed the long table in anticipation of a feast, and tasted an eighth of the Sabbath aura in the Rebbe's courtyard. And if that the evening in question was also the evening of a yahrzeit, a special observance for an Elder, sons of the Maggid, or one of the disciples of the Besht, special homilies in the form of Dvar Torah and sayings about Hasidism attributed to the deceased, were recited, ending with “and because of him, may He watch over us and all of Israel.”

After the repast, my grandfather sat in a small room and received the notes along with monetary donations. In the morning, prayer was held in a minyan, during which time the womenfolk stood in for their menfolk at their regular workplaces. After a light repast, Shmuel'li, his son, and son-in-law, escorted the Rebbe to Rafalovka. There too, a stop was made, along with a night's lodging, as well as a reception and a meal, and the same in a nearby village beside Rafalovka. It was only on Friday afternoon that they reached Sarny.


The Sabbath of the Rebbe in the Town

The Sabbath of the Rebbe in the town was a Festival Sabbath. It not only included the Sabbath day, but also the previous evening, the nightfall, and the time after the Sabbath on Saturday night, all of which bore the stamp of the guest. By contrast to the six secular days of the week, the days in which the “goodly Jew” in the town engaged in his business, on this day, the Hasidim and their adherents turned their attention away from matters having to do with earning a living, and spent many hours at the place of the Rebbe's lodging.

The Friday night service that ushered in the Sabbath was conducted in the Great Synagogue which was filled with worshipers from end-to-end. The Rebbe himself led services before the Ark using traditional melodic themes that were known and recognized to the majority of the worshipers. But this was not in the style of Stolin that involved shouting and crying out. It was rather, a heat and burning intensity of the sort inviting the phrase “and all my bones will speak out,” in the style of Berezne. It was tranquil, secure, playful and enticing, and the essence of an understated expression.

The Tisch was prepared at the synagogue. At the completion of the prayer service, the Rebbe cloistered himself alone for an hour in his nearby room, and came out to make Kiddush, no earlier than seven o'clock. Those in the know knew the secret: for literally, up until seven, Mars rules in his ways, this being the complete opposite of the totem of the observance of the Sabbath – an aura of grace.

And following the Kiddush, the congregation sang Shalom Aleichem, and Eyshet Khayil, both in the pleasant style that was the custom of the Rebbe.

The congregation of Hasidim was thoroughly versed in, and knew every style and tune. They had heard these very melodies and tunes in their homes since early childhood. The Sabbath feast also was conducted as if part of some more elevated table. It is certain that discussions of the Torah portion of the week ensued, sayings of Hasidism, every Righteous Man, and his standard according to his ancestry.

This spirit pervaded the entire Sabbath, and the actual Sabbath day was different from the previous Friday night, and both were different from the spirit during Mincha.

The secular week was ushered in with the feast of the Melave Malka. Not all who derived pleasure from the prayer and singing returned on Saturday night. Some among them were unable to produce the funds to go along with their note, and others simply did not want to come back. And so the week went by in the town, and on Thursday and Friday, we turned to another town, escorted by a coterie of wagons, in the style of “And when the Ark went forth…”


Dedication of a Cemetery

I remember the trip made by my grandfather k”mz, for the purpose of dedicating a cemetery in Sarny. It was described locally as taking on the holy place, meaning taking back a parcel of land from someone who has disappeared, and reflects the trepidation and fear that was associated with this undertaking. A sizeable amount of emotion was generated in the town, and in the surrounding area with regard to this dedication. A communal fast was announced, a fast entered into willingly, as a form of prayer, and entreaty for compassion.

On the appointed day, usually on a Monday or Thursday after prayers, the entire gathering went out, with the Rabbi at the head, to this designated place. Seven hakafot took place around the site, accompanied by the Rebbe's recitation of VeYehi Noam. These were prayers and verses of compassion, legacies handed down to the Rebbe from his father, and others that simply occurred to him to be used at this time. The fast ended at a late hour, after which the members of the Hevra Kadisha who had been selected that very day, gave a “Tikkun,” and everyone wished them a total lack of work, and “the swallowing of death forever.” The continuity of generations continued in this fashion, through the adherence of Hasidism to their consciously chosen form of appearance.


Until the arrival of The Bitter and Unreasoning Day

Even then, the Rebbeim, or the remnant of those who survived, shared the fate of their Hasidim.

On That Day, the Rebbeim went, together with the people of their calling, to meet their fate, to martyrdom.

[Page 226]

The ADMo”R, R' Joseph Peczenik

by Mordechai Peczenik

Edited by Karen Leon

The Berezne Dynasty began with the son of the Maggid of Stepan', R' Mikhl'eh, who established his residence in Berezne, and it was from there that this sect disseminated its own independent approach to Torah and Hasidism.

The traditional lore of Berezne relates that the nobleman of Berezne grew envious of his neighbor, the nobleman of Stolin, in whose jurisdiction an ADMo”R had taken up residence. Therefore, at the urging of the residents of Berezne, the nobleman proposed to R' Mikhl'eh that he move to Berezne, and that the nobleman would build the Rebbe's courtyard and a synagogue. At the time, R' Mikhl'eh resided in Stolin where he engaged in Torah study, day and night. When a deputation from the Berezne citizenry arrived to see him, to secure his consent to the proposal to live in Berezne, R' Mikhl'eh turned them away. He was seized with fear that this would result in a waste of time that could be devoted to Torah study. After the delegation strongly pleaded with him, R' Mikhl'eh finally agreed to the request.

Already at that time, R' Mikhl'eh z”l was known for his righteousness and his lofty deeds. The Berezne dynasty attracted the common-folk Jew, who found in the ADMo”R, an ear willing to listen, and a warm heart to accommodate their suffering and crises in life. It continued in this fashion through to the ADMo”R R' Abraham-Shmuel z”l, who left three sons behind at his death: R' Yitzhak, who remained in Berezne, R' Joseph, who took up residence in Sarny, and R' Nahum-Yitzhak, who took on the rabbinate in Dabrowica.

The ADMo”R R' Joseph moved his residence to Sarny in 1912 after the great fire in Berezne, in accordance with the request of the Berezne Hasidim in Sarny. He was a man of good disposition, and content with his lot in life, and he lived in Sarny until the outbreak of The First World War in 1914. As the front drew closer to Sarny, and the Cossacks rampaged against the Jews of that area, ADMo”R R' Joseph moved his family to his father-in-law, R' Sholom Perlov, who lived in a town near Kiev, but ADMo”R Joseph remained in Berezne. In 1917, after the Revolution, the ADMo”R R' Joseph and his family returned to Sarny where they found their house in shambles, and its contents plundered. He had to start all over again, anew.

In 1918, the flow of refugees from the center of Russia to Poland also reached Sarny. The synagogues of the city were filled with refugees, and it became necessary to provide them with food and clothing. R' Joseph k”mz, dedicated all of his time and energy to dealing with these refugee issues, in order to tend to their needs.

The following incident is imprinted in my memory. One time, about 3 or 4 o'clock in the middle of a winter night, there was a knock at our door. A woman was about to give birth in the adjacent Stolin synagogue. While we sought help to find a midwife, R' Joseph did not tarry for a minute. He had the woman brought into his house, transferred his children to his room, and placed the childrens' room at the disposal of the woman in labor. Despite the fact that he had only meager means, he kept the woman who was giving birth in his home, and organized the circumcision ritual for the newborn.

Another incident will testify to the generous inclinations of my father. This incident occurred on the Sabbath of the great fire in Berezne, during which practically everything in the town went up in flames, including the courtyard. As the house stood enveloped in flames, the Rabbi and Tzaddik R' Joseph remembered that a monetary security, given to him by one of the Jews in Berezne for safekeeping, was in a drawer in his table. At risk to his own life, he leaped into the flaming house and removed the money. He and his family were left stripped bare, lacking everything, because there was no possibility of rescuing anything. On the following day he called for the owner of the security and notified him that his money was rescued, and that he could come to collect it. The man was astonished by this. When he learned of the condition to which the Rebbe and his family were reduced to by the fire he was certain that his security had also been burned. He wanted to take only a portion of his security, arguing that the rescue of his money was tied to a risk of life. The Rebbe turned that argument aside and said, “I put my life in danger because this was my privilege as dictated by tradition, and we should not speak of money.”

After the Bolshevik Revolution, the Petlura military ranks entered the nearby city of Dabrowica, and they arrested the important Jewish residents of the city, including his brother the Rabbi, R' Nahum'cheh z”l. The arrested people were brought to Sarny, where it was feared they would be put to death. R' Joseph committed himself totally to the commandment of redeeming the captured, and did not rest until they were all freed.

R' Joseph, whose body was weakened by the burden of all this work and the related tribulations, contracted typhus, which was endemic at the time, and he died on 5 Nissan 5679, April 5, 1919.

[Page 227]

The Headmaster of the Yeshiva
Chaim Mendl Kostromecky z”l

by E. Kast

(Excerpted from 'Sefer Horodok')

Edited by Karen Leon

R' Chaim Mendl (Aharon Yoss'l's) occupied quite an important place in the Old City of Jerusalem. He was killed by Arab shrapnel there, on 15 Iyyar 5708, May 24, 1948, at the age of 87.

R' Chaim Mendl began to learn the Gemara when he was six years old. At the age of eight, Shmuel Kaliko gave him readings with the Maharsha commentaries. The study of the Talmud, with the commentaries of the Maharsha is normally reserved for advanced students. This little boy found an error in the Maharsha commentaries. Shmuel Kaliko did not want to believe this, and he went to the Bet HaMedrash to consult a copy of the Shas that belonged to the elderly Rabbi, R' Moshe Zvi. And that is how R' Moshe Zvi also discovered the very same error in the Maharsha, and he made a marginal notation to that effect, about it.

From the age of nine onwards, R' Chaim Mendl was already studying at the table of the Dayan of Kobrin, R' Zalman, and afterwards in Antopal with R' Pinchas Mikhl'eh k”mz.

After getting married, R' Chaim Mendl took up residence in Brisk, and was one of the closest disciples of the rabbi and Talmudic scholar, R' Chaim Halevi Solveitchik, who was also known as R' Chaim Brisker. And when R' Chaim Bsker was asked to recommend a Headmaster for the Ludomir Yeshiva, he could not find anyone else but R' Chaim Mendl.

R' Chaim Mendl was the Headmaster of the Ludomir Yeshiva until the outbreak of The First World War. Afterwards, he relocated to Stolin, where he became the right hand to the Stolin Rebbe, R' Israel z”l.

After the Rebbe's death, when the Yeshiva Ohr Yisrael, named for the Rebbe, was established in Sarny, R' Chaim Mendl became its Headmaster. Later on, when the Yeshiva moved to Luniniec, R' Chaim Mendl also went there along with the Yeshiva.

R' Chaim Mendl did not have much use for casuistry. Rather, he intoned profundities, utilizing the logic of the Maharsha, and the Maharam Schiff. R' Chaim Mendl became known for his sense of straight thinking, and his extensive mastery of the subject, not only among the Hasidim of Stolin, who trusted him implicitly, but also among Mitnagdim scholars. It is told that before The First World War, a conclave on education in Russia took place in Vilna between Rabbis and Yeshiva Headmasters. The Chafetz Chaim z”l was the Chairman, and the audience of scholars accorded him much respect. The Chafetz Chaim pointed to R' Chaim Mendl and said, “If you want to accord respect to the Torah, show it to this Jewish man.”

Many cities wanted to take on R' Chaim Mendl as their Rabbi, but because of his substantial adherence to the principles of Hasidim, he declined to do so. Only once, when the city of Sarny was in dire need of a Rabbi, R' Chaim Mendl consented to become the temporary Rabbi there.

For the last fifteen years, R' Chaim Mendl was a resident in the Old City of Jerusalem, near the shtibl of the Karlin Hasidim. He did not want to leave the Old City, even during the period of unrest of 1936-1939. When the War of Independence broke out, he did not, under any circumstances, leave the Old City of Jerusalem, where he had a great influence on the Hasidic world there, and also outside of Jerusalem.

R' Chaim Mendl left behind writings that contain many new insights into the Shas, regarding the Halacha as well as the Aggadah. The Stolin Hasidim, in Israel, are planning to publish these writings.

R' Chaim Mendl's name is holy and dear to many who are from Horodets and many who are not from Horodets.

May the memory of this Righteous Man be for a blessing!

[Page 230]

Between the Lines of a Letter

by Dr. Esther Tarsi

Edited by Karen Leon



Facsimile of the Original Handwritten Letter


There are memorials made of stone that a man erects for his benefit, and there are memorials, constructed out of a life's work, that a man erects for himself. However, there is a monument that is more significant than these that epitomizes the good deeds of a man, and remains in the memory of the contemporaries of his generation. However, this sort of memorial is fleeting. It is quickly forgotten.

A small memorial of this type was erected by R' Chaim Mendl Kostromecky z”l, by himself, in this letter to a friend, and is a remarkable testament to a man.

Read if you will, how, in this letter, replete with concerns about making a living and day-to-day minor issues, there blows through it, an elevated spirit that stands out as purposeful, that practically serves as a contradiction to the objective of the letter itself. A man writes to his friend in connection with the issue of securing employment for his son, almost a matter bordering on nepotism as we might say. But what emerges from the writer's spirit in the way he conveys his persuasiveness to his friend?

Yes, he is happy that his friend is attempting to find something, in the way of “work for my son,” but “at the same time, my spirit is reverberating within me, at the thought that, God forbid, you might present my son with virtues greater than what really reside within him.” Therefore, he finds it proper to display both the virtues and shortcomings of his son, being faithful to the truth, and no more.

If, nevertheless, the friend had written something incorrect, therefore, “I have come to request of you that in your own hand, you correct this, etc.”

Accordingly, this letter is a memorial to this miraculous man, who extends the tradition of truth as a light unto his feet, and an example to the generations to come.

[Page 231]

The Rabbi R' Nahum-Yehoshua HaLevi Peczenik

by Rabbi Aharon Peczenik

Edited by Karen Leon




My father and teacher, the Rabbi, R' Nahum Yehoshua HaLevi Peczenik z”l, served as the Bet-Din Senior in Dabrowica for a period of thirty years (1912-1942). During this period for about ten years (1929-1939), he also served as the Chief Rabbi of the Sarny community, that included in its ambit as well, the towns of Dabrowica, Bereznica, Rokitno, Klesow , Sekhow, and Antonovka. He met his death in Sarny, together with his family, among the martyrs who were murdered at the hands of the Germans on 14 Elul 5702 (August 27,1942). May God avenge their blood and the blood of all martyrs of Israel.

My father z”l, stems from a famous family of ADMo”Rs of the Berezne dynasty. He was the fifth generation of son after son, to R' David HaLevi, the Maggid of Stepan, who was a fifth generation descendant of R' David HaLevi, the author of the T”Z, Turei Zahav. My father was also a fourth generation descendant of the Tzaddik, R' Aharon of Chernobyl. This chain of relationships stretches back through the Maggid of Mezeritch, the distinguished student of the BESh”T, Rabbi of Opatow, the author of Oheyv Yisrael, and the Maggid R' Yekhiel Mikhl of Zlotshov, back to Rashi, and further back, with unimpeachable witness, to King David.

Even from the time he was a youngster, my father was known as a dedicated scholar of exceptional intelligence, and he received his rabbinic ordination at a very young age. After he married, my father traveled to Brisk and spent three months at his home, until he received his ordination as well.

At first, my father was appointed to a religious leadership position in the city of Ostraha, where his father-in-law lived. After a time, at his father's behest, he assumed the Rabbinate in Dabrowica. In this location, he rose, together with his community, until he was nominated to the Board of Rabbis of the Wolhyn District, and then to President of Agudat Rabbanim for the entire country of Poland.

Not only was he an expert in matters of Torah study, but also in doing good deeds and adhering to tradition. His home was wide open to anyone who needed him. Many came to consult him and to solicit his advice and counsel. He took in guests, inculcated Torah, and was a community activist who worked constantly for the good of the general community and for specific individuals, as needed.

When the time came to select the head Rabbi of Sarny, in accordance with Polish law through the integration of several cities, my father was selected to receive this appointment. Two important rabbis resided in Sarny, and in the entire area, more than ten rabbis were serving in such positions. My father resided in Dabrowica and even though he had been selected for this position, he did not want to leave Dabrowica so as not to infringe on the privileges of others. He remained in Dabrowica, and came to Sarny a couple of times a week, for the purpose of taking care of the usual practical affairs of the city rabbinate.

In Dabrowica, and in Sarny, those who respected my father and came to ask his advice and to receive his blessing, increased in number. He was always at one and in harmony with his environment. He never asked for a salary or payment in exchange for his services, to which he was entitled by law. He also ordered the members of his family not to demand any such payment for the various documents they provided to the people, but rather to let the parties in question pay in accordance with their own wishes.

Many stories reached our ears about his life in Dabrowica and in Sarny during the rule of the Nazis. He suffered a great deal and was a target for oppression by the Nazis and Ukrainians. A number of the gentiles wanted to help him, and rescue him, but he chose, rather, to remain with his congregation to the last day.

When that terrible, bitter day arrived, 14 Elul 5702 (August 27,1942), he walked at the head of his congregation, together with the Rebbetzin, his daughter Frieda, and his son the Rabbi R' Yitzhak and his family, to the staging area for extermination. There, he donned his Tallit that he carried, gathered all the remaining rabbis, and together they recited their confession. An eye-witness who was rescued at the last minute, said that before all of the Jews were killed, they were stripped of their clothing. Only my father z”l, despite the fact that he was beaten murderously by those who tortured him, refused to take off his Tallit Katan and his Kippah, and that was the way he went down into his grave. May God avenge his blood, and may the privilege of his life act as a shield over us and all of Israel.

[Page 232]

The Rabbi, R' Chaim-Moshe Hechtman

by Yaffa Hechtman-Barbado

Edited by Karen Leon




My father z”l, was a Rabbi in the city. He had a handsome appearance, and was known as an honest and modest man, almost to a fault, as he related to everyone without any airs.

Our home was open to everyone. Many turned to my father in order to have him adjudicate their disputes. My father patiently listened to the arguments of all sides and found ways to achieve compromised resolutions. For the most part, the protagonists left his presence satisfied, and they blessed him for his sharp mind and wise counsel.

My father did not oppose the involvement of my older sisters in the community Zionist activies. Who does not remember Chay'keh Hechtman, the Treasurer of Keren HaKayemet for many years? After she left Sarny, she turned over this job to my sister Miriam, who also dedicated herself to it with the full measure of her heart and soul. Also, the rest of my sisters were active, even though they did not realize their desire to make aliyah to The Land.

It is difficult to forget those who were dear to me, all of whom were exterminated together, while still in the bloom of youth.

[Page 233]

The Rabbi, R' Aharon Kunda

by Sh. Ben-Zadok




The Rabbi, R' Aharon Kunda was born in 5635 (1874) in the town of Turow in the Minsk Province. His father was Rabbi Zalman, and his mother, the Rebbetzin, Leah-Gittl.

His father, Rabbi Zalman, moved to live in the city of Olevsk in the Ukraine, where he served as the Rabbi of the city for an extended period of time. His son, R' Aharon, studied at Yeshivas. While he was still a single young man, he attracted attention and praise as an accomplished and analytic scholar. He was given his ordination to lead by the Rabbi, R' Shlomo Katz of Vilna, an author of commentaries to the Vilna edition of the Shas.

After the death of his father, Rabbi Zalman z”l, Rabbi Aharon Kunda inherited the Rabbinical seat in Olevsk and its vicinity. Rabbi Aharon Kunda was beloved by the entire community. He was a self-effacing, simple and honest man, good hearted, and at one with his environment.

After the capture of Olevsk by the Soviets in 1920, Rabbi R' Aharon left his city. Together with his family, he crossed the border illegally. They reached Sarny without a stitch of clothing or material possessions.

At that time, the position of Rabbi was vacant following the death of the Rabbi, Matityahu Kavenczuk z”l. Rabbi Kunda was received with great respect by the Stolin Hasidim, and was appointed the Rabbi of this community. In a short time he was established and earned a good living. He built a spacious home that he immediately and generously opened to every passerby, including those who suffered or had a need to see him. R' Aharon was seen together with one of his colleagues, or with R' Hechtman z”l, as they traversed the streets of the city and collected contributions for a needy family or some other charitable objective. He played a large role in the collection of Maot Khittin, and also firewood for the poor of the city. He especially devoted himself to the issues of the Yeshiva and the Talmud Torah in the city.

The Rabbi, R' Aharon, was one of the better leaders of prayer in the Stolin-Karlin Synagogue, and in the Merchants' synagogue (Kupickzi). His voice was sweet and his appearance was pleasing. It was a pleasure to listen to his intonation of the prayers.

The Rabbi, R' Aharon led his community up to the days of the Holocaust, 14-15 Elul 5702 (August 27-28,1942), at which time, he and along with his wife, the Rebbetzin, Itta-Yehudit, the daughter of R' Shmuel z”l went along with all the flock under his care, to the Valley of the Killing.


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