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[Page 70]

Professionals, vocations and businesses
in Suceava and the surrounding area

by Simcha Weissbuch

(according to the late Dr. Adolf Weitmann OBM)

Translated by Moshe Devere

Dov Ber Borochov (1881-1917), the theorist of socialist Zionism, claimed that for Jews in the Diaspora, the pyramid of various professions is the opposite of that of other nations living in their own country. Because of the Jewish People's disconnection in exile, and being pushed out from primary professions

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(agriculture and industry) to secondary professions (brokerage, commerce, small industry), the economic foundation of masses of Jews was severed, preferring to choose vocations unrelated to agriculture or factories.

Most talented young people continued studying at universities and gain an academic degree. Others turned to commercial endeavors or clerical or vocational work. Among the most favorite professions of all time was medicine. There were those who saw it as a mission and a challenge because “all who sustain one soul as if he sustained an entire world” and others, as a sure source of livelihood anywhere and in any situation. Therefore, it is no wonder that the number of doctors relative to the Jewish population has increased considerably compared to that of other peoples.

From ancient times, renowned physicians stood out. The most famous was Maimonides (1132-1204), a versatile personality who also wrote “Health Protection” and later became the personal physician to the ruler of Egypt. Indeed, with passing time, emperors, kings, popes, and many personalities were treated by Jewish doctors. The number of Jewish doctors who were awarded the prestigious Nobel Prize is also impressive, without comparison with all the nations of the world.

This situation was no different for Romania. Aside from Prince Ştefan cel Mare who had a Jewish doctor named Shmil the Doctor and, as previously mentioned, Yitzchak Beg. Rulers Aron Vodă and Mihai Viteazul also enjoyed treatment by Jewish doctors. The list is very long.

Suceava had a representation in nearly every area of medical specialty.

 

Doctors

According to information from Dr. Adolf Weitmann OBM

At the beginning of the 20th century, Dr. Jacob Kraemer was appointed city physician, who functioned as such until the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He was very helpful to patients and often provided free medications to the needy. The city had a street that bore his name until after World War II.

Even before World War I, Dr. Weidenfeld was a representative of the city of Suceava in the Bucovina Parliament (Landtag) and also a Dozent (lecturer) at the faculty of medicine in Vienna. Another doctor during the Austro-Hungarian regime was Dr. Benzion Sperber.

Throughout the years, Romania, which won independence in 1878, on condition it granted Jews all their rights, did not meet this commitment. Thus, student Adolf Weitmann was not given the opportunity to work as an intern (unpaid) at the hospital whose director was Dr. Traian Bonnet. There was no Jewish chief physician in all of Suceava district. Nevertheless, Dr. Dickman briefly served as a battalion doctor.

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Most of the doctors studied in Austria and Italy because in Romania the numerus clausus was unofficially practiced. Those students who had been admitted were constantly harassed and humiliated or seated in benches intended only for Jews. Some of them were even expelled [for frivolous reasons]. Also, special taxes were levied upon them. Nor were they permitted to treat Christian patients, and in order for [Jewish] students to be able to dissect corpses, they had to provide Jewish ones. Sometimes, they falsified documents and brought the corpses of non-Jews.

As internal physicians in Suceava, were Dr. Aharon Hermann, Dr. Yaakov Weidenfeld, and Dr. Adolf Weitmann, who after the war was an oncology surgeon. Dr. Kalman Tartar, Dr. Siegfried (Fritz) Kraemer, Dr. Avraham Reicher and Dr. Leib Shapira. In Iţcani there was Dr. Gedaliah Schaechter. The gynecologists were Dr. Emmanuel Hoch, Dr. Saldinger, Dr. Salomovici and Dr. Dori Schieber. As dentists, Dr. Leon Itzik, Dr. Leibovici, Dr. Ephraim Fuhrer, Dr. David Zwilling, and Julius Pollakman. A pediatrician was Dr. Leah Koenig-Strominger was a pediatrician, and Dr. Schieber was an ophthalmologist.

Likewise, there were veterinary doctors, Dr. Adolf Heittle and Dr. Fleischer.

In October 1941, the doctors were deported to Transnistria along with the entire [Jewish] population. Of these, perished from the typhus which most of them became infected while treating patients: Dr. Aharon Hermann, Dr. Siegfried (Fritz) Kraemer, Dr. Avraham Reicher and Dr. Dori Shieber. Almost all of them in Shargorod ghetto died.

After World War II, those who survived the Holocaust and returned to Suceava opened clinics. Among them were Dr. Emanuel Hoch, Dr. Adolf Weitmann, Dr. Yaakov Weidenfeld, Dr. Ephraim Fuhrer, Dr. David Zwilling, Dr. Leah Koenig-Strominger, Dr. Leib Shapira, Dr. Gedaliah Schaechter and Julius Pollakman. Similarly, there were doctors from other cities who opened several clinics that did not exist before the expulsion, such as those of Dr. Klopfer, Dr. A. Rauch, Dr. P. Schwarz, Dr. L. Schaeffer and Dr. Z. Schaerf. Pediatrician Melita Dresdner, ophthalmologist Mina Zlochiver, gynecologist Dr. Lang, neurologist Dr. Alfred Ramler, internists Dr. Bresnitz, Dr. Lindenbaum, Dr. Lesner, Dr. Yaakov Rauch, Dr. Siegfried Schaerf, and Dr. Erich Anderman from Siret. In Burdujeni, there was Dr. Rabinowici and Dr. Avraham Plotnik who later moved to work in Suceava.

All the private clinics were closed by the authorities in 1948. The number of doctors increased between 1945 and 1946, after many arrived from northern Bucovina. Even before all private clinics were closed, in 1948, all the medical institutions were opened to all doctors, regardless of nationality. Jewish doctors were employed in various hospital clinics and departments in administrative positions. Dr. B. Merdler

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was appointed as the district's chief physician; Dr. A. Anderman was appointed chief physician of the polyclinic clinics; Dr. A. Weitmann was director of the hospital, and as the city's chief physician, Dr. A. Stettner.

Dr. M. M. Michalzo was the prison doctor and also worked in the polyclinic. Young doctors from the faculties of Bucharest, Cluj, Iași and Timișoara later joined the veterans.

It was no longer necessary to travel abroad to study; entry to all faculties was free for Jews. From the new graduating classes of physicians employed in Suceava or elsewhere, all were born in Suceava, Dr. Harriet Varnia (Ita Schmelzer), Dr. Sasha Koerner, Dr. Kurt (Ḥaim) Fuhrer, Dr. Regina Herrer (Weitmann), Dr. Dori Herrer, Dr. Aharon Bessler, Dr. Shmuel-Sandy Golden (Goldenberg), Dr. Jacob Bintal, Dr. Colette Herrer (Itzik), Dr. Fischel, Dr. Zwi Hauch, Dr. Clara Lerner (Gruenberg), Dr. Gita Sani (Lerner), Dr. Alexander Klueger, Dr. Marco Kreisel, Dr. Alfred Schaechter, Dr. Jacob Stettner, Dr. Pitpfer Schwarz, Dr. Perry Schwarz (Ber), Dr. Eve Schwarz (Glebetter), Dr. Ernest Hushano (Shmilovici), Dr. Gabriela Knoll (Usno). Dr. Gisela Strolowitz (Argintra), Dr. Simon Croitoru, Dr. Moskowici, Dr. Yaakov Gladstein, Dr. Edgar Schaechter, Dr. Rammer, Dr. P. Acks (Glickman), Dr. Alfred Felig, Dr. Berta Geller-Rosenblatt, Dr. Felicia Freier (Rauch), Dr. Shapira, Dr. Bella Boymovich (Shechtman), Prof. Dr. Libby Schaerf, Dr. Plotnik Jr., Dr. Gideon Raff, Dr. Lika Osherovich, Dr. Lika Pekillis, Dr. Anita Pekillis, Dr. Lucy Shulsohn, Dr. Herr Boerer (Weissberg), Dr. Jetti Alteresko (Huebner), Dr. Martin, Dr. Moskowici [already listed here!], Dr. Menashe Dolberg, Dr. Greta Kahn, Dr. Rudy Lupovici, Dr. Claris Bernstein and others.

These doctors were in all fields of medicine: Internists, gynecologists, ear-nose-throat, radiologists, dermatologists, anesthesiologists, etc. After World War II, students from the faculties, who signed up for emigration (Aliyah), including Dori Herrer, Zwi Hoch, and Sonia Haas, were expelled.

Dr. Bruno Hart and Dr. Woucher moved to Suceava from 1940 to 1941, but did not work in the profession. After 1945, Dr. Bernhard Friedel of Kimpolung, Dr. Berehnson Moisey and Dr. Aaron Bessler worked briefly as military physicians. Dr. Ernest Hirschhorn of Rădăuţi worked In the sanitary department in Suceava Province. In 1960s, Dr. Berthold Merdler worked as deputy chief physician. Dr. Boxbaum (ENT) would also come for consultation and surgeries in his field.

Noteworthy as nurses, Sonia Haas and Gita Wagner who worked at the hospital in Suceava. During communist regime, the hospital had only two Jewish employees: Jean Tennenhaus, administrative director and Anuse Berkovici, an accountant. Before World War I, the city midwife was Brambier, and until after World War II, the midwife was Nossig.

Berntal, H. Schwerberg, Kahn, Moore, Genzler, Gropper and Mrs. Frume worked as dental technicians.

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During communist regime, Dr. Ludwig Schaeffer, Dr. Avraham Plotnik and Julius Pollakman were sentenced to prison as suspects for holding foreign currency and/or gold.

Jewish doctors born in Suceava and the surrounding area who did not work in Suceava: Worked in Israel: Dr. Robert Ostfeld, Dr. Yaakov Berntal (formerly in Bucharest), Dr. Reuven Shaeffer (from Burdujeni, previously worked at Timișoara), Dr. Phavus Kahn (formerly in Bucharest), Dr. Meir Carmon (Croitoru), Dr. Mia Carmon (Zelig), Dr. Menaḥem Eidinger (previously in Timișoara).

Worked in France: Dr. Friedel Koren, Dr. Carla Koren (Hellmann), Dr. Salo Keren, Dr. David Libel, Dr. Adolf Rosner (perished at Auschwitz), Dr. Joseph (Fred) Fuhrer, Dr. Avraham Wexler (from Burdujeni). Nathan Remmer's daughter, Seraphina (Sarah) Remer, born in 1900, studied medicine in Vienna and served as a doctor there until 1936, when she died when her son was born.

Dr. Gerhard Margolis-Kerner worked in the USSR, Dr. Aronovici and Dr. Makitra in Vienna.

Dr. Wagner, Dr. Aronovici and his wife, Dr. Aronovici-Gote, committed suicide during the Holocaust.

 

Pharmacists

Before World War I, there were three pharmacies in Suceava: Weingarten, Bishop and Kaba; Brilliant in Iţcani and Brader in Burdujeni. Jewish pharmacists worked in Weingarten's pharmacy: Paula Berental: (Denker), Meir, and Schieber (Frum) was an assistant. S

chwerberg, Bruno Spielman (exterminated in the Holocaust) and Pinni Sperber worked in non-Jewish-owned pharmacies. Berta Bessler worked in Kaba's pharmacy. A

fter returning from the Holocaust, there were additional Jewish-owned pharmacies in the city: Etty and Amelia Brillant who moved from Iţcani to Suceava; pharmacies belonging to Pinni Koerner (Sperber) Riczker (Frum), Kimmelman-Knobler, Berta Bessler, Zwilling (Burchis).

In 1948, all the pharmacies were nationalized and pharmacists became state employees. Pharmacist Berinzon was employed at the city hospital under Pharmacist Amelia Brillant's management. Pharmacist Zwilling (Burchis) was the manager of the Polyclinic pharmacy.

In the end, almost all of them emigrated (Aliya) to Israel.

 

Lawyers

Since the Jewish People were expelled from their country and dispersed to all corners of the world, they suffered everywhere and almost constantly from harsh decrees, persecution, oppression, discrimination, and antisemitism that have sometimes reached terrible heights such as expulsions, pogroms, conversion, and the destruction of a third of the Jewish People during the Holocaust. The supreme moral value of Judaism (Deut. 16:20), was not applied to the Jews, and although

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the Christian world, in which most of the Jewish People lived, declares its faith in the Torah, besides the “New Testament,” Law and a fair trial were not recognized by its legal systems. This bleak situation did not pass by the Jews of Suceava either.

Several different periods can be observed in terms of the attitude of the judicial systems to Jews:

The period of governors in Moldova until 1774; the Austrian period, 1775-1918; the period between the two World Wars 1918-1941; and the last one after returning from deportation and the Communist regime. In the years following the Communist era, there were hardly any Jews working in the judicial system.

Until 1774, trials in the Jewish communities were conducted according to the Turkish model. Ḥacham Bashi (Basha is Head/Leader in Turkish) was the Chief Rabbi of the Ottoman Empire. In 1839, the authorities approved the position of the first Ḥacham Bashi as the representative of the authorities of the congregation in Constantinople, and then in other cities, including Jerusalem.

Ḥacham Bashi was the representative of the authorities to the congregation. He judged religious issues, collected taxes, and appointed rabbis for the small communities. However, even then, during the 17th-19th centuries, Jews preferred to resolve disputes between themselves without applying to the official courts. They often turned to a rabbi who helped settle the differences because by his authority, everything would be resolved at his command/say-so.

On the other hand, those who appeared before the courts were enjoined to swear by the Jewish oath, more judaico, humiliating and insulting. This oath was first required during the reign of Prince Grigore Ghica (1739-1741) and canceled in Romania in 1912.

In the Austrian period, that is, from 1775 to 1867, when the law granting equal rights to all residents came into force, few students from Suceava studied at the Vienna Faculty of Law. Afterward, especially after 1875, a Faculty of Law was founded at the University of Czernowitz, a large number of students applied to the faculties in Vienna and Czernowitz.

The youth's desire to study law stemmed from the need to know the laws in order to stand before the judicial systems as people who are proficient in all the laws, thus more successfully protecting themselves and their families. After all, justice has always been a principle of the utmost importance in Jewish tradition. It is no wonder then, that the percentage of Jewish students in the Faculty of Law in Czernowitz toward the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century ranged from 30%-40% of all students. They were fluent in German, the language of study, since they also learned it in high school; during the tenure of Emperor Franz Josef I (1830-1916), it became a native language in many Jewish families.

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The Jewish lawyers were judges or held senior positions in the municipalities of Suceava and Iţcani; were bank managers and activists in the Jewish community, Zionist organizations and various [political] parties.

After the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bucovina was transferred to Romania and the official language was Romanian in all institutions. Many lawyers were not proficient in this language, and were not very enthusiastically accepted to work. Still, because of a clause in the peace treaty with Romania, a number of judges from Austria remained in their positions as before.

The atmosphere at the Faculty of Law in Czernowitz was hostile to Jewish students. In outbreaks of violence between Romanian and Jewish students, things reached the point of official expulsion of Jewish students from the faculty and Jewish lawyers from the Bar. The number of students from Suceava declined because they were not integrated into state institutions. Two years before the deportation, no Jews were accepted at the Faculty [of Law].

In the period after Transnistria, those who survived and returned, were accorded all the rights and were able to engage in their profession. The [Romanian] Bar Association accepted all the returnees, and Jewish jurists were given positions as attorneys, judges, etc. And yet most of them, young and old alike, aspired to emigrate to Israel. Today, there is only one lawyer, Carl Shore, left in Suceava.

 

Below is a list of jurists from Suceava and the surrounding area:

Mendel Hirschel, who lived in the 18th century. Dr. Adolf Gabor, Zionist leader, attended one Zionist Congress, died in Shargorod.
Dr. Baruch Schaffer, Chairman of the Social Democratic Party and Deputy Mayor of Suceava in 1907/8. Dr. Adolf Hellman, Mayor of Iţcani and chairman of the city's Jewish community from 1928 to 1941.
Dr. Walter Rohrlich-Horowitz, second deputy mayor of Suceava. Dr. Yosef Goldstein, mayor of Iţcani.
Dr. Meir Teich, Chairman of the Jewish community and urban adviser, chairman of the Shargorod Ghetto. Dr. L. Bogen, city consultant.
Dr. Ludwag Dr. Heinrich Lupul, municipal consultant, chairman of the Jewish community, director of the Ostbank.
Dr. Haas Dr. Erich Lupul
Dr. Nathan Wijnipolski, chairman of the Revisionist Zionists in Suceava. Dr. Johann Lupul
Dr. Avraham Shapira, shot in Transnistria. Dr. Wilhelm Lupul
Dr. Adolf Finkler Dr. Foerster
Dr. Heinrich Rohrlich-Horowitz died in Shargorod. Dr. Levi, Judge.
Dr. Joseph Ellenbogen, died in London in 1960. Dr. Geller, Judge, was reinstated a few months after the deportation.
Dr. Shimon Holdengreber Dr. Hilsenrat
Dr. ḥaim Kupferberg, chairman of the Jewish community, 1946-1958, and Zionist leader. Dr. Goldschlag
Dr. Adolf Wagner Dr. Hausvater
Dr. Phavus Tottenauer Dr. Tzentner, Judge.
Dr. Yosef Halpern, principal of the Jewish High School in the 1920s. Dr. Hoffmann
Dr. Shaul Klueger Adv. Yosef Kaufman, interim chairman of the Jewish community.
Dr. Mankes Adv. Lucian Salomovich.
Dr. Yosef Rohrlich Adv. Lazar Goldberg
Dr. Peretz Strominger Adv. Netta Goldberg, Judge.
Dr. Wolf Schaerf, Yiddish culture activist. Adv. Ruckenstein
Dr. Julius Shore, Social Democrat activist. Adv. Vogel
Dr. Emil Koerner, served as Attorney General Adv. Julius Hecht, Judge.
Dr. Leib Adv. Moskowici, Attorney.
Dr. Pressler Adv. Clara Zlochiver, Judge.
Dr. Taussig Adv. Philip Berkovici, deputy mayor of Suceava, was sent to forced labor.
Dr. Rosenfeld Adv. Isidor Rudich
Dr. Yisrael (Jon) Rachmut, a non-member of the Romanian Academy. Adv. Fritz Stecher
Dr. Max Rosenstrauch, Chairman of the Community in Surina. Adv. Weidenfeld
Dr. Linker Adv. Greenwald
Dr. Emanuel Scherzer

Jan (Jacob) Ramer, son of Nathan. Born in 1904, studied law in Vienna, worked as a jurist in Bucharest, and from 1960, until his death, in Haifa.

 

Transportation as a source
of income for Jews of Suceava

According to information from Dr. A. Weitmann obm

Before World War I (1914-1918), the rail reached the heart of Suceava on the railway track built during the reign of Kaiser Franz Josef I (1830-1916) {source has incorrectly 1820]. The city had two stations, one near the barracks building, and the next and final one close to the District Court building (Tribunal) near the cattle market. During the war, the bridges and railways on the Suceava River were blown up, and since then the train did not reach the city. After the unification of Bucovina and Moldova, the closest stations to the city of Suceava remain the one in Burdujeni and the one in Iţcani. The end of rail transportation to Suceava presented a golden opportunity for some Jews to find an additional source of income.

And so, at the beginning of the second decade of the twentieth century, dozens of families engaged in transporting people and goods. Samson Hellman's family and their son loaded bags or crates from warehouses onto their backs, placed them on carts, and unloaded them at both train stations. The larger wagons belonged to the Merdinger family and the three Schloim brothers. Wagner made smaller transports.

Another distinguished group in the industry was that of the Fuhrer (Zohar) families. The most famous among them were the Leib brothers, Motel, Moshe and Fischel. They hauled with large carts and always had two horses harnessed to them. They transported merchandise and grains to mountainous areas of Kimpolung and Vatra-Dornei, and from there returned with oak bark (rich in tannin) material used in the leather industry in both tanneries owned by the Sternlieb brothers and Moshe Wolf Koerner, as well as at Roessler's factory in Iţcani. They left every Monday in a convoy and returned on Thursday evening.

After the end of First World War I, they began transporting people in carriages with two horses from and to Suceava from the two Burdujeni and Iţcani train stations, about 3-4 km from the city center. There were no private vehicles, taxis, or buses between the two wars. Carriages and teamsters, dozens in number, had a permanent stop in the city center. There was also a small saloon owned by H. Reif. One could get a light meal there. There was also an oat warehouse that belonged to Merdler. The teamsters, who were almost all Jews, all knew the train schedule, received reservations, and arrived to take passengers from their homes. They worked around the clock, but never on holidays. Some of them hired a Christian teamster for those days.

The best-known teamsters were the Meyer brothers, Rosenblatt, Schloim Ungarish and Holtzberg. Beyond trips to both stations, there were also trips within the city or from the city to the towns

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of Burdujeni and Iţcani. Usually, doctors came to the patients in carriages and sometimes they traveled just through the major streets to impress and show their importance. Besides the two-horse carriage that was considered “First class” there were also those with one horse that teamster Vlad, nicknamed Caiafa, had. The ride was less comfortable and cheaper; “Second class.”

Beyond these means of transportation, there were also other motorized vehicles, such as the trucks and small vehicles owned by Wilhelm Giter, Getzl Goldschmidt and Felig. After the war, the teamsters that survived the Holocaust returned to their former occupation, but only for a short transition period. Everyone was preparing for Aliya (emigration to Israel); buses also began transporting passengers from the train stations.

Even before the World War, there was a kind of small bus that left Suceava for nearby cities. The last remaining teamster in Suceava was Shimon Holtzberg. After him came the end of transport in Suceava, a business that provided a livelihood to no less than Jewish 30 families.

Jewish professionals and business owners
in Suceava & Surroundings

Translations by Judy Petersen

Surname First names Type/branch Founded in
EDELSTEIN Wilhelm Furniture 1908
AUSLAENDER Josef Grocery and flour 1909
ALBRECHT Samuel / Ernestina Haberdashery 1904
ENGLER Sigmund Fabrics, textiles 1901
ANSCHEL Rosa / Moritz Haberdashery, sewing supplies 1905
ASPLER Chaim Grocery 1909
ARONOWICZ Perl / Moses Yitzchak Fabrics, textiles 1913
BOGEN Elias Fabrics, textiles 1910
BOGEN Mendel Fabrics, textiles 1874
BEINER Hermann Stationery 1874
BRUMBERG Salomon / Cilli Shoes 1912
GEWOELB Samuel Grocery 1854
GUTTMANN Hinde / Jacob Grocery 1896
GOLDBERG AND ROESSLER Leather 1899
GOLDSTEIN Cilli Glass, China 1890
GROPPER Leiser Fabric 1907
GAERTNER Abraham Leather 1908
DERMER Hermann Hermann 1905
DRAPPEL Mali / Benjamin Grocery, Deli 1900
HOLDENGRAEBER Feibel Fabric 1910
HOPPMEIER Jetti Haberdashery 1902
HOPPMEIER Noah Deli 1906
HILSENRATH Moses Guest House 1874
WOLF Ferdinand Shoemaker 1902
WASSERMANN Mechel Grocery 1903
SILBERBUSCH Regina / Hermann Fabric 1908
TENNENHAUS Juedl Glass, China 1878
TENNENHAUS Juedl Leather 1911
LECHNER Fischel Grocery 1889
LANGER Pepi / Shabse Paint 1889
MEHLER Basie Haberdashery 1894
MEHLER Leiser Haberdashery 1897
MARGULIES Gedalje Grocery 1912
SIGALL Wolf Grocery 1885
SARAFINSTER Jancu / Ernestina Fabric 1912
POLLAK Aron Shimon / Honora Fashion items 1912
POLLAK Max Fashion 1908
FLICKER Dawid Tailor 1899
FALLENBAUM Majer Fabric 1911
FRAENKEL Markus Haberdashery 1872
KAMIL Sali / Yeshayahu (Schaje) Haberdashery 1907
KERN Leib / Heni Haberdashery 1895
KARNIOL Dawid Working clothes 1905
KOERNER Abraham Leather 1898
KOERNER Moses Wolf Leather 1901
REDLICH Naftali / Blime Shoes 1907
ROSENSTOCK Majer Fabric 1887
ROSENSTEIN Josef-Chaim / Anna Grocery 1899
ROSENSTEIN Meir / Anna Fabric 1910
ROSTOKER Hersch Grocery 1906
ROHRLICH Sigmund / Honora Furniture 1912
REINER Nathan Restaurant 1908
REIF Josef Grocery 1910
SCHWARZ Joel-David Haberdashery 1912
STERNBERG Karl Drugstore 1898
STERNLIEB AND REICHER Leather and shoes 1906
SCHAECHTER Abraham Haberdashery 1912
SPIEGEL Jacob / Sara Fabric 1912
SPERBER Aron Leib Fabric and shoes 1911

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Businesses and workshops between the two world wars

Translations by Judy Petersen

Surname First names Type/branch
AVRAHAM Haim Grains
EDELSTEIN Wilhelm Furniture
ARONOVICI Moshe Fabric
OBERWEGER Shmuel Household goods
OSTFELD Iron
OSTERSETZER Fruit
ORENSTEIN Grocery
EIDINGER Broker
EISENBERG Isidor Bank manager
ITSIK Mendel Bakery
ITZCOVICI Household goods
ALTMAN Transporter
ALTMAN Plaster, whitewash
ALTMAN Accountant
ELLENBOGEN Zoniu Haberdashery
ALTER Baruch Wholesale wines
ALTER Josef Wholesale wines
ANDERMAN Grocery

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Surname First names Type/branch Founded in
ANSCHEL Leo Haberdashery
ASPLER Israel Leib Tavern
ASCHKENASI Watchmaker and Jeweler
BOGEN Eliahu Fabric
BOGEN Moshe Tavern
BOIMAN Haim Buttons and Haberdashery
BOLOKSCHENER Tinsmith
BITTERFELD Barber
BEINER Jakov Stationery and printing
BLAUSTEIN Tailor
BLUMENFELD Bread seller
BLUMENFELD Jakov Deli
BLEI Wolf Upholsterer
BLICKSTEIN Tinsmith
BESSLER Berta Pharmacist
BESSLER Josef Butcher shop
BESSLER Shalom Accountant
BACAL Nahum Grocery
BECKER Tobacco
BECKER Hersch Radio
BECKER Shaya Radio
BAER Tobacco and postage stamps
BRAUNSTEIN Gravedigger
BARBER Libuka Estate owner
BARDICH Wolf Tailor
BRUMBERG Salomon Shoes
BRUCKER David Grocery
BREIER Beer factory
BREN Tinsmith
BARAN Idel Fabric
BRENDER Bakery
BERKOVICI Confectioner/pastries
GOTT Grains
GOTT Avraham Soap manufacturer

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Surname First names Type/branch Founded in
GUTWALD Tavern
GOTTLIEB Grains
GOTLIEB Leizer Restaurant
GUTMAN Hinda Grocery
GOLDHAMMER Money changer
GOLDENBERG Yosef Shmil Soda water manufacturer
GOLDENBERG Muniu Electrical goods
GOLDSCHMIDT Giza cab owner
GITER Beer agency
GITER Wilhelm Truck transport
GLASER Bruno Musician
GLASER Berke Tombstones
GLIK David Leib Iron
GLUECKMAN Yosef Grains
GLUECKMAN Leon Fabric
GLUECKMAN Max Musician
GENZER Butcher shop
GEFNER Benzion Grocery
GRONICH Meir Haberdashery
GROSS Barber
GROSS Meir Kiosk
GROSSMAN Glazier
GROSSMAN Sami Scales repair
GROSSMAN Karl Plumber
GROPPER Fabric
GERTLER Nahum Fabric
GARTENLAUB Anschel Restaurant and Hotel
GRUENBERG Tavern
GRUENBERG Tinsmith
GRUENBERG Eizik Soda water manufacturer
GRELLER Confectioner/pastries
DOHORINCIANU Shoemaker
DEUTSCH Baruch Grocery
DEUTSCH Norbert Plumber

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Surname First names Type/branch Founded in
DIAMANT Soda water manufacturer
DICKMAN Iron
DICKMAN Iron
DICKMAN Itshak Housewares
DICKMAN Motel Clothing
DALFEN Movie theater
DALFEN Daniel Stationery
DENKER Berl Bakery
DERMER Cafe
DERMER Kiosk
DRAPEL Hilik Kiosk
DRAPEL Mali Confectioner/pastries
HAUSER Hersch Flour
HAUSER Welvel Flour
HAUSER Moshe Iron
HAUSVATER Grocery
HAAS Haim Wine
HAAS Jankel Lumber owner
HAAS Leibu Wine
HUBEN Tavern
HOCH Ita Leah
HOLDENGRAEBER Fabel Fabric
HOLLINGER Dressmaker
HOPMEIER Huge Wool
HOPMEIER Avraham Iron
HOPMEIER Noah Iron
HURTIG Leib Tailor
HURTIG Mendel Tinsmith
HUEBNER Alter Wine
HUEBNER Michael Fabric
HUEBNER Shimson Flour
HECHT Israel Shoemaking and leather goods
HECHT Citrus, fruits
HALTER Shaya Lumber

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Surname First names Type/branch Founded in
HELTSER Baruch Cattle dealer
HELLER Books and Stationery
HELLER Socks manufacturer
HERLING Mendel Used goods
HERMANN Wholesale wines
HERMANN Watchmaker
HERMANN Grocery and bakery
HERZBERG Moshe Tavern
HOERER Martin Cosmetics store
WAGNER Hersch and Mendel Restaurant and tavern
WAGNER Feivel Confectioner/pastries
WAGNER Shmelke Tavern
WEIDENFELD Mendel Cabinet maker
WEITMAN Susia Grains, Flour mill
WEITMAN Leibush Grains, Flour mill
WEISBROD Hersh Grocery
WINKLER Scales repair
WALDMAN Baruch Shoemaker
WALZER Litman Restaurant
WASSERMAN Flour
WASSERMAN Michael Grocery
WASSERMAN Mordehai Tavern
WACHS Jerahmiel Stationery
VIJNITSER Natan Neta Fabric
WEIDENFELD Eliahu Fish
WEIDENFELD Susia Paint
WEIDENFELD Feivel Eggs
WEIN Blankets
WEINBERGER Ani Women's fashions
WEINGARTEN Pharmacy
WEINTRAUB Itzik Soda water manufacturer
WEINER Anna Stationery, books
WEISSBERG Bezalel Religious items
WEISSLER Shoes

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Surname First names Type/branch Founded in
WEISSMAN Jakob Tavern
WINTER Meir Grains
WASSER Nuts
WECHSLER Moritz Clothing
SOMMER Soda water manufacturer
SIBNER Aba Grocery
SILBER Gavriel Glazier
SINGER Baruch watchmaker
SINGER Jakov Grocery
SINGER Moshe Shoes
SLOTCHOVER Baruch Tavern
SALZMAN Fabric
SANDBERG Mendel Dairy products
HAIMOVICI House painter
HASKALOVICI House painter
HASKALOVICI Watchmaker
TENNENBAUM Avraham Aron Tobacco
TENNENHAUS Avraham Household and used goods
TENNENHAUS Israel Fabric
TENNENHAUS Itse Wines
TENNENHAUS Idel Shoes
TENNENHAUS Marcus Grocery
TENNENHAUS Moshe Idel Used goods
TEPPER Cattle dealer
TRAUNER Tailor
TRUPP Simon Landlord
TARTER Josef Grocery
JAEGER Tavern
JOCHEN Cafe
JANKU Fruit
ISRAEL Tailor
KOHN Sausage seller
KOHN Simon Fish preserves
KASVAN Fabric

[Page 87]

Surname First names Type/branch Founded in
LAUER Pinhas Tailor
LAUER Babi Flowers
LOEBEL Grocery
LADEN Confectioner/pastries
LEDERMAN Shalom Dairy products
LUPU Fishel Estate owner
LAZAROVICI Tailor
LAZAROVICI Tailor
LEIBOVICI Pretzel seller
LEINBURD Nahum Fabric
LICHTENBAUM Seamstress
LIKVORNIK Shlomo Grains
LECHNER Tinsmith
LECHNER Adolf Grocery
LANGER Shaya Iron
LANDAU David Fabric
LANDAU Saddler; cobbler
LESNER Mendel Grains
LACHS David Grocery
LERNER Bakery
LERNER Jacov Sugar manufacturer
LERNER Klara Seamstress
MEIR (brothers) wagon owner
MECHLOVICI Grocery
MICHALOVICI Gershon Fabric
MELZER Itsik Pretzel seller
MELLER Haskel Grains
MESSING Tavern
MAKITRA Traveling salesman
MARGEL Pretzel seller
MERDINGER Josef Delivery; transport
MERDINGER Sami Delivery; transport
MERLAUB Bibi Tavern
MERLAUB Leibutza Cattle dealer
MERLING Chaim Grocery

[Page 88]

Surname First names Type/branch Founded in
MERLING Moshe Delivery; transport
NOSSIG Painter
SALDINGER Pottery
SALTER Grocery
SALPETER Paint
SMOTRICI Haberdashery
VOGEL Cafe
POLAK Max Fashion, shoes
POPIK Moshe Shoemaker
FUCHS Benzion and sons Grocery
FUCHS Daniel and Hersch Grocery
FUCHS Dairy products
FUCHS Grains
FUHRER Tavern
FUHRER Seamstress
FUHRER Grocery
FUHRER Avraham Grains
FUHRER Mendel Dairy products
FUHRER Max Hotel
PISEM Meir Flour mill
FEIGENBAUM Itsik Butcher shop
FISCHLER Cattle dealer
FISCHLER Neta Cattle dealer
FISCHLER Rosa Women's clothing
FLIGMAN Malzi Vegetables
FELIG cab owner
FELIG Mendel Drugstore
FALIK Josef Restaurant
FALLENBAUM Watchmaker
FALLENBAUM Salman Fabric
FALLENBAUM Meir Fabric
PELZ Ludwig Tombstones
FELLER Tinsmith
FELLER Transport, hauling

[Page 89]

Surname First names Type/branch Founded in
FREIBERG Barber
FREIER Shlomo Used household goods
FRUELING Henzel Grocery
FRENKEL Benzion Liquor
FRENKEL Baruch Grocery
FRENKEL Leo Haberdashery
FRENKEL Meir Liquor
ZWIEBEL Avraham Candy manufacturer
ZWIEBEL Kopel Candy manufacturer
ZWECKER Heinrich Haberdashery
ZWERLING Shimshon Socks manufacturer
ZIMBLER Muniu Stationery and musical instruments
ZIERING Lingerie and underwear
KAHAN Cafe
KUBERT Bakery
KOLBER Soda water manufacturer
KOLBER Arnold Grocery
KOSTINER Nehemia Grains
KOSTINER Shlomo Grains
KOSTINER Shlomo Tavern
KIMMEL Jehiel Grains
KIRMEIER Cafe
KLIGER Benzion Watchmaker
KLIGER Selig Flour mill
KLEIN Milliner
KLIER Kiosk
KLIFFER Grains
KLAR Blankets
KAMFER Avraham Aryeh (Zoniu) Leather shop
KNOBLER Avraham Grocery
KOENIG Berl Tavern
KREISEL Butcher shop
KRELL Machla Grocery
KRAMS Carpenter

[Page 90]

Surname First names Type/branch Founded in
KRAEMER Haim Grocery
KRAEMER Haim Fabric
KERN Bernhardt Shoes
KERN Sender Shoes
KOERNER Moshe Wolf Leather
RAUCH Berl Iron
RAUCH Shaike Radio repairman
REDLICH Haberdashery
RUDICH Lime
RUDICH Bath attendant
RUDICH Spinning mill
RUDICH Berl Grains
RUDICH Selig Grains
RUDICH Yente Grocery
RUDICH Moshe wagon owner
ROSENBLATT Hersch, Leib Grains
ROSENBLATT Reuven Tailor
ROSENBERG Tobacco and stamps
ROSENBERG Furniture carpenter
ROSENBERG Soap manufacturer
ROSENBERG Isiu Lottery and printing
ROSENHECK Sali Haberdashery
ROSENFELD Eggs
ROSENZWEIG Tailor
ROSNER Egg preservation
ROSNER Josef Lumber
ROSNER Simcha Grains
ROSENSTEIN Yosef, Haim Grocery
ROSENSTEIN Meir Fabric
ROT Sali Milliner
ROTKOPF Eisik Lingerie
ROTSTEIN Seamstress
RUM Haskel Tavern
RONES Eggs and movie theater

[Page 91]

Surname First names Type/branch Founded in
RUCKENSTEIN Cattle dealer
RUCKENSTEIN Baruch-Shalom Grains
ROHRLICH Hersch Transport, delivery
ROHRLICH Josef Kiosk
RIBNER Haim Ira Bakery
REICHER Usher Tavern
REICHER Yaakov Leather
REIF Haim Tavern
REIF Josef Grocery
RACHMUT Grocery
RACHMUT Leizer Flour mill
RACHMUT Itzik Grains
RAMER Natan (and son Siegfried) Deli and restaurant
SCHAUER Laundry and dry cleaning
SCHAUER Moshe Electrical goods
SCHAUER Natan Laundry and dry cleaning
SCHWARZ Tailor
SCHWARZ Tinsmith
SCHWARZ Welvel Fabric
SCHWARZ Yoel David Fish
SCHWARZ Meir Fabric
SCHWARZ Melech Tinsmith
SCHWARZ Zisa Grocery
SCHULZ Tailor
SCHUZMAN Tailor
STURM Tailor
STETTNER Simcha Shoemaking and leather
STEIN Butcher shop
STEIN Spinning mill
STEIN Michael Fabric printing
STROMINGER David Tailor
STROMINGER Hersh Leib Carpenter
STROMINGER Haim Srul Carpenter
STROMINGER Loniu Tailor
STERNBERG Grains

[Page 92]

Surname First names Type/branch Founded in
STERNLIEB Tuvia Leather
STERNLIEB Moshe Leather
STERNLIEB Pini Leather and tanning
STERNLIEB Reuven Leather
STERNLIEB Shlomo Leather
STERNLIEB Shimon Leib Leather
SCHIEBER Mendel Clothing
SCHEINDEL Avraham Fabric
SCHIFFER Gusta Household utensils
SCHAECHTER Leather
SCHAECHTER Aharon Grocery
SCHLOIM Julius Truck owner
SCHLOIM Bakery
SCHLOIM Jehiel Furrier
SCHALIT Painter
SCHLAEFER Isidor Trees
SCHLAEFER Moshke Trees
SCHMELZER Bonia Tavern
SCHMELZER Janku Fabric
SCHMERZLER Kiosk
SPIEGEL Tailor
SPIEGEL Candies
SPIELMAN Haim Carpenter
SCHAPIRA Grocery
SCHAPIRA Abisch Traveling salesman
SCHAPIRA Itsik Hersh Shoemaking and leather
SCHAPIRA Benjamin Grocery
SCHAPIRA Wolf Tavern
SCHAPIRA Tuzel Fabric
SCHAPIRA Nahman Tavern
SCHAPIRA Srul Tavern
SCHAPIRA Shlomo Traveling salesman
SHAPSA Laundry and dry cleaning

[Page 93]

Surname First names Type/branch Founded in
SPERBER Tavern
SPERBER Aharon Leib Clothing
SPERBER Hersch Estate owner
SCHAFRAN Mordehai , Leib Restaurant
SCHERZER Tailor
SCHERZER Bath attendant
SCHERZER Fatske Furniture carpenter

Businesses and workshops in Iţcani

Translations by Judy Petersen

Surname First names Type/branch
BRILLANT Pharmacy
BERNTHAL David Bakery
BERNTHAL Feivel Store
TILLINGER Store
WALD Tailor
LUPOVICI Wagon driver
MERLAUB Merchant
HERMANN Peretz Department store
ZOLLINGER Store
KOLBER Factory
ROSENFELD Tavern
RUCKENSTEIN Kiosk
ROESSLER Jacob Leather goods factory
RAKOVER Store in the train station
SCHULZER Shoemaker
SCHULZER Tailor
STROMINGER Berl Factory
SCHAECHTER Ritual slaughterer
SCHLAEFER Store

[Page 94]

Businesses and workshops in Burdujeni

Translations by Judy Petersen

Surname First names Type/branch
AVERBUCH Yehoshua Journalist
AVERBUCH Josef Grocery
ABRAMOVICI Nisan Butcher shop
OSTRIOL Bakery
EIDINGER Grocery
ANSCHELSOHN Yehuda Leather factory
EFFERMANN Grocery
ARONOVICI Fabric
BLEIMANN Moshe-Chaim Haberdashery
BRUEGER David Bakery
BRILL Josef Candle manufacturer
BARASCH Josef Lumber
GRUENBERG Zalik Cantor
GRUENBERG Schimon Accountant
HOROWITZ Wines
HALPERIN Zwi Fabric
HERSHCOVICI Duge Flour
HERSHCOVICI Mendel Tavern
WOLF Josef Flour
WECHSLER Reuven Tavern
SELIG Store
SELZER Store
TINARD Grocery
TREISTER Zwi Fabric
IEPURE Hermann Movie theater owner
IEPURE Marcel Movie theater owner
IEPURE Izu Shoe supplies
LUPOVICI Avram Bakery
LUPOVICI Idel Tavern
LAZAROVICI Meir Dairy farm
LITMANN Ahron Meat
MEIROVICI Jewelry and watches

[Page 95]

Surname First names Type/branch
MANASH Avram Shoe supplies
MANASH Eli Shoe supplies
MANASH Jancu Shoe supplies
MANASH Moshe Accountant
MARILUS Shalom Lumber
NACHMANOVICI Zigu Accountant
SEGAL Hermann Poultry exporter
SEGAL Josef Grocery
SEGAL Leopold Haberdashery
SEGAL Moshe Fabric
PIZEM Moshe Flour mill
FISCHEL Shlomo Meat
ZIGELNIK Grocery
CERNAUTZEANU Haberdashery
KAUFMANN Shlomo Tavern
CURELARU Itzik Grocery
KANDEL David Fabric
KANDEL Moshe Clothing supplies
KANDEL Zwi Fabric
RAUSER Marcel Insurance agent
RABINOVICI Itzik Accountant
ROSNER Shlomo Lumber
RIEGLER Chaim Bakery
RAPAPORT Pincu Fabric
SHIMINITZ Simcha Grocery

[Page 96]

The Holocaust
The Summer 1940 Pogroms

by Meir Kostiner as related by Jan Anshel

Translated by Moshe Devere

In the summer of 1940, the Red Army entered Bucovina and Bessarabia. The Romanian army retreated from these areas without a fight. The antisemitic incitement before the withdrawal; the presence in the ranks of the Romanian army of Cuza and Codreanu people; the hatred and frustration, all led to the brutal murder of Jews. The atrocities did not pass over the Jews of Schotz and especially the Jews of the surrounding area.

In July 1940, in the village of Gurani, Moshe Rudich was shot in his farmyard by a retreating Romanian soldier. Local Fascists, lead by a priest named Hotinciano took over the house and the farm and did not even let the widow take some personal possessions.

In Comăneşti, Rabbi Leib Schaechter and his two sons were shot after they were severely tortured and their bodies thrown under a bridge on the outskirts of the village. The Rabbi's wife was shot dead on Friday evening in her home while lighting Shabbat candles. The Suessman brothers who were traveling to report to their military units were shot dead and their bodies were thrown off the speeding train. Shloime Merdler was killed by a soldier who bayoneted him in the back of his neck.

In the village of Costîna, a Jewish family welcomed the withdrawn soldiers, handed out bread, cakes and cigarettes, but in exchange for the good treatment, 18 soldiers, led by their commander, stabbed the landlord, Sucher Laks with their bayonets. His body was tied to a horse, dragged about 3 km through the village streets and used for target practice. The corpse was found in a forest near the village, riddled with 20 bullets.

A terrible atrocity took place in the village of Zahareşti, where only one Jew lived. A military unit, the 86th Infantry Brigade, arrived in its retreat from northern Bucovina. Its commander, Major Valeriu Carp, a Jew-bloodthirsty sadist who began his exploits back in the Strozhinz area, where his soldiers killed Jews they met along the way. He was not satisfied with the one Jew in the place and ordered the gathering of a larger group of Jews from the surrounding area. Jews from Ilieşti, Vornychany, Voykova and Bănila

[Page 97]

were collected, including Leib Stekel, Ira Lupovici, Nutza Druckman, Heller, Bartfeld, Herrer and more, a total of 36 men and one woman. They were all brutally tortured. Some had fingers, ears, and tongues cut off while still alive. The victims were arranged on the edge of a pit and a firing squad opened fire on them, knocking them into the pit. Some were already dead and others still alive. The cruel commander also ordered two Jewish soldiers, Freddy Dermer of Suceava, and another from Burdujeni, to be included in the firing squad. Karp's daughter also took part in the massacre and shot at hapless victims. The sadist's exploits ended with his order to throw a horse's carcass on top of their bodies. The martyrs were brought to Jewish burial tomb in January 1941 in the Schotz cemetery (see photo). Avraham Lupovici of Burdujeni, whose brother Ira was among the victims, was very active in the operation to bring the dead/fallen to Jewish burial. Ira Lupovici was the father of Shiko Lupovici, an activist in the Zionist Youth after the war.

 

Tombstone of the martyrs murdered in Zahareşti

 

Encouraged by the horrors perpetrated by retreating Romanian soldiers, the local gendarmes also took part in robbing and murdering Jews. In the village of Sherbovtsy, the gendarmes' commander,

[Page 98]

accompanied by a peasant from the village, broke into Shmil Geller's house, killed him and his wife Sali, as well as Leib Ellenbogen, who was staying with them, and dumped the bodies into a creek near the village. These bodies were later buried in the cemetery in Schotz. In the village of Goeşti, M. Huebner, his wife, son Yosef and four grandchildren were murdered by soldiers and local residents. The Wasserman brothers from Granitzni were murdered along with their nephew, who by chance was visiting them. And Nathan Sommer was murdered in Luizi Humorului.

The Jewish reservists who were traveling to report to their units were beaten and thrown from the trains. On July 4, 1940, 19 Jews were thrown from a speeding train between Dărmăneşti and Iţcani stations. The corpses were scattered along the railway tracks. The Suceava Community, headed by Dr. Meir Teich, took on the burden of secretly collecting the bodies and bringing them to Jewish burial.

Jews from the Suceava and Burdujeni communities were called upon to support 110 destitute Jews who were housed in sub-conditions in two rooms at the train station in Burdujeni. These Jews were supposed to cross the border into the Soviet Union according to the agreement, allowing their return. Many of them were killed when they were secretly transported at night through minefields or shot by the Soviet or Romanian border guards. In February 1941, 58 of them who survived were transferred to the Targo Zhiv camp.

 

Toward deportation

In March 1941, Gustav Richter arrived in Romania on behalf of Adolf Eichmann as an adviser to the Romanian government on Jewish affairs. On June 6, 1941, Hitler (may his name be blotted out) ordered Romanian dictator Ion Antonescu to resolve the Jewish problem. On October 8, 1941, a secret meeting was held in the Prefecture of Suceava in the presence of a German SS officer, presenting the order from Bucharest by Ion Antonescu for the expulsion of the Jews.

The chairman of the Suceava Community, Dr. Meir Teich, was called by the District Commissioner (Prefect) at 6 a.m. on October 9, 1941, to inform him of the deportation order. The order is also intended to intimidate the population by threatening to shoot anyone showing any signs of objection to the order, or anyone attempting to transfer ownership or property to Christians. After the Romanian and German army entered northern Bucovina and Bessarabia; according to Romanian Gendarmerie statistics, 118,847 Jews were deported. According to the Germans, the number of deportees, in the fall of 1942, reached 185,000, and according to the Romanians, 150,000.

The Jews of Southern Bucovina, including those from Suceava, Iţcani and Burdujeni, were ordered to prepare

[Page 99]

for deportation. Panic broke out among the Jews when they were notified about the deportation order by leaflets and drum thumping. Some family heads were absent from the city or were held hostage, and many had no money to buy food for even a day. All the funds held by the community were distributed among the poor. Before their departure, the deportees had to hand over all their valuables to the National Bank representative. In return, they received sums that had no relation to their true value. Contrary to the order and warning regarding the expected punishment, the Deputy District Commander, the military police chief, the police chief and the district officials received many objects for safekeeping.

Dr. Meir Teich asked to deposit the community archive and the residents' registry, but Port, the Armenian clerk replied: “You no longer need civilian certificates. You won't be returning here, and there you won't have much time for certificates.” Although the authorities granted his request to allow the sick, elderly and disabled to remain in the city, Colonel Zamfirescu also ordered them deported, saying: “I don't want any memory of the Jews left in the city.” He also tried to send the women who were married to Christians to the train, but the governor of Bucovina opposed their deportation. Thus, several Jewish women who intermarried remained, most of them childless, such as Hoffmann-Kinel, Bănăţeanu-Schläfer, Spurny-Kaufmann, Doroftei-Parola, Lechner-Litwinkevici. There was also one family in the province who intermarried, in Bosanci and Sf. Ilie.

The deportees' assets were sold at auction as abandoned properties by the Nationalization Center in the presence of officials from the district headquarters and the court. On October 9, 1941, the Jewish population was informed that they should report to the Burdujeni train station to prepare for the deportation. The Jews from Iţcani and Burdujeni were also ordered to report to the station.

Deportation of Jews to Transnistria
The Deportation Process

by Simcha Weissbuch
(according to Yad Vashem archival material)

Translated by Moshe Devere

The city was divided into three parts and announced that the deportation would take place over three days: on October 9, 10 and 11. Of the exiled souls, 3253 were from Suceava, to which were added those expelled in June 1940 from towns surrounding Suceava, and another 1634 expelled from Burdujeni. All that one was allowed, as hand luggage was warm clothing and food. At the time, the Jew Yitzchak (Itcha) Tennenhaus was admitted to the Hospital in Suceava in the Infectious Diseases ward with a diagnosis

[Page 100]

of typhus (Salmonella). Although his removal from the Infectious Diseases ward could also endanger the Christian population and the army, the hospital's director, Dr. Traian Bona, authorized him to be “released” to be deported along with the others. Also, the amputee, teamster Meyer, who suffered gangrene on the other leg, was not operated on and was also sent to share his fate with the others. Although the family took the trouble of having a Christian neighbor, also an amputee, look after him in the last days of his life, police officer Poruch brought him to the station. He died on the train en route to Czernowitz and his body was handed over to the Jewish community there for Jewish burial. The Jews were crammed into cattle cars, 40-50 people in each car. As the train moved out, German officers filmed the outgoing transport.

Shortly after the deportation, Mayor Ianu called a public meeting, in which he praised the expulsion, and praised the Germans and Antonescu. He expressed his gratitude for the city getting rid of the Jews. For his adherence to the mission, Hitler awarded him the Black Eagle Medal of Merit, and former Mayor Jauca said after the expulsion: “Finally, Suceava is free of Jews.” In the first two shipments, the deportees were robbed along the way by the soldiers and military policemen who escorted them, and some of them were even shot dead.

Those who were expelled on the first day particularly suffered, mostly from Iţcani and suburbs of Suceava, the poorest. They did not manage to plan ahead and paid for it with their lives. In one case, several Jews sank into the swamps. Adv. Speerer asked the gendarmes to let others help them and the elderly and the children, but he was shot dead in front of everyone. Most were sent across the Bug River and by spring 1942, many were shot by the Germans and Romanians, among them the H.L. Klueger family, Klueger, Leibovici, Tillinger and M. Hernis. Nearly 90% died because of typhus, starvation or froze to death. The third transport was better organized thanks to the commanders who accompanied it. The last chairman of the Jewish Community, Dr. Meir Teich was on this transport.

Some relate that it was suggested to him to go to Bucharest and be saved from deportation, but he refused. He himself claimed the authorities agreed he would stay for some time to deal with some complicated problems, but he preferred to share the fate of his family and community. Nevertheless, he was assured that he could leave his son Alexander Gideon, who was recovering in hospital from a serious illness, and then be sent to friends in Bucharest. This was eventually thwarted by Colonel Petre Zamfirescu. Dr. M. Teich's son died on August 15, 1943, in Shargorod at the age of 20, and his mother committed suicide. They were buried in the same coffin.

Zamfirescu decreed that everyone, including the sick and mentally ill, be deported. When Dr. M. Teich argued with him and claimed that infectious diseases would also endanger the population living along the route,

[Page 101]

Zamfirescu declared: “There will not be a trace of any Jew left.” After the war, in a trial held at the People's Court in 1945, the case was closed. Dr. M. Teich demanded a re-examination in the Court of Appeals. The last hearing took place only in 1949. He was sentenced to life in prison with hard labor.

The third transport arrived at the Volcineţ station on the evening of October 12, a half-hour from Ataky on the Dniester [River]. There they learned from a railway worker that the previous transports had been robbed on arrival in Ataky, and those who resisted were shot dead. Since the risk of robbery increased at night, Dr. Avraham Reicher, who along with Dr. M. Teich headed the transport, organized a bribe that helped keep them there overnight.

The deportees were removed from the cars that were moved onto a side-track; the soldiers beating them with batons and rifle butts. Heavy rains fell, the baggage was ruined and had to be thrown away. In the end, they got carts to transport the people and the rest of the baggage to Ataky. Some deportees became demented along the way, and some of the sick died. In Ataky they were housed in the ruined houses in the former Jewish quarter and on the walls found inscriptions such as “You who follow us, say Kaddish for the souls (Somebody and Somebody) who died in the sanctification of the Name”, or “This is where Somebody was murdered with all his family members.” Shlomo Brumberg and Yeshayahu Langer died in Ataky and were buried on the edge of the Dniester.

Community leaders got permission for Suceava Jews to remain in Ataky for a while. Many lay outdoors, while others huddled in the ruins. The peasants offered them bread and milk at exorbitant prices that most of them could not pay. In that time, they met with the leaders of communities expelled from other cities in Bucovina, and heard from them about the fate of the Jews who preceded them. One of the community leaders, Dr. A. Reicher, was granted permission to go to Mogilev and there prepare a place for the deportees. The next day, he returned with a promise, bought with money, that the deportees would be housed in places near Mogilev.

Before leaving for Mogilev, they had to convert their Romanian money into Rubles. One Ruble was exchanged for 40 Lei but after arriving in Mogilev, they exchange a Ruble for 6-8 Lei. Finally, they exchanged Rubles to Marks, 40 Rubles per Mark. Afterward, all their money was almost entirely lost. Some Romanian money was hidden by the deportees, thinking that in Transnistria they could convert it at a higher rate, and indeed, so it was. Before they left, they were carefully searched, and the officers took all the jewelry and money they found for themselves. Some was given to the policemen. When the inspection ended, the men were transferred to rafts on the Dniester River. The soldiers kept robbing the deportees by threatening them to push them into the water if they resisted.

When they arrived in Mogilev, they were placed in a separate building. The sick and dying were hospitalized in an old-age home.

[Page 102]

The Suceava Jews collected money from what they had managed to hide for this purpose. Five people took it upon themselves to manage the institution. Assisted by bribes, a license was obtained for transferring 500 of the deportees from Suceava and 400 from Kimpolung to Shargorod, about 40 km northeast of Mogilev. 40 carts were hired for this purpose. In exchange for a bribe, the Germans made a number of trucks available to the deportees for transporting the baggage to the designated destinations until the people arrived.

Several young men from Suceava (Wilhelm Giter, Bibi Weitman and Max Glueckman) traveled with the trucks to guard the baggage until the convoys arrived and unloaded them. Before the trip, Officer Iliuţă went wild and began firing his pistol. In the commotion that erupted following this act, 800 people infiltrated onto the wagons instead of the 500 agreed upon. In 1945, in a trial against Mogilev's war criminals, Iliuţă was sentenced to 15 years in prison with hard labor. It took three days to travel the distance to Shargorod, where they remained until liberation.

 

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