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[Page 286]

There Follows a Section from the Martyrs of Przedecz (cont.)

Translated by Janie Respitz

© by Roberta Paula Books

 

Vishnivsky Khaim Zalman
His wife: Soreh
Their son: Meir Hersh
Their daughter: Dvoyre

 

Khaim Zalman Vishnivksy with his wife and children. He was a tailor who travelled to fairs. He was a happy man who always liked to say a kind word or tell a joke. He sang beautifully and was a manager of the Psalm Society. He was a supporter of the left wing Zionist movement. There were always people who loved to sing and have a good time in his house. A lovely Jewish home.

 

Danielsky Khava
Her son: Danielsky Mordkhai
His wife: Miriam
Their daughters: Gutcha, Itke

 

Mordkhai Danielsky and his wife Miriam and his mother Khava. He was a village peddler and his wife Miriam helped support the family by sewing underwear. His mother Khava was a fruit dealer all year long and helped her son support the family. His brother Yisroel and his wife's sister Bashe live in Brazil. They were religious people and one of the finest families in town. He prayed in the synagogue and was knowledgeable in politics and was always able to tell everyone the news as he read newspapers and knew what was happening in the country and the world. He provided his children with a religious traditional education.

[Page 287]

Iglinsky Khaim Alter
His wife: Rekhl
Children: two

 

Khaim Alter was the son in law of Khaim Yosef Zielinsky. He had a large table filled with haberdashery at the market. One could buy books, children's toys, sewing tools as well as other articles, all for 35 groshen apiece. He was well read and very intelligent. He was active in the worker's movement. His brother Yisroel lives in Haifa with his family.

 

Iglinsky Avrom
His wife: Hadassah
4 children

 

Avrom Iglinsky was the son of Khaya. He lived in Sompolna (15 miles NE of Konin). His business was bringing merchandise from Kolo for the Jewish merchants. He had a horse and wagon and was on the road all week, busy with the orders the merchants gave him and large sums of money. He was an honest man and carried out his work with great precision. He was religious and on Saturday, his only day of rest, he was among the first to arrive for prayers at the synagogue. He provided his children with a very good Jewish education and his wife Hadassah was a woman of valor. She went to the merchants to take orders and money to give to her husband Avrom, all done with great accuracy. It was a lovely, honest quiet home.

[Page 288]

Vengrovsky Yehuda
His wife: Zelda
Their sons: Rafael, Yitzkhak
Their daughter: Malka

 

Zelda Vengrovsky nee Inglinsky and her husband Yehuda

 

Zelda Vengrovsky, the daughter of the Inglinsky family, married her husband Yehuda and lived in Wloclawek (Vlotslavek in Yiddish). He was a saddle maker. He worked hard to support his family, his wife and three children, nevertheless his children received a good Jewish education. He was a kind-hearted man and was loved by neighbors and friends.

 

Rivnitsky Shimon
His wife: Hinda

 

This family was know as Uncle Shimonye and Auntie Hiniye. Their children were already married and this old couple bought gifts for their grandchildren. In their later years they were supported by their children. This was a religious home and they lived a quiet modest life.

[Page 289]

Frankenshteyn Leyb
His wife: Brayne
Their son: Mordkhai
Their daughter: Frayda

 

Leybye Frankenshteyn and his wife Bronkhia lived in the second half of the building which housed the Psalm Society, together with their two grown children, a son and a daughter. He was a village peddler and his wife sold milk, cheese and soured milk. She was active in the Women's Burial Society. They were very simple people with a welcoming home. In the evenings young people would gather in their home for a glass of milk or soured milk and discussion.

 

Mrs. Tauba Yakhimovitch
The widow of Reb Meir Leyb
Her Son: Shmuel Hersh. His wife: Soreh. Their son Meir Leyb; daughter: Khana.
Her Son: Itzik and his wife; their daughter Mikhl; their son: Shloymeh
Her son: Mordkhai; his wife: Frida Bella.

 

Tauba Yakhimovitch was a religious woman. During the Nazi occupation, she helped those suffering when the official Prayer Houses no longer existed. The synagogue had already been burned down, the House of Study was taken over by the Nazis and turned into a tailor shop. This is when the pious kind Tauba Yakhimovitch risked her life and offered her small home for Jews to come and pray. She lived in poverty, however with the little she had she helped others. Her daughter Mania Himel lives in Israel.

[Page 290]

Fisher Moishe
His wife and two daughters

 

The Fisher family came to Pshaytch (Przedecz in Polish) in the 1930s. They lived in Travinsky's house on Ziabe Street, which led to the Yedzhe River. Moishe Fisher was a religious man who dealt with tannery and leather. His wife and son Yakov Ber, who now lives in America, helped him with his work. They lived a quiet comfortable life. His two daughters were well educated children.

 

Pshedetsky Tzeria
Her sister: Soreh Piezhak

 

At the end of Synagogue Street in an attic in the home of the Christian Novovkovsky lived two sisters, the blind Tzeria and her widowed sister who earned a living selling fish. Their brother and his family lived in Wloclawek (Vlotslavek in Yiddish). The widow's son was a tailor. He was a kind and intelligent young man who left for Russia in the early 1920s. The two sisters lived a quiet modest life and were not well known in town.

 

Zumer Khaim
His wife: Guta
Their sons: Nakhman, Avrom

 

Khaim Zumer was once a wealthy man, a grain dealer. He ran an opulent household with an open door for the poor. He distributed alms and clothing. He was a kind hearted Jew. Unfortunately he later became impoverished. Having nothing to do, he sat in the neighboring House of Study all day with the other beggars and told stories, thought and smiled. He had a wife and two intelligent sons.

[Page 291]

Dr. Diament Avrom

 

Dr. Avrom Diament live in the house of Khaim Zumer. He was a kind and gentle man. He felt as if he had been born in Pshaytch (Przedecz in Polish). He loved the Jewish population and used all his energy to try to help and heal. He provided culture to a portion of the youth and was a supporter of the left wing worker's movement. He would often give lectures about medicine and culture in the Public Library. There were many who were interested.

 

Dr. Diament Avrom

[Page 292]

Skavransky Frimet – a widow
Her son: Yisroel Leyb
Her daughters: Esther Gitl, Ita, Masha

 

We are returning to Warshavsky Street or, as we Jews called it, the House of Study Street. On the right corner where you head down to the river lived the widow Frimet with her four children, one son and three daughters. She was the widow of the Hasid and great scholar Reb Avrom Hersh Skavransky of blessed memory. He was a teacher in Rabbi Zemelman's Yeshiva and died young. One day between afternoon and evening prayers he fell. They carried him home, but he was already dead. She then opened a food store where she barely earned a living. She had a very gifted son, Yisroel Leyb. Her daughter Esther Gitl was a seamstress and helped support the family. This was a very religious household which lived a difficult life.

 

Zielinsky Zalman
His wife: Pola
Their sons: Avrom, Dovid, Yosef, Ruven

 

Zalman Zielinsky and his wife Pola and four sons. This was one of the hardest working families in town. Whatever job he took, it did not work out. He worked hard until late at night and lived within limits. Zalman was a tailor, tried to do business in the villages, rented orchards. The last years before the war he worked as a carrier for the grain dealer Yehoshua Zikhlinsky. He would often be seen sitting on the steps of Leyzer Zikhlinsky's house waiting for work, together with the Christian carriers. This is a characteristic description of a small Jewish town in Poland.

No one remained from this fine Jewish family.

[Page 293]

Zikhlinsky Yosef
His wife: Shayna
Their sons: Yakov, Yehuda, Khaim

 

Yosef Zikhlinsky ran a hat making shop and had an assistant. He sold his goods at the market. He was a religious and knowledgeable man. He would often be seen sitting on the high steps of his house reading a newspaper. It was a nice welcoming house. His children were educated in a Jewish national spirit. His wife Shayna was the daughter of Yeshaye Zikhlinsky and was an intelligent well read woman. She was good hearted and was an active volunteer in Jewish institutions. Their home was open to the poor. Their daughter Golda, today Grabinsky, lives in Israel.

 

Khodetsky Leyb
His wife: Soreh Ratza
Son: Mordkhai
Daughter: Esther

 

Leyb Khodetsky lived in the same house. He was a village peddler and a knowledgeable man. He sat on the board of the Public Library and was a member of the drama club. In the 1920s, when the Pioneer movement was founded, they created a training camp for pioneers in Khaim Zumer's garden. He was one of the initiators of working the soil and planting. While in the Nazi camp in Inowrolaw (Inavratslov in Yiddish) he worked very hard on the trains and was killed between two train cars, which crushed him. His wife Soreh Ratza was also active in the library. She was murdered with her two children in Chelmno.

[Page 294]

Prakhovsky Avrom Elye
His wife: Dvoyre
Their daughters: Gutcha, Motil

 

Avrom Elye Prokhovsky ran a tailor shop and hired a few workers. He sold their sewn goods in the market. He was a successful man but unfortunately his household received some knocks. His wife Dvoyre died suddenly of a heart attack, and shortly thereafter his youngest daughter Motil died. He was involved in community affairs. He was also a member of the synagogue council. If you needed a permit to slaughter a chicken in the nearby slaughter house you had to buy it from him. He was also the manager of the synagogue for a short time.

 

Chanskovsky Avrom
His wife: Rokhl
Their sons: Binyomin, Shloyme, Moishe.
Their daughters: Tobchiya, Khaya

 

The Chanstkovsky family. The head of the family, Avrom, died in 1932.

His widow remained with three sons and two daughters. Each of them was active in something different. Each according to his own interests. Binyomin and Shloyme were involved in the needle union. Moishe was a member of the Young Mizrachi movement and active in the Jewish National Fund, and was preparing to move to the Land of Israel. He attended a pioneer training camp but never realized his dream. Their daughter Khaya was active in Betar. The whole family was intelligent and knowledgeable.

[Page 295]

The Levin Family
Father: Sholem
Mother: Yokheved
Son: Gavriel Wolf
Daughter: Shayna Feyge
Son: Moishe Yekhiel
Daughter: Esther
Their son in law: Yekhiel Meir Hayman.
His wife: Frayda Liba nee Levin
Their daughter: Hinda Shayna

 

Looking at one family in a small Jewish Polish town, one was sure they lived without any worries. The whole family had work. The father was an important Jew, learned, gave lessons in how to read and write in the following languages: Yiddish, Polish, German and Russian. He taught people how to write letters and foreign and local addresses for those who could not do it themselves. He taught young boys the depths of Jewish wisdom. He worked as a glazer; his wife helped him. His eldest daughter was a seamstress. She had a lot of work. The eldest son sold haberdashery at the market. The younger son was a tailor. The second and third daughters worked with the eldest as seamstresses. The youngest son worked with his parents as a glazer. They were all working, but there was little income as work was paid less than the standard of living, and was not stable. This Jew was knowledgeable in Yiddish and foreign classic literature. He loved geography. He knew a lot; however, he was not a great earner. He died at the end of 1931. The eldest married daughter lived in Kolo. All three sons and the youngest daughter were active in the left wing, illegal worker's movement. From the whole family, the only one who survived was the youngest son Yitzkhak, who lives in Israel.

[Page 296]

Perlmuter Yehuda
His wife: Khaya
Their daughters: Gutcha, Trayna
His brother: Eliyahu

 

The Family of Yehuda Perlmuter

 

Yehuda Perlmuter was a merchant who sold sewing equipment and later had a food store. A few years before the war, he went to live in Klodawa. His son Eliezer came to the Land of Israel in 1934. He got married and lived in Jerusalem. He was in the Jewish Brigade of the British Army and, during the War of Independence, he accompanied transports of food from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem and was killed on the road by an Arab attack on the transport. His widow and children live in Jerusalem. Yehuda Perlmuter was a respectable Jew, sat on the synagogue council, and for a short time was manager of the House of Study. He gave charity and his house was always open for those in need.

[Page 297]

Ash Leybush Yosef
His wife: Bina

 

Leybush Yosef Ash and his wife had a store where they sold glass and kitchen wares. He was a passionate Zionist, a talker and an activist. He was active in the Mizrachi movement and in the blue and white Jewish National Fund. He was a well dressed man with an aesthetic appearance. The youth movements “Young Mizrachi” and “The Religious Guard” looked to him for leadership and advice. His wife Bina helped him in these interests.

 

Frank Mirl

 

Mirl Frank was a single woman in her twenties. She had a school that most of the children from town attended. She was a good teacher. She died in the 1920s, then two families of relatives moved into her house, the Ashs and the Chanstovskys.

 

Pshedetsky Miriam Leah

 

Miriam Leah Pshedetzky was a single woman who did business in the villages with a bit of haberdashery and brought village products back to town to sell. She was a quiet, religious poor woman.

[Page 298]

Bilavsky Mendl Wolf
His wife: Hene Soreh
Their daughters: Brayna, Baltzia
Their son: Leybl

 

Prz298a.jpg
 
Prz298b.jpg
Hene Soreh Bilavsky
Bluma Ratza Bilavsky
 
The Bilavsky Brothers
Lipman Bilavsky
Mendl Wolf Bilavsky

 

Mendl Wolf Bilavsky was a baker. He was an honest man and a passionate supporter of the Mizrachi movement. He served as manager of the House of Study for many years and was a board member of the bank. He gave charity and interest free loans. His wife Hene Soreh helped him a lot in his philanthropic activities. He provided his children with a religious national education. Their son was active in the Young Mizrachi movement and their daughter Brayna was a member of Betar. Mendl Wolf Bilavsky, his wife Hene Soreh, their daughters Brayna and Baltzia, and their son Leybl were killed by the Nazis in the Kazimierz forest.

Their son Moishe and his wife Liba moved to the Land of Israel in 1933. Their son Yosef Khaim was saved from Hitler's hell and came to the Land of Israel in 1949.

[Page 299]

Bilavsky Pinkhas Aron
His wife: Tzipora
His daughter: Frayda Rokhl
His sons: Ber, Moishe Hersh

 

Pinkhas Aron Bilavsky was a baker and lived on German Street behind City Hall. In 1928 the family moved to Sompolna and opened a large bakery. This was a fine family with a welcoming home. They were one of the most respected families in town. Pinkhas Aron was active in community institutions, especially education. His wife Tzipora came from Bordovi and was a beautiful and intelligent woman. Their children received a traditional national education. Pinkhas Aron Bilavsky, his wife Tzipora, their eldest daughter Frayda Rokhl who got married right before the war, their two sons Ber and Moishe Hersh were all murdered by the Nazis.

Their eldest son Avrom Simkha survived the horrible war years in German camps and came to the Land of Israel at the end of 1949.

 

Mendl Wolf Bilavsky
His son: Leybl
His daughter: Baltzia
Bilavsky Pinkhas Aron
His son: Muniek.

[Page 300]

Bilavsky Lipman
His daughter: Soreh Yudis and her family

 

Reb Lipman Bilavsky was one of the oldest householders in town. He was a tailor, a religious Jew. In the early 1930s he moved to Sompolna where his daughter Khana Bialaglovsky lived with her family. Reb Lipman had 2 sons and 3 married daughters and grandchildren. Two grandchildren survived and are living in America.

 

Danielsky Mania – a widow
Her sons: Levi, Itche

 

Mania Danielsky, a widow, ran a large shoemaker shop. This was a wealthy fine family with an open door to those in need. She would give charity and interest free loans on a daily basis. Her son and daughter were well informed people. They were all Zionists. Her three sons Moishe Hersh, Mordkhai Wolf and Zalman live in America.

 

Tapinsky Peysakh
His wife: Soreh
Their daughter: Khaya

 

Peysakh Tapinsky and his wife Soreh who was the daughter of Mania Danielsky and the sister of Moishe Hersh, Zalman and Mordkhai Wolf who live in America. He was a leather merchant and had a good Jewish heart. He did a lot for the poor and needy. His door was open for all who suffered. His wife Soreh was also known for her good heartedness. Their daughter Khaya received a traditional education.

[Page 301]

Rivinsky – a widower
and his family.

 

Nokhem Rivinsky was a well dressed man with a small black beard. He prayed regularly at the House of Study. Between afternoon and evening prayers he liked to discuss the news of the day with others. He was a smart, well informed man, but very religious. Occasionally he liked to pray at the cantor's pulpit.

 

Danielsky Yakov
His wife: Brayna and family

 

Yakov Danielsky was a shoemaker. He was the son of Mikhal Danielsky and the son in law of Nokhem Rivinsky. He had a workshop and sold his goods and the market. He was a religious Jew who prayed in the synagogue. He gave charity and supported charitable institutions. He was a quiet and nice person. His wife Brayna was also nice with a kind Jewish heart.

 

Danielsky Levi
Levi

 

Levi Danielsky was the son of Mikhal Danielsky. He was a partner with his brother Yakov in the shoemaker workshop. Like his brother, he too was a religious, knowledgeable man. He also prayed in the synagogue, gave charity and welcomed guests. He was a supporter of the worker's movement and supported its activities.

[Page 302]

Zikhlinsky Shimshon
His wife: …
Two children

 

Shimshon Zikhlinsky was a boot stitcher. He was a passionate Zionist and supported the Mizrachi movement. He was one of the founders of the Public Library. He, his wife and two children whose names we unfortunately do not remember were murdered in Chelmno.

 

Kladovsky Kayla – a widow
Her son: Avrom
His wife: and children

 

Kayla Kladovsky dealt in used clothes and helped her son in his leather and hide business. She was active in community affairs. She knew every household in town and knew what they needed. Despite her limited means, she helped others as much as she could. Her son was a quiet, nice person.

 

Kladovsky Hersh Leyb
His wife: Leah
His children: …

 

Hersh Leyb, Kayla's second son, also lived here. He was a hat maker. He was by nature a happy person. He was a traditional Jew and the son in law of Leyb Kladovsky. He was a member of the Public Library and the drama club at the library. It was always joyful in their home. They often sang Yiddish folk songs.

[Page 303]

Zielinsky Eliyahu
His wife: Rekhil
His son: Shmuel
His daughter: Frayda

 

Eliyahu Zielinsky was a tailor who took his goods to sell at the market. He was a religious Jew who prayed in the Psalm Society and was among those who helped rebuild it. He was a community activist and for a time sat on the Jewish community council. He ran a respectful household and his children received a fine education. They were good, knowledgeable people, active in the Public Library and the drama club. In the 1920s he tried his luck and moved to Brazil to improve his financial situation. Unfortunately things did not work out and he returned and rebuilt his former tailor workshop.

 

Pardansky Hersh
His wife: Esther
Their sons: Arye Leyb, Yakov
Their daughters: Mala, Dvoyre, Soreh.

 

Hersh Pardansky was learned, religious, well informed and well read. He had a nice aesthetic appearance. During the period that there was a small Ger Hasidic congregation in town, he would go there to pray. In the 1920s, he had a large haberdashery store where the whole family worked. He ran a respectable house and gave charity. His wife Esther was also known to be supportive of the needy. Unfortunately, due to high taxes, he had to liquidate his business and lived off what his children earned from their work. His children had received a good education. They were all well informed and intelligent people. His youngest son, Yakov, was active in Religious Guard movement.

[Page 304]

Zielinsky Ruven
His wife: Tzipora
Their son: Isar
Their daughter: Khana

 

Ruven Zielinsky was the son of Elye Zielinsky of blessed memory. His wife Tzipora was the daughter of Isar Morgnshtern of blessed memory. They were working people. He was a tailor and active in the cultural life in town. They were members of the Worker's Movement. A few years before the war they moved to Lodz.

 

Ruven Zielinsky and his wife: Tzipora nee Morgnshtern

[Page 305]

Rokhl Morgnshtern – a widow
Her sons: Shloime, Shaul, Arye, Ziskind.
Her daughters: Pola, Hinda Lutka.

 

Shloime Morgnshtern

 

Rokhl Morgnshtern lived on the corner of the marketplace at German Street and City Hall with her small children. This is where she had her grocery store. She was the widow of Reb Isar Morgnshtern of blessed memory who died in his in 20s on the day of Yom Kippur. She was left with small children. She worked hard to support her family and raise her children. She was a very kind woman, observant and donated to the needy. She educated her children in a national religious spirit. Her son Yisakhar survived the difficult Hitleristic hell with its forced labor camps. He was the only member of the family to survive. He lives in America.

[Page 306]

Vishnivsky Simkha
His wife: Tzeria
Their daughters: Yetta, Malka, Kayla

 

Tzeria Vishnivsky, Simkha's wife.

 

Simkha Vishnivsky was a tailor. He was one of the Vishnivsky brothers who were all good singers and were choir boys with the old cantor Reb Shabtai Kutek of blessed memory. Later they sang with the ritual slaughterer Reb Shmuel Yamnik of blessed memory, whose choir they helped with their beautiful voices during the High Holidays and other holidays in the synagogue. Simkha was a religious Jew, well informed and well read. He was by nature a very happy man and loved to give nice little speeches. In the 1930s he moved to Sompolna where he had another tailor shop. Together with all the other Jews in Sompolna, he was sent to the camps in Poznan and died there. His wife Tzeria helped him support the family by sewing and purchasing yarn and buttons. She and their children were also killed by the Nazi murderers.

[Page 307]

Yosef Rozenberg
His wife: Leah Danielsky
His sister: …
Nokhem Danielsky
His wife: … and his family

 

The two Danielsky sisters lived in one house. One of the sisters married. Her husband Yosef Rozenberg had a shoemaker shop. They raised Nokhem Danielsky the son of Mikhal Danielsky. Nokhem was orphaned when his mother died and these two sisters raised him. When he got married, he moved to Sompolna. Nokhem was an intelligent and well read man. He was active in the left wing worker's movement. He was a tailor by profession. He was one of the organizers of Yiddish lessons to read and write in the needle union. He also gave lectures on the history of the labor movement.

 

Perle Mordkhai Yehoshua
His wife: Khana
Their sons: Pinkhas, Meir

 

Mordkhai Yehoshua Perle was a widower. He was educated in Rabbi Zemelman's yeshiva. He was a great scholar and a wonderful explainer. He was always well dressed and read passages with his students from the highest levels of holy books. His attitude toward his students was more like a father than a teacher. Everyone in town respected him. It was an honor to be his student. Before the war he moved to Kalisz and taught students at the Yeshiva of Reb Zalman Yankilevitch of blessed memory. Rabbi Yankilevitch moved to the Land of Israel and became a member of the Knesset (Parliament) under the name Ben –Yakov in the Agudah Yisrael party.

Reb Mordkhai Yehoshua Perle's two sons studied in the Yeshiva and were know to have sharp minds.

[Page 308]

Borenshteyn Tuvia
His wife: Malka
Their sons: Yakov, Zelig, Hersh, Yitzkhak.
Their daughter: Tauba

 

Tuvia Borenshteyn sold used goods, rags, iron, copper, brass among other things. He went to the villages and traded his used goods for plates, glasses and toys or money. He worked very hard to feed his large family. He was religious, like the majority of the Jews in town. It was a lovely warm home. Three of his children, Yitzkhak, Yakov and his daughter Tauba, were active in the needle union. When his children grew up, they helped support the family and their financial situation improved. One sun Yosef survived and lived in Pshaytch (Przedecz in Polish) until the 1960s, and then wandered away.

 

Rusak Moishe Aron
His wife: Rokhl
His daughters: Soreh Yudis, Esther, Royza.
His son: Kasriel

 

Moishe Aron Rusak was the secretary of the Jewish community. He was a well dressed Jew and a passionate Zionist. He was active in Mizrachi and was a good speaker. He was well informed and well read. This is how he raised his children as well. His son Wolf was a member and one of the founders of “Young Mizrachi”. He attended a pioneer training camp and, in 1934, moved to the Land of Israel. They made him a goodbye party at the hall of the fire station. Reb Moishe Aron was hopeful that he and his family would have the honor of settling in the Land of Israel too. Unfortunately, they did not live to see this. Once in the Land of Israel, Wolf volunteered in the Jewish Brigade and, together with the English, fought on the Italian front. He fell in battle. Their daughter Tzesha has been living in Israel since 1935 and his son Yisroel of blessed memory lived out the war in Russia under very difficult conditions. He later came to Israel and died there.

[Page 309]

Haltrikht Gershon Leyzer
His wife: Luba
His sons: Itzik Mordkhai, Yerakhmiel Noyakh
His daughters: Yente Gitl, Soreh Nikha, Khana Kayla

 

Gershon Leyzer Haltrikht

 

Now we will describe the Jews who lived on Klinski Street. This is where Gershon Leyzer Haltrikht, the hat maker, lived with his wife and five children. In the 1920's he was the master craftsman in town. He was authorized to hand out master and journeymen letters after a professional exam for tailors, hat makers and shoemakers. Part of the money he received for distributing the above mentioned letters (diplomas) was spent rebuilding the Psalm Society as well as creating a free loan society

[Page 310]

for the many artisans. Gershon Leyzer was a traditional Jew and quietly supported the worker's movement. He loved to read newspapers when the children were growing up. This is what it was like in his house as it was with the majority of Jews in town. Three of his children worked with him at his trade, nevertheless they had financial worries. More than once, they had to ask themselves where they would find the money to buy what was needed for the Sabbath. The eldest daughter Soreh Nikha was an active member of the Sholem Aleichem Library. Yente Gitl and Yitzkhak Mordkhai belonged to the Shomer Hatzair movement. Unfortunately no one from this family survived.

 

Raukh Yehuda Leyb
His wife: Rayza
His son: Itzik

 

Yehuda Leyb Raukh was a chicken dealer. He and his wife were both intelligent and religious. He gave his son a traditional education. He was the son of Avrom Raukh of blessed memory. He was a quiet man who did not get involved in community affairs. He ran a large business, sending chickens to Lodz and other cities. He had his own horse and wagon. In his younger years, he was a member of the Public Library.

 

The Kladovsky Family
His wife and two children

 

The Kladovsky family lived next door. He was a custom tailor and the son in law of Avrom Raukh, a respected family. They did not get involved in community affairs and that is why we do not remember their names.

[Page 311]

Raukh Efraim
His wife: Ruzha

 

His brother Efraim Raukh was his partner in the chicken business. He was also a traditional Jew. We do not remember the names of his children. There were seven brothers and two sisters in the family. Six brothers and one sister lived in Pshaytch (Przedecz in Polish). One brother, Yakov Raukh, lived in Kolo and had a large wholesale food business. Unfortunately, no one from the family survived.

 

Marchak Khava – a widow and
her family.

 

Khava Marchak was a widow with three children. Her husband died in the 1920s. After he died, she opened a food store on the corner of Klodawa Street, which she took over from her father in law Moishe Marchak. As a single mother with small children, she could not run the business. She gave it over to someone else and moved with her children to Wloclawek (Vlatzlovek in Yiddish) in the 1930s. She was the sister of Reb Yehuda Perlmuter of blessed memory.

 

Shmul Khaym
His wife: Khaya and his family

 

Khaym, Shmul, his wife Khaya and their children lived in the same house as Khava Marchak. He was the son in law of Reb Kalman Rapaport. He took over the food store from Khava Marchak. He was a well dressed young man and a Ger Hasid. He came from Leczyca (Lintshits). He spent his spare time in the House of Study learning. He and his wife gave charity and welcomed guests.

[Page 312]

Danielsky Gershon
His wife: …
His sons: Tuvia, Itzik, Ezriel, Mordkhai Leyb
His daughter: Leah

 

The only Jew who lived on the long Klodawa Street was Gerhson Danielsky with his wife and children. He was the only Jew in town who worked the land. He also had a food store and a passenger car which he used to drive people to Lodz. This was a fine, respectable family. He was a religious Jew and they all worked hard. He was financially well situated. One son and his daughter lived in England.

 

Danielsky Moishe
His wife: …
His daughter: Taubche

 

Moishe Danielsky was a chicken dealer. He was a religious nationalist Jew, a great supporter of the Jewish National Fund. He was a quiet man, knowledgeable and well read. He ran a lovely traditional home. They gave their only daughter Taubche a good traditional Jewish education. She was a member of the Young Mizrachi organization and was an intelligent young woman.

 

Zikhlinsky Gutman – a widower

 

Gutman Zikhlinsky was an old religious Jew. He was Yakov Danielsky's neighbor and there was hardly any difference between these two men. Gutman also sat in the House of Study and read Ein Yakov. He did not work. He was supported by his son Shimshon.

[Page 313]

Zikhlinsky Ezra
His wife: Bluma
Their sons: Aron Sender, Yosef
Their daughters: Malka, Bayla

 

We now arrive at the street which led to the villages Orkusheve, Dzivie and the town of Dombrovitz. Ezra Zikhlinsky lived on this street with his wife Bluma and their beautiful, large family. He had a horse and wagon and dealt in village products. He was a religious respectable Jew. He had his own house and a piece of land where he grew vegetables and fodder. The whole family were productive people. Two sons were tailors and one son was a carpenter. One son was a hairdresser. The girls sewed underwear at home and the youngest son was still at school. With all this and with great effort they barely earned a living. In order to improve their financial situation, they rented their house and moved to Lodz where the situation had somewhat improved. They were quiet calm working people and lived according to Jewish tradition. From this family, three sons survived. Hersh and Khaym live in Israel and Fishl lives in America.

 

Danielsky Yakov
His wife: Shurka

 

Yakov Danielsky and his wife Shurka lived a few houses down. He was an old religious Jew. He would often sit in the House of Study and read Ein Yakov. He did nothing to earn a living. He was supported by his children. He loved to tell stories of his past experiences and tell witticisms. He was loved by the younger generation who loved listening to his stories.

[Page 314]

Marchak Yehoshua
His wife: Berta His son: Yakov Ber Daughter: …

 

We now arrive at the house where Yehoshua Marchak lived wit his wife Berta and their children. He was a well to do grain merchant. He lived in a fenced in house without neighbors. He gave charity and was a quiet, religious man. His wife Berta was an intelligent, religious woman and their children were raised in this spirit. No one from this family survived.

 

Topolsky Yekhiel
His wife: Nekha and their children

 

Yekhiel Topolsky lived in the same house as did his brother Moishe Topolsky and his family. He was a tanner. He lived in the Land of Israel for a few years but returned. He was a supported of the Mizrachi movement. He had a wife and children. This fine quiet family was killed in Chelmno.

 

Ekert Efraim
His wife: Gitl
Daughters: Bayla, Mindl
Son: …

 

Efraim Ekert, a tailor, and his wife and children lived in the same house. He worked hard to earn a living and travelled to fairs to sell his sewn goods. Efraim was a member of the Psalm Society. This was a quiet, modest religious family.

[Page 315]

Topolsky Moishe
His wife: Miriam Leah
Their sons: Yosef, Yitzkhak, Hersh
His daughters: Khana, Ruzhe
His married daughter: Graydans Khava.
Her husband: Eliezer and 3 children

 

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Topolsky Ruzhe, Bilavsky Brayne
 
Khava Graydans nee Topolsky

 

Moishe Topolsky and his large family lived in the same house. He was a businessman well respected in town. He was a member of the board of the Jewish community – a councilman. He was a member of the board of the bank and was head of the Interest Free Loan Society. He was a tanner, turning raw material into leather. His son Yosef was one the founders of the Public Library. He was an intelligent and knowledgeable young man. His son Hersh was one of the rebels in the extermination camp Auschwitz – Birkenau where he was active with others in an attempt to blow up the crematorium. He died there. He was an active member in Young Mizrachi. His son Yitzkhak and daughter Ruzhe were members of Betar. His daughter Khava married and moved to Inyeve. The eldest son Yakov survived the camps and lives with his wife in America.

[Page 316]

Topolsky Fishl
His wife: Genendl
His daughter: Luba and three more children

 

Fishl Topolsky, Moishe Topolsky's son, lived on the next street over. He was a boot stitcher by profession. His wife Genendl was the daughter of Yeshaya Zielinsky. Fishl was a founder and chairman of the Labor Zionists. He was an intelligent and well informed young man. His wife was a member of the Public Library. They too found the same fate as all other Jews form Pshaytch (Przedecz in Polish) and were killed in Chelmno together with their small children.

 

Topolsky Fishl and his wife Genendl nee Zielinsky

[Page 317]

Sokhachevsky Gavriel
His wife: Esther
Their son: Feyvish, his family and two more daughters

 

Feyvish Sokhachevsky had a food store together with his father Gavriel. His two sisters sewed underwear. Gavriel, his father was a religious man. Even though he lived far away from the House of Study, he would go there every day to pray, arriving among the first. His son Feyvish was also a religious young man and a supporter of the Mizrachi movement. This was an honorable quiet family. There were also two sisters, but unfortunately we don't have exact details about them. No one survived from this family.

 

Fisher Mendl
His wife: Zelda
His son: Yishaya Hersh and his family.

 

Mendl, the son of Avrom Fisher and his wife Zelda, the daughter of Reb Mordkhai Binyomin Davidovitch. was a boot stitcher by profession. His wife Zelda was a hat decorator and had a women's hat store. Mendl was a Torah scholar and studied for years with Rabbi Zemelman. He was a quiet and modest young man. He did not get involved in community affairs and worked hard to earn a living for his family.

 

Rozen Yakov Wolf
His wife: Reyzl
Their daughters: Bina, Sala

 

Yakov Wolf Rozen had a food store. He was a supporter of the Mizrachi movement. He was a quiet, modest man. He did not get involved in community affairs. His wife and children helped out in his store. He was one of the most active founders of the Public Library. They gave their children a religious Zionist education.

[Page 318]

Yamnik Shmuel – ritual slaughterer
His wife: Soreh Rokhl
His daughter: Royza Leah

 

The ritual slaughterer Reb Shmuel Yamnik lived in his own house with his wife Soreh Leah and their daughter Ruzhe. He was a kind hearted Jew. He was learned and educated in many fields. He was a ritual slaughterer and performed circumcisions in Pshaytch (Przedecz in Polish) for more than 40 years. His daughter Ruzhe died young in 1937. His two sons Ruven and Yehoshua live in Israel and one son Leybush lives in Brazil.

 

Yamnil Sholem
His wife: Malka
4 children.

 

The second son of Reb Shmuel Yamnik – Sholem - lived in Lodz with his wife Malka and four children. He was sent to a camp in Poznan and was killed there. His wife and children were also killed by the Nazis. When there was an action in Lodz, his four sons died a martyr's death.

 

Mandlboym Yisroel
His wife: Khaya Dvoyre nee Yamnik
Their son: Ruven

 

The daughter of Shmuel Yamnik married Yisroel Mandlboym from Vengrov. They had a haberdashery store. They had a son Ruven. They were killed in a Nazi camp after they spent a long time in the Mezrich ghetto.

[Page 319]


Yamnik Yakov Yitzkhak
His wife: Leah
Their son: Yehuda Hersh
Their daughter: Ruzha

 

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Yamnik Yakov Yitzkhak and his wife Leah
 
Their son: Yehuda Hersh

 

His son Yakov Yitzkhak Yamnik lived in Lubin – a hat maker and active in communal affairs. He was a member of the community board of directors, he was a councilman. He and his wife Leah and their two children, their daughter Ruzhe and son Yehuda Hersh, were killed in Treblinka where they were sent from the Warsaw ghetto.

[Page 320]

Goldman Yekhil Yosef
His wife: Soreh
His son: Mikhal Hersh
His daughter: Itka

 

Now we come to a house which was inhabited only by Jews. The first to live here was Reb Yekhil Yosef Goldman with his wife Soreh and family. He was a baker. He had his bakery in the yard. He also made ice cream. For this purpose he had a big hole with ice beside the bakery, filled in the winter months. His son Mikhal Hersh who helped him with his work was a member in the Mizrachi movement. He was killed serving in the Polish army when the war broke out in 1939. His daughter Yeske was killed in the camps. His son Fishl and daughter Balche live in Israel.

 

Yamnik Shulamis nee Fridman
Her daughter: Bayla Tziporah
Her son: Khaim Yehuda
They were murdered in Chelmno with all the martyrs from the city of Sompolna. On the 16th of Shevat, 5710.
February 3rd 1942.

 

Bilavsky Blema Ratza

 

In the same house right across lived a single woman Blema Ratze, a widow who performed a variety of good deeds helping families and single people.

[Page 321]

[Ed. Note: At some point the authors seem to progress from one house to the neighboring house, from one block to the next block.]

 

Danielsky Esther Rokhl
Her son: Shimon Leyb
Her daughters: Krusa, Yetke, Gitl

 

Mrs. Esther Rokhl Dielsky now lived in a shop in the same house where Reb Berish Menkhe of blessed memory had once lived. She was a widow with four children, one son and three daughters. Her son Shimon Leyb was a shoemaker and was the breadwinner of the family. Her daughters also helped out as much as possible. This was a quiet, modest family, observant people who worked hard to feed themselves.

 

Radzievsky Leah – a widow
Radzievsky Yekhiel Yakov
His wife: …
and family.

 

In the dwelling that led out to the courtyard, from the same house had lived the widow Leah Radzievsky who cooked lunches and other meals there and rented out beds for Jewish travellers. Her stepson Yekhiel Radzievsky was a teacher and lived in Dombia near Kolo.

 

Torner Menashe
His wife: Gitl
His daughter: Dora and another daughter.

 

Menashe Torner was the son of Reb Khaim Torner. His wife was Gitl, and they had two daughters. He was a custom tailor, a quiet, honorable man, a hard worker, supported his father with all that was possible and did favors for the needy.

[Page 322]

Rabbi Drakhman Moishe, Rabbi in Dombrovitz, son-in-law of Reb Berish Menkhe of blessed memory.
His wife and family.

 

Rabbi Moishe Drakhman was from Lubin, a town near Woclawek (Vlotslavek in Yiddish). He was the son-in-law of Berish Menkhe of blessed memory who brought him to live with him and his only daughter. He was a great scholar. He taught the older Yeshiva boys for many years in Przedecz and was later hired as Rabbi in the nearby town of Dombrovitz. No one survived from this family.

 

Pozner Mordkhai
His wife: Miriam
His son: Mikhal Hersh
His daughter: Itka
His brother: Elye

 

On the floor of the same house lived Mordkhe Poyzner with his wife and children. Beside the house he had a food store, together with his mother and his brother Elye. Mordkhe Poyzner was a quiet man. He was not involved in community affairs. In his youth he was one of the first Zionists in town. He was one of the founders of the Public Library and an active member.

 

Raukh Mordkhe
His wife: Khava
His son: Moniek
His daughter: Manya

 

Mordkhe Raukh with his wife Khava and two children, his son Moniek and his daughter Manya. He was an employee of the partners in the grain business Notte Vasertzug and Yitzkhak Mokatov. He was a supporter of the Mizrachi movement. His home was traditional, and he educated his children in this spirit.

[Page 323]

Romer Pinkhas
His wife: Tzipora
His son: Meir and family
His daughter: Sale and family

 

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Romer Sale and her daughter
 
Romer Meir with his wife and daughter

 

In the second house lived Pinkhas Romer. He used to have a manufacturing business. Like the majority of Jews in town, he was also a religious person. In his younger years, he was active in the Zionist movement. His son Meir was the only young man to complete public high school. He was an intelligent and well informed man. While in the Polish army, he was preparing to become an officer and, for a short time, served as a factory officer. After he married, he left for the estates where he was a teacher in a public school. Pinkhas Romer's daughter Sale was an intelligent woman.

[Page 324]

Rozen Binyomin
His wife: Gusta
His son: Avrom and family

 

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Mrs. Rozen Gusta
Her granddaughter: Brinka Mokotov
Her great granddaughter: Galila Zukerman,
the daughter of Bluma Mokotov
 
Binyomin Rozen

 

Binyomin Rozen and his wife Gusta had a grocery store. He was a passionate Zionist, one of the first to be active in Mizrachi. Already in the 1920s, he was preparing to move to the Land of Israel in order to realize his life's goal. However he got sick and died during an operation in the hospital. His wife went to live with their daughter Ruzha Mokotov. His son Avrom took over his father's business. He was also a Zionist and an active member in Mizrachi. After he married, he moved to Klodawa.

[Page 325]

Goldman Yakov Meir
His wife: Yekhle
His daughter: Khava
He died in 1940 at age 82 and was the last to be buried in the local cemetery.

 

Reb Yakov Meir Goldman was a rich man, a scholar and a very well respected, imposing figure in town. He was tall, with a nice white beard. He was a member of the board of directors of the Ludavi Bank, an influential person. He had an iron business in the house which he later gave to his son-in-law, Mendl Kviat, and his daughter Dora. He was a personality. He would often pray at the pulpit on the High Holidays. He would go for morning prayers to the House of Study and often be the one to lead the first Slichot service. On Simchat Torah, after prayers, he would make a large reception for everyone who came to pray in the House of Study. He died in 1940 during the war and was the last Jew to be buried in the cemetery. He had three married sons who lived outside of Przedecz. They were Mendl, who lived in Brisk Koyavsky with his wife and family, his son Elazar, who lived with his family in Lodz, and his son Wolf who lived with his family in Klodawa.

 

Reb Yakov Meir Goldman and family at the Bar Mitzvah celebration of his grandson

[Page 326]

Khava Pretzol née Goldman and her husband

 

Mokotov Yitzkhak
His daughter: Bronka
His daughter: Bluma
Her husband: Zukerman Henyiek
Their daughter: Glila

 

Yitzkhak Mokotov, his wife Ruzha, and their family lived in the same courtyard. He was a rich Jew, a grain dealer with his partner Reb Notte Vasertzug of blessed memory. Their door was always open for poor people and those in need. He would host a large reception after prayers on SimchasTorah. This was one of the finest families in town. In 1935, he and his family, together with his partner Notte Vassertzug and his wife Esther, moved to the Land of Israel as capitalists and later returned to Poland to cash in debts from Polish landowners and others. Yitzkhak Mokotov, his daughter Bluma, her husband Henyiek and their child, as well as his daughter Bronka remained and were killed by the Nazi murderers. His wife Ruzhe and their son Moishe and his family live in Israel.

[Page 327]

Klar Yisroel – a widowerk
His daughter: Malkak
Haber Yisroel – his son-in-lawk
His wife: Krusak
Daughters: Mirl, Yekhlak
Her Daughter: Yakhimovitch Rokhlk
Her Daughters: Yadzia, Mala

 

Haber Krusa née Klar

 

In the second part of this house lived Yisroel Klar, a widower. He owned a haberdashery business and lived with his daughters. His daughter Malka left for Russia in 1939, and we never heard from her again. His daughter Krusa also lived there with her husband Yisroel Haber, a custom tailor, and their two daughters. Reb Yisroel Klar was an observant Jew. He was among the first to arrive for prayers at the House of Study. After prayers, he would remain to read Ein Yakov. His two daughters Krusa and Malka were intelligent women, members of the Public Library, and they ran the haberdashery

[Page 328]

busisness. Yisroel Haber was a good custom tailor, an intelligent and quiet man. He was a supporter of the worker's movement.

Yisroel Klar's eldest daughter Rokhl lived on the same floor with her husband and their two daughters Yadzia and Mala. They had a shoe business. No one from this family survived.

 

Kviat Mendl
His wife: Dora
Their son: Yitzkhak
Their daughter: Ella

 

Mendl Kviat was the son-in-law of Reb Yakov Meir Goldman. His wife Dora and two children. He took over the iron business from his father-in-law. He was a modern Hasidic young man, a good businessman, always busy in his shop. They gave their children a good religious education. He was not involved in community affairs.

 

Rozenkrantz Hersh
His wife: …
His son: Asher
His daughters: Mina, Yetke

 

Hersh Rozenkrantz lived in the wooden house next door with his wife and three children, Asher, Mina and Yetke. He was a watchmaker and a goldsmith. In the 1920s, he was active in the Zionist organization. He was a religious Jew and a quiet person. He was not involved in community affairs. His children received a traditional education, and they were active in the Mizrachi youth organization The Religious Guard.

[Page 329]

Urnbakh Avrom Wolf
His wife: Soreh Nekhle
Their daughter: Matil

 

Avrom Wolf Urnbakh, the son-in-law of Kalman Rappaport, with his wife and their daughter. He had a manufacturing business. The business was run by his wife Soreh Nekhle, while he spent most of his day learning in the House of Study. He was a Hasidic young man and on the High Holidays travelled to his Rebbe in Ger.

 

Rappaport Kalman
His wife: Khana
His daughter: Drezil

 

Rappaport Khana, the wife of Reb Kalman, née Aurbakh

 

Reb Kalman Rappaport lived on the corner of the market and Kilinsky Street with his wife Khana and their children. He had a large grocery store, wholesale and retail. Despite the fact that he had a large business, he came to the House of Study every morning and night and was often seen studying Gemore after prayers. He was a scholar and made a great impression with his beautiful white beard. He gave a lot of charity and on the Sabbath would always have a guest for a meal. His children also received a religious education. His son Moishe lives in America and his daughter Baltche lives in Australia.

[Page 330]

Aurbakh Soreh – a widow
Her son: Khaim Aron

 

Aurbakh Soreh nee Ayman.
The wife of Reb Avrom Shloimeh of blessed memory.
Daughter of Reb Leml and Bayla.

 

The widow Soreh Aurbakh lived in the second half of the house with her two grown children, her son Khaim Aron and her daughter Mala, may she live long. Her husband Avrom Shloime of blessed memory died young. He was a rich man, observant and very well respected in town. He was a grandson of the former Przedecz rabbi, Rabbi Khaim Aurbakh of blessed memory. Reb Avrom Shloime was a member of the community council and very active in all community affairs. After his death, his wife ran his manufacturing business with the help of her son Khaim Aron, who was also the chess champion in town. He was an intelligent, well read young man.

Mrs. Aurbakh ran a fine, Jewish household. She provided her children with a traditional national education. She was known for welcoming guests and supporting the needy. Khaim Aron was killed in the Poznan extermination camp. Her daughter Mala, the wife of Professor Brand, lives in Jerusalem.

[Page 331]

Aurbakh Khaim Aron of blessed memory and his sister Mala, may she live a long life. (Playing chess).

 

Danielsky Manya – a widow
Her sons: Moishe, Azriel
Her daughters: Regina, Pesia.
Her son-in-law: Izbitzky Hersh
His wife: Shaindl
Their son: Shloime
Their daughter: Sala

 

This is where Mrs. Danielsky lived. She had a tavern and a restaurant. Her son Azriel was a tailor and also loved to play the violin in his spare time. Her son Moishe helped in her business. She had three daughters. Pesie, Regina and her husband Pivke lived together with their mother. They were members of the Public Library and were active in the drama club.

Also in the same house were her son-in-law Hersh Izbitsky with his wife Shaindl and their two children Shloime and Sala. This was a traditional family. Their daughter Sala was a member of the Religious Guard organization. No one survived from this large family.

[Page 332]

Perl Hersh Lipman
His wife: Golda
Their daughters: Rivka, Khaya, Ella
Their sons: Avrom Zalman, Mordkhai, Mendl

 

The second half of the house was inhabited by Hersh Lipman Perl's family, which included his wife Golda and their children. He was the son-in-law of a religious woman who was called the “Rishishitz” because she came from the town of Rishishitz. She had another son-in-law in the town of Lubin near Woclawek (Vlotslavek in Yiddish), a rich Hasid with his wife Shaindl. Together with her son-in-law Bunim and her daughter she went to the Land of Israel in the 1920s. They remained there for a short time and then returned to Poland. Reb Hersh Lipman Perl, of blessed memory had a manufacturing shop. He was observant and a scholar, a Ger Hasid, and educated his children in this spirit. He also taught in a small congregation of wealthy people and taught the children Gemore.

 

Davidovitch Mordkhe Binyomin
His wife: Khava
Their sons: Avram Zalman, Yisakhar Leybush
Their daughter: Rokhl

 

His brother-in-law Reb Mordkhe Binyomin Davidovitch lived in the same house, along with his wife Khava and their children. He had a haberdashery and was also a watchmaker. He was a scholar and loved to use expressions from the Torah and offer ingenious explanations. He was held in high esteem by Rabbi Zemelman and was one of the most important participants at the table of the third Sabbath meal. He often took part in discussions about Torah with the rabbi. His son Avrom Zalman and daughter Rokhl were in a Nazi labor camp and were shot there. Their son Yehoshua Isaac lives in Israel.

[Page 333]

Goldman Avrom
His wife: Trayna
Their son: Heniek

 

Avrom Goldman lived in the house next door, the son of Yakov Meir Goldman with his wife Trayna, the daughter of Moishe Sokhatchevsky, and their children. Avrom's business dealt with iron and building materials. He had a great sense of humour. He was a traditional and intelligent man. His wife was one of the founders of the Public Library. Their house was open to the poor and those in need.

Their daughter Sala and her family live in Israel. Their second daughter, Ronia, and her family live in America.

 

Aurbakh Yitzkhak Yosef
His wife: Khava
Their son: Avrom
Their daughter: Malka Royza

 

Reb Yitzkhak Aurbakh of blessed memory lived in the same house. He was a blond young man, a scholar and a Hasid. He ran a manufacturing business. He also was a teacher in Rabbi Zemelman's Yeshiva. However, with all this, he was not a wealthy man. He was quite poor. His son Avrom learned in a Yeshiva outside of Przedecz and received his teaching permit just before the war. His daughters also received a religious education. Reb Yitzkhak Yosef was an intelligent man, quiet, well read, very observant, and the family lived practically in poverty.

In the evening, Reb Yitzkhak Yosef would sit for hours in the House of Study learning Gemore and Torah, sometimes alone and sometimes leading a larger group that took part in his teachings. He was one of the most admirable, honest men in town.

[Page 334]

Ravsky Moishe
His wife: Roda
His sons: Daniel, Menakhem, Shloime
His daughters: Soreh, Miriam

 

Moishe Ravsky and his family lived in the same house. His wife Roda was the daughter of Lipman Bilavsky. They ran a hat shop with their sons. Their daughters also helped out. It was one of the nicest workshops in the region. It was a happy household. They were always singing while they worked. Reb Moishe was an observant and quiet man. His wife Roda almost always travelled with him to fairs. The children were provided with a national, traditional education. Their daughter Soreh was an active member in the Religious Guard organization. Their son Menakhem was shot in 1942 by the local Nazi Volksdeutsche, Henebauer. Their son Avrom Yakov lives in America.

 

Danielsky Mikhal
His wife: Tzirl
His sons: Ben-Zion, Vova, Shmuel
His married son Nokhem and his family:
Daughters: Geula and another daughter.

 

Reb Mikhal Danielsky lived in the house next door. He ran a shoemaking workshop with his son. He was an observant Jew active in the Burial Society. All his sons were active in the professional union and the Sholem Aleichem Library. They were intelligent and well-read.

[Page 335]

Shlipkovitch Binyomin (Yomtche)

 

The bachelor Binyomin (Yomtche) Shlipkovitch lived in the same house. He sold stockings and socks in the market. He brought the goods from Lodz or Alexandrov. He was an orphan without a mother or father and lived in great poverty. His father Reb Shmuel Yehuda of blessed memory was a teacher who taught small boys Chumash and Gemore in his own home. He died before the war.

 

Toronchik Binyomin
His wife: …
His sons: Moishe, Shloime Dovid
His daughters: Hinda, Frayda

 

The Toronchik family with four children lived in their own home. In the 1920s, the family ran a food store. At that time, there was another daughter who was sick, and her illness ate up their income. None of this helped, and the girl died. Binyomin Toronchik was an observant and loyal Jew and raised his children in this spirit. Shortly before the war, their eldest son Moishe received his teaching permit from a Yeshiva in Warsaw. The younger son also studied in a Yeshiva. Their daughter Hinda was active in the Public Library. She was an employee at the Ludavi Bank. Their older daughter worked far from home. Let these words serve as a monument for this beautiful, nice family.

[Page 336]

Zielinsky Nakhman – a widower
His grandson: Heniek

 

Heniek Zeliensky son of Avrom Ozer, may he live a long life

 

The old man Nakhman Zielinsky lived on Stadalne Street. He was a tailor who sewed loose robes, warm kaftans, pants, silk coats, and suits for children. He sewed well. He was an observant Jew. His son Avrom Ozer lives in Paris, his daughter Basha lives in Brazil and his son Khaim lives in America. Avrom Ozer's son Heniek was killed by the Nazis in the Lodz ghetto. When there was an Action in the ghetto to take all small children, young Heniek was among those who died a martyr's death.

[Page 337]

Skobronsky Nosn
His wife: Taube
Their sons: Ezriel, Yoel.
Their daughters: Hella, Rivka.

 

When the war broke out, almost everyone in the Skobronsky family was grown up. This was an interesting, intelligent family. The children illuminated this household. There were no special political party affiliations in this home, but they were all supporters of Zionism. This was a traditional Jewish family. The head of the family ran a grain business with his younger son. The older son Ezriel died one day after liberation from Buchenwald from exhaustion. He was an employee in Lodz. He was one of the most intelligent young men in Przedecz. He read a lot and knew a lot. The eldest daughter Hella was married and lived with her husband in Khatch. Rivka was on the board of the library until the outbreak of the war. Two sons from this family survived, Khaim and Yakov, who live in America.

 

Feyntukh Shimon
His wife: Bronia.
Their daughter: Regina.

 

Shimon Feyntukh, his wife Bronia and their daughter Regina lived in the second house. He came to Przedecz in the 1920s and lived there until 1938. He left and we do not know any details about this family.

[Page 338]

Yakubovitch Itche
His wife: Kayla
His sons: Yakov, Notte

 

Yakov Yakubovitch

 

Itche Yakubovitch lived in the same house with his wife Kayla and their family. He was a good custom tailor for men. He was always in a good mood, a happy man. He loved to say something nice and tell a good joke. He was an observant Jew and prayed in the House of Study. He loved to say his family was the forefathers as his father was Avrom (Abraham), he was Yitzkhak (Isaac) and his son was Yakov (Jacob). This was a fine, respectable home, and he raised his children in the traditional spirit. His three daughters Hella, Tobke and Ruzha live in Israel, and his son Max lives in Poland.

[Page 339]

Raukh Polik
His wife: Aydl
His son: Heniek
His daughter: Manya

 

Polik Raukh, his wife Aydl and family lived in the same house. He was a chicken dealer. He was a quiet man. This was a traditional family, supporters of the Zionist movement. The children were members of the Mizrachi organization.

 

Krel Shmuel Leyzer
His wife: Golda
Their sons: Yehuda Leyb, Notte, Elye Dovid.
His daughters: Pessi, Khaya

 

Further down on Chodecz Street, which they called the highway, and just before the end of the restricted Jewish area where Jews were permitted to carry things on the Sabbath, lived Shmuel Leyzer Krel, a custom tailor. He mainly sewed long Jewish coats (malbushim) and barely supported his family. He was an observant Jew and among the first to arrive for prayers at the House of Study all year long. He was a quiet man. He had three sons and two daughters who helped him provide for the family, working all day until late at night. They were all quiet, honorable people. No one from this family survived.

[Page 340]

Zuker Khaim from the village Rivne and his family.
Berman Moishe from the village Rivne and his family.
Langnoz Moishe from the village of Rivne and his family.

 

If you continue down the highway about three kilometres from town, you will arrive in the village Rivne, which was the only village where Jewish families lived. There was a large pine forest which belonged to the Jewish Langnoz brothers. They had a large sawmill to cut trees into beams and planks. Khaim Zuker's family lived there too. He was the administrator of this undertaking. Reb Khaim Zuker of blessed memory was a learned Jew, observant with an imposing stature and a long brown beard. Even though they lived far from town, he and his son-in-law would come to town every Sabbath to pray in the House of Study. He would often be the representative to lead the morning prayer at the pulpit on the High Holidays. His son-in-law Moishe Berman of blessed memory was a cantor. He would often pray in the synagogue and in the House of Study and pleased the congregants with his beautiful voice. He would also bring his own cheese and butter to sell in town. We do not know exact details about what happened to this family as they left town at the beginning of the 1930s.

 

Librakh Berish
His wife: Alta
4 children

 

Berish Librakh was a tanner and leather merchant. He was born in Linshitz and moved to Przedecz. He ran a beautiful Jewish household. He was an observant Jew who was able to teach. He did not get involved in community affairs; however, he was admired in town due to his charity and welcoming of guests. He was a smart man and well informed in world issues. His wife Khaya was a woman of valor, helped her husband in business and ran a nice Jewish home. Their children received a religious education. No one survived from this family.

[Page 341]

Makovitsky Yehoshua
His wife: Ava
His sons: Eliezer, Shliamek
His daughter: Hella

 

Mrs. Ava Mokovitsky in her youth

 

We return to the same street in town to the home of Yehoshua Makovitsky, a passionate Zionist. He sat on the community council and was an activist. He was admired in town. He ran a grain business in partnership with Nosn Skarvansky. This was a nice, wealthy Jewish home. He gave a lot of charity and his door was open for those suffering and in need. He raised his children in the same spirit. His sons and daughter were very intelligent people. His two sons, Eliezer and Shliamek, and his daughter Hella were killed in the camps. Mrs. Makovitsky was killed in Chelmno. Reb Yehoshua died just before the war. Their son Shaul lives in Israel.

[Page 342]

Raukh Moishe
His wife: …
His son: Pinkhas
His daughter: Manya

 

Raukh Manya

 

Moishe Raukh lived in the second half of the house. He was a wealthy man and sat on the community council and the board of directors. He had a large wholesale chicken business. He sent hundreds of slaughtered chickens, geese and turkeys to Lodz and Warsaw and other large cities such as Wloclawek (Vlotslavek In Yiddish) and Taron. He employed many people. He ran a fine, Jewish, well-off home. He was a religious man, and he was given the privilege of leading Friday evening services in the synagogue every other Sabbath. He raised his children in this traditional national spirit. He was a member of the board of the bank. No one survived from this family.

[Page 343]

Engel Rokhl – a widow
Sons: Shloime Yisakhar, Asher, Efraim, Ruven.
Daughters: Tauba, Khana, Bryana

 

Chodecz Street, which we are describing here, was not inhabited by artisans or workers like most of the streets in town. This was a street of businessmen and merchants. It was really not a large street, but was inhabited almost exclusively by Jews. We arrive at the lumber warehouse of the Engel family, the wife who was a widow with her sons Shloime Yisakhar, Efraim, Asher and Ruven and two daughters. They have a fine Jewish home and a coal and lumber business. They were all Zionists and one of the sons, Shloime Yisakhar, was a founder and leader of the Betar organization. No one from this family survived.

 

Ofenbakh Shabtai
His wife: Blema.
His sons: Yekhiel Moishe, Yitzkhak Leybush, Yisakhar, Shloime, Aron Meir.
His daughters: Frimet, Brayne

 

Now we arrive at the new house on the corner of Chodecz and Tilna streets. This is where Shabtai Ofenbakh lived. He had a food store but was not a rich man. He barely earned enough to feed his large family. This was an intelligent Zionist family. He was an enlightened Jew and a passionate member of the Mizrachi organization. He was a councillor on the community council and a member of the board of directors of the bank. His middle son, Yitzkhak Leybush, was active in the Mizrachi organization. He was a student of Rabbi Zemelman and a member of the Religious Guard. He spent years with a group training to move to the Land of Israel. Unfortunately, his dream was never realized and, together with his large family, he was killed by the Nazi murderers. No one from this family survived. The eldest son Yekhiel Moishe was active in the Public Library. All the children received a religious Zionist education.

[Page 344]

Vasertzug Notte
His wife: Esther

 

Reb Notte Vasertzug, his wife: Esther

 

We now arrive at the home of one of the wealthiest men in town, Reb Notte Vasertzug, of blessed memory. He was a rich man, a grain merchant, good hearted and generous. He supported the Jewish religious learning institutions. He was a member of the board of directors of the bank and was an admired, well respected personality in town. His house was open for the poor and the needy. In 1935, he and his wife Esther moved to the Land of Israel, but unfortunately, he returned to Poland to liquidate his business and collect debts from property owners. Meanwhile, the war broke out and he remained. He and his wife were killed by the Nazi murderers.

[Page 345]

Zikhlinsky Leyzer
His wife: Rivka Rokhl
Their sons: Pinche, Bunim, Binyomin, Avrom

 

Prz345a.jpg
 
Prz345b.jpg
Binyomin (Yomek) Zikhlinsky
 
Binyomin (Yomek) Zikhlinsky

 

Reb Leyzer Zikhlinsky of blessed memory lived on the corner of the market. That is where he had his wholesale and retail food business. He was a religious Jew. He was wealthy, gave a lot of charity and welcomed guests. He was a member of the board of directors of the bank. He prayed in the House of Study. His wonderful sons Pinche and Bunim helped him run his business. Pinche was also the only Jewish fire fighter. In 1935, he went on a visit to the land of Israel. All his children were intelligent and well-read. They were active in the Public Library and were involved in cultural activities in town. His son Yomek was in the young Mizrachi movement. The only member of the family to survive was their daughter Baltche, who lives in Mexico.

[Page 346]

Zikhlinsky Yehoshua
His wife:… and his family

 

In the same house lived his brother, Yehoshua Zikhlinsky with his wife and children. He was a grain merchant and a wealthy man. He was good-hearted and supported those in need. He was a quiet, religious man and was not involved in community affairs.

 

Vayden Moishe Aron
His wife: Ava and his family

 

Moishe Aron Vayden lived in the same house with his wife and family. He was a hat maker. He had a large workshop and employed a few people. He was a religious man and sat on the Jewish community council. He was also involved in other institutions and was a member of the board of directors of the bank.

 

Frenkl Binyomin
His wife: Andzia
His daughters: Mala, Rivtche, Esther

 

Binyomin Frenkl lived in the house next door. He had an iron business and was a wealthy man. He was one of the founders of the Public Library. He provided his children with a religious Zionist education. He and his wife were involved in cultural activities in town. His daughter Mala was a member of the Religious Guard organization and was actively involved in the Hebrew classes they offered. Unfortunately, no one from this family survived.

[Page 347]

Prokhovsky Wolf
His wife: Brayna
His son: Yakov

 

Wolf Prokhovsky lived in the same house. He was a tailor and would sell his goods at the market. He had a large workshop and employed workers. He sat on the Jewish community council and supported Zionism. He donated to the Jewish National Fund. He was a religious man and educated his children in a national traditional spirit.

 

Buks Yisroel
His wife: Ruzhe

 

We now arrive at Warshavsky Street, or as we Jews called it, “the House of Study Street” (Bes Ha Midrash Street), because the House of Study was located on this street. This street was inhabited exclusively by Jews, merchants and artisans, market workers and laborers. The elderly butcher Yisroel Buks lived at the beginning of the street. He was advanced in age and, because of his age, ran his business on a small scale, slaughtering the occasional calf or goat. This is how he earned a living.

 

Vishnievsky Yosef – a widower
His son: Moishe Alter and his family
His daughter: Bluma

 

Yosef Vishnievsky, a widower, once had a paint and quicklime store, but in his old age he sold fruit. He was, like the majority of the Jews in town, religious. Between afternoon and evening prayers, he would study “Ein Yakov” with other men at Reb Leyb Lentshitsky's. He had a married son Moishe Alter who lived in Lodz. His daughter Bluma ran the household.

[Page 348]

Zielinsky Yeshayahu
His wife: Soreh
His son: Khaim Hersh. His married son Wolf and his family.
His daughters: Khana, Leah

 

Kupert Khana, the daughter of Yeshayahu Zielinsky

 

Yeshayahu Zielinsky was a tailor. He ran a workshop with the help of his children and sold their finished goods at the market. After the children married, Wolf lived in Chodecz and the eldest daughter Khana lived in Woclawek (Vlotslavek in Yiddish). The youngest daughter Genendl married Fishl Topolsky. All his children were members of the Public Library. Yeshayahu was a religious man who prayed in the synagogue. He was not involved in community affairs. He gave charity. His wife Soreh was also involved in helping the needy.

His son Khaim Hersh was an intellectual. He was a member of the board of the Public Library and one of the founders of the drama club of the library. In the 1920s, a Zionist training camp was founded in Przedecz, and he was one of the most active participants. In 1932, he opened an independent tailor workshop.

[Page 349]

Kladovsky Khaim
His wife: Rivka Hinda
His sons: Moishe Aron, Elye Dovid, Levy

 

Khaim Kladovsky was a tailor. He ran his own workshop and employed two people. He lived in his own home with his wife and 4 children. He was one of the people that knew a lot and spoke little. Even though he worked until late at night, he found time to be involved in the communal life of the Psalm Society and the VolksBank. His wife Rivka Hinda worked hard to serve the family, and helped her husband at work, and managed to find time to help the needy. Their eldest daughter Ruzhe was saved from Hitler's hell, and, after being in many labor camps, had the good fortune to come to the Land of Israel. This was one of the most beautiful families in town.

 

Rafael Wolf Levental
His wife: Esther

 

Rafael Wold Levental of blessed memory was a learned Jew and a generous, wealthy man. He had a large grain business. When his wife died, he remarried and moved to Lodz.

 

Zikhlinsky Dovid
His wife: Manya
Son: Shloime

 

Dovid Zikhlinsky was a grain merchant and chairman of the board of the Jewish community, as well as a member of the board of the bank. During the Nazi occupation, he was appointed the elder (Representative) of the Jews. He and his family were killed in Chelmno.

[Page 350]

Plotzker Moishe
His wife: Shayna Ita
His son: Nakhman Abba
His daughters: Feyge, Ruzhe

 

There were four children in the Plotzker family, two daughters and two sons. They had a butcher shop. This was an observant, traditional family. The mother Shayna Ita ran the shop. She was the butcher. Her husband Moishe travelled to the villages to buy cattle to slaughter and supply meat for their butcher shop. They were not wealthy people; however, she loved to do favors for others. No one from this family survived.

 

Polkovsky Bezalel
His wife: Blema

 

This family had a small food store and, in addition, the husband dealt with chickens in the village. They did not have any children. They were good people and loved to help others. They were not involved in communal affairs. They lived a quiet, honest life. They were both killed in Chelmno.

 

Zikhlinsky Shimshon
His wife: Frimit

 

Shimshon Zikhlinsky and his wife Frimit comprised their whole family. They did not have any children. Their life was calm but also positive. They spent all their time working in the hat making workshop and travelled to markets to sell their wares. They were quiet, simple, honorable, observant people.

[Page 351]

Rivinsky Moishe
His wife: Rivka
His sons: Dovid, Mikhal
His daughters: Shayna, Gitl, Mindl

 

Moishe Rivinsky was a tailor with a large family. All his children helped him earn a living. They sold their sewn goods at the market. The daughters sewed underwear. They were cultured people. They all were well read. The parents were religious, pious, good-hearted people.

 

Zielinsky Moishe
His daughter: Kazer

 

Moishe Zielinsky was a widower. His daughter kept house. Like many Jews in town, he did not have a profession. He did a bit of village peddling, at times worked as a glazer, but barely earned a living. He was a religious, simple man and died in 1932. Shortly before he died, his youngest daughter Kazer married and moved to Woclawek (Vlotslavek in Yiddish).

 

Opas Hersh
His wife: Soreh Gitl
His sons: Itche, Dovid, Shmuel Leyb, Avrom, Moishe.
His daughters: Esther Dreze, Ruzhe

 

Hersh Opas – his wife Soreh Gitl and their seven children – five sons and two daughters. He was a tailor, a religious man who raised his children in a national religious spirit. He supported the Mizrachi movement. His children helped him earn a living. The family worked hard until late at night and barely managed to provide for this large family. No one from this family survived.

 

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