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17  At The Turn of the Century. Several Compulsory Additions

After completing the final draft of this monograph, I came across some sources that offer additional perspectives on the life of the Jewish community of Podu Iloaiei at the turn of the 19th century and into the 20th.

The peasants' uprisings in 1888 and those in the following years, as well as the economic crisis at the end of the 19th century, had even worse effects on the Jewish population due to a series of laws and administrative dispositions that were applied abusively and excessively. This was the case in 1897 when the mayor of the commune of Podu Iloaiei forced the community to pay from its budget the wages of 10 “daytime guardians” who were supposed to protect the interests of all the town's inhabitants. A sum of 450 lei was to be paid from the money collected from the taxes on kosher meat. This affected especially the population with modest revenues—the craftsmen, the workers, and the small merchants. The president of the community, Zeida Rosenberg, resigned because he could no longer pay the rabbi, the four shochets, some of the teachers, and the physician, and it was the same with the payments for social assistance and for his office. On the other hand, the guards, although paid, could not stop the frequent thefts that were taking place in the commune (see the newspaper Opinia of Iasi from July 27, 1897).

The abuses of the communal counsel continued in the following years. The Jews protested, though they did not ask for the dissolution of this local institution (see the newspaper Evenimentul of Iasi from July 18, 1900 “The Event of Iasi”).

Despite the precarious economic situation, which worsened during the years 1898 to 1900, charitable acts were initiated by the Jews who felt united with their coreligionists who were in great need, as happened with the calamity victims in Stefanesti in the Botosani district (see Opinia, July 6, 1897).

One of the mayor's abuses was the order to close down the 25-year-old brick factory owned by the Jew Avram, while allowing others nearby to continue to function (see Iasi State Archives, the Prefecture's fund, record 87, 1896, page 13).

The situation caused some of the town's Jews to take part in the well known “on-foot emigration” in 1900. Evenimentul on April 30, 1900 writes that 100 of the townspeople are preparing to immigrate to America. After some time, we learn that their number grew to 400. This emigration trend continued during the following years. The paper Evenimentul on July 25, 1901 writes on page 3: “A delegate of the Jews named Sraier living in Podu Iloae arrived in town yesterday and pleaded to Mr. Auerbach (the representative of the I.C.A. in Paris—I.K.) the cause of a certain number of craftsmen from this small town who want to emigrate, especially the women who were left alone after last year's wave of emigrations. Mr. Auerbach promised to visit Podu Iloae in the weeks to come.”

New hardships appeared after the promulgation of the Public Education Law in 1893, according to which the children of “aliens” will be received in limited numbers at schools, having to pay taxes, which was one more burden on most of the Jews' already slim budget. Striving to know the country's language better and become familiar with the elements of modern culture, the Jews had to build their own school. The initiative was taken in 1899 and became a reality in 1902.

In the meantime, the borough was developing. A public park was opened and town-planning projects were designed with the hope of obtaining the title of town (1903). The townspeople read Romanian papers; the distributor was L. Fruchtman in 1897. From among the hundreds of Jewish families, only six were considered “rightful,” having civil and some political rights. They voted in the communal elections in 1902.

At the end of the century, the community's life becomes more diverse, moving beyond the strict framework of synagogues and, rarely, some charity society. The interest generated by the movement “Hoveve Sion” that started in the 1880s led to the opening of a local branch in 1881 that sent Saie Steinberg as its delegate to the congress in Galati in 1894. There, he presented an activity report. Upon his return, the society's activity was reorganized (see the supplement to the Yiddish paper Folksblat from January 12, 1895, page 2).

The society's activity continued with interruptions probably caused by internal rivalries. In 1901, the society Carmel reopened, led by Ghersen Cohn, who previously had edited a temporary Yiddish newspaper in Iasi with I. Finchelman and the student M. Sraier (see Evenimentul, May 5, 1902, page 3). In the same year, at the Zionist congress, the delegates were Michel Sor (who became the mayor's helper in 1923) and Iosef Rosental (who later became a Hebrew teacher). Also that year, the Zionist society Macabei was established, led by Iosef Solomon and Asbert Spaier (see Evenimentul, April 30, 1902). In the same year, the society Dr. Herzl's Youth opened, led by Elias Reisch and Vigder Iosupovici; it included a reading group with 40 members. Delegates from other towns represented this society and the Carmel society at the congress.

The following people gave a speech at that year's Hanukkah holiday: H. Meirovici, Spirt the medical undergraduate, and the teacher I. Rosental. The children recited and sang in Hebrew as well. More or less, these societies were active until 1916, owning a library of 1,000 books written in Romanian and Yiddish. Actually, between 1900 and 1916, there was a marked process of modernization of the community's life. A notable fact: The attention paid by the newspapers in Iasi, Evenimentul and later Opinia, to the events that concerned the Jewish community shows that these papers had an important number of Jewish readers and subscribers who had to be taken into consideration. Subsequently, around 1907, both papers not only stopped publishing any news about Jewish life, but also adopted an anti-Semitic attitude. The Jewish readers changed their preferences to the democratic papers Dimineata (The Morning) and Adevarul (The Truth). These papers had many readers before the Balkan war. The paper Infratirea (The Brotherhood) of the Local Jews Union also had many readers and, of course, so did other Jewish magazines and papers that appeared in Romanian or Yiddish. Some subscribed to the Hebrew press from abroad and read Modern Hebrew literature. Yiddish books, some written by second-hand authors and others by famous authors like Shalom Aleichem, I. L. Perea, Morris Rosenfeld, were much appreciated. Romanian books that appeared in the collections Everybody's Library, Minerva, and Astra were very popular since, due to the existence of the Jewish-Romanian primary school, all the young people were able to read and write in the country's language, although Yiddish was mostly resorted to in private.

Public lectures were held both in Romanian and Yiddish.

Overall, the social and cultural life of the town was very tumultuous and fruitful, much more than would be expected from an “insignificant Moldavian shtetl.”


18  I. Kara: History Studies. Selected Bibliography.

Since 1938, I. Kara (Itic Svart) published over 100 studies and history papers of variable value and extent written in Yiddish (Y), Romanian (R), English (E), Ivrit (Iv), Spanish (S), and German (G).

This bibliography includes the most important of them in regard to their conception, synthetic structuring, and the new data they reveal. All of the following titles are listed in English.

Volume or Brochure Studies

  1. Itic Svart. Centuries Old Testimonies. Bacau, 1947. (R)
  2. Itic Svart. 30 Years of Yiddish Literature in Romania. Iasi, 1947. (Y)
  3. I.Kara et al. From the Principalities' Union to the Romanian Independence War. Iasi, 1977. (R)
  4. I.Kara. A Boy from Moldova. Bucharest: Kriterion, 1976. (Y)
  5. I.Kara. The Young and … the Less Young Years. Bucharest: Kriterion, 1980. (Y)

Published in Magazines and Anthologies

  1. Itic Svart. “The Record of the Funeral Fraternity of Vijnita.” 1768. In Yivo-Bleter, Vilna, vol. 14, no. 5, September 1938, p. 125-135. (Y)
  2. A.Steinhard (pseudonym). “Contributions to the History and Literature of the On Foot Emigrants of Romania. 1900.” In Yivo-Bleter, New York, vol. 30, 1951, p. 294-298. (Y)
  3. A.Lachover (pseudonym). “The Jews and the 1848 Romanian Revolution.” Idem, vol. 51, 1951, p. 363-364. (Y)
  4. A.Lachover. “Funeral Fraternities in 18th and 19th Century Moldova.” In Yive-Annual, vol. 10, 1955, p. 300-319. (E)
  5. I.Kara (Itic Svart). “New Data Regarding the History of the Yiddish Theater in Romania.” In Bleter far geszichte, Warsaw, vol. 10, no. 1-2, 1957, p. 93-107. (Y)
  6. I.Kara. “Feudal Institutions of the Jewish Population of Romania.” Idem, vol. 12, 1960, p. 153-168. (Y)
  7. I.Kara. “Jewish Manufacturers' Guilds in Romania.” Idem. vol. 4, 1961, p. 138-145. (Y)
  8. 1957, all his works were signed with the pseudonym I. Kara.
  9. “Hassidism, Rabbinism, Illuminism in Romania.” In Yiddische Kultur, New York, no. 7 (p. 17-22), no. 8 (p. 44-50), no. 9 (p. 49-52), 1964. (Y)
  10. “The Jewish Guild and its Masters.” In The Mosaic Cult Review, no. 19, 1965. (R)
  11. “25 Years of Yiddish Culture in Romania.” In Ykuf Almanach, New York, 1961, p. 164-177 (Y)
  12. “Pages from the History of the Denominational Education in Romania.” In MCR, no. 165 (1967) and no. 288 (1971). (R)
  13. “Fragments from Gh. Asachi's Publishing Activity.” In The Metropolitan of Moldova, no. 3-4, 1968, p. 229-231. (R)
  14. “An Unknown Portrait of Mihai the Brave” In The Chronicle, Iasi, February 18, 1967, p. 10. (R)
  15. “Pages from the History of Jewish Publishing in Romania.” In RCM, no. 195 (1968), no. 199 (1969), no. 209 (1969). (R)
  16. “New Information on Hontaruse's Printing Machine.” In Karpaten Rundschau, Brasov, January 3, 1969, p. 7. (G)
  17. “The Jewish Print in Romania.” In Kiriyat Sepher, Jerusalem, vol. 45, 1970, p. 287-298. (E)
  18. “Hebrew Inscriptions in Piatra Neamt.” In Memoria Antiquitatis, Piatra Neamt, vol. 1, 1969, p. 369-373. (R)
  19. “Liber Amicorum.” In The Chronicle, Iasi, no. 1, 1971, p. 10. (R)
  20. “Fragments from the History of the Rabbinism in Moldova.” In RCM, no. 262, 1971. (R)
  21. “Rabbis and Scholars in Moldova.” In RCM, no. 266 (1971), no. 269 (1972), no. 273 (1972). (R)
  22. “Little Known Data on Prince Mihai the Brave.” In Acta Valachica, T'rgoviste, p. 171-175. (R)
  23. “The Record of the Cap Makers Guild of Iasi. 1878.” In RCM, no. 275 (1972), no. 277 (1972). (R)
  24. “Hebrew Funerary Inscriptions in the Botosani District.” In Memoria Antiquitatis, Piatra Neamt, vol. 11, 1970, p. 523-531. (R)
  25. “The Heirs of Barbu the Fiddler.” In The Chronicle, Iasi, no. 36, 1972. (R)
  26. “An Unprecedented Commercial Correspondence.” In The Yearbook of the A. D. Xenopol History Institute, Iasi, vol. 9, 1972, p. 475-494. (R)
  27. The same paper, in an augmented version, also appeared in Yivo-Bleter, New York, vol. 44, 1972, p. 78-107. (Y)
  28. “Jewish Fiddlers in Moldova.” In RCM, no. 320, 1974. (R and Y)
  29. “Several Rare Manuscripts in Moldavian Libraries” In T'rgoviste, a Citadel for the Romanian Culture, 1974, p. 257-259. (R)
  30. “Jewish Guilds in XVIIIth to Middle XIXth Century Moldova.” In Yivo-Bleter, New York, vol. 45, 1978, p. 84-97. (Y)
  31. “Rabbis and Scholarship in the Romanian Principality.” In RCM, April 1, 1975. (R and Y)
  32. “The Internal Organization of the Jewish Communities of Romania in the Past.” In Toladot, Jerusalem, 1977, no. 15, p. 11-16. (R and Iv)
  33. “The Beginning of the Jewish Settlements in Romania.” In Bukarester sriftn, Bucharest, vol. I, 1979, p. 121-135. (Y)
  34. “120 years of Yiddish Literature in Romania.” In Folks-sztime, Warsaw, October 1978. (Y)
  35. “Ninqua geta de la bellaza se perde.” In Nueva Presencia, Buenos Aires, August 24, 1979, p. 8-9. (S)
  36. “The Jews' Economic Life until the XVIIIth Century.” In Bukarester sriftn, Bucharest, vol. 3, 1980, p. 97-104. (Y)
  37. “The Jewish Population of Romania and its Organization in the Past.” Idem, vol. 4, 1981, p. 160-172. (Y)
  38. “An Unknown Commercial Stamp.” In The Yearbook of the Vaslui District History Museum. vol. 2, 1980, p. 509-510. (R)
  39. “120 Years of Jewish Printing in Romania.” In Folks-Sztime, Warsaw, March 1981. (Y)
  40. “The Economic Life of the Jews Living in Romania until 1848.” In Bukarester sriftn, vol. 5, 1982. (Y)


19  References

Note from KME

Chapter 6: Chronicle

  1. Stefan Olteanu. “The Evolutionary Process of State Organization in the south and east of the Carpathian Mountains, throughout IX – XV centuries” as reflected in: “Studies, historical magazine”, nr. 4/1974, map p.774. return
  2. Al. Graur. “Name of Places”, Bucharest (quoted further as Buc.), 1972, p.85. return
  3. C. Chirita. “Geographical Dictionary of the Iasi County”, Buc. 1888. return
  4. P.P. Panaitescu. “Foreign Travelers in the Romanian Counties”, Buc. 1930, p.94-95. return
  5. Chronicles…”, edition M. Kogalniceanu, T. I., second edition, p.358 return
  6. Chronicles…”, edition M. Kogalniceanu, T. I., second edition, p.358 return
  7. State Central Historical Archive Catalogue of Romanian documents”, vol. 3, buc. 1978, nr. 1087, 1159, 2322. return
  8. Z. Furnica. “The History of Commerce in Romania”, Buc., 1908, p. XIII. return
  9. Towns and Boroughs. Moldavia”, vol. II, Buc., 1960, p.122. return
  10. Towns and Boroughs. Moldavia”, vol. II, Buc., 1960, p. 234. return
  11. P.P. Panaitescu, “The Literary Works of”, quote, p.100 return
  12. Chronicles…”, vol. II, p.353 return
  13. Historical Magazine”, nr. 1/3, 1930, p.5. return
  14. Uricarul” (Estate documents writer), vol. 17, p.25-26. return
  15. The Great Geographical Dictionary of Romania”, vol. V, article I, p. 14. return
    1. The Great Geographical Dictionary of Romania”, vol. V, article I, p. 14. return
    2. Ecat.Negruti, from “Historical Magazine”, nr. 8/1975, p. 1189-1190. return
  16. The Archives of the State of Iasi (quoted further as A.S.I.), letter M, 509, I, p.289-292. According to the 1774 Census, in Scobilteni, there used to live a Jew, Rahmin, tradesman. (I.M.E.R., II/2. Buc., 1990, document. 84). return
  17. A.S.I., packet 345, nr. 88. return
  18. E. Schwarzfeld. “From the History of Jews. Populating, Repopulating and Founding of the Boroughs in Moldavia”. (quoted further as Populating…). Buc., 1914, p.47. return
  19. Constantin Erbiceanu. “The History of Metropolitan Churches of Moldavia and Suceava”, Buc., 1888, p. 108-109. return
  20. Constantin Sion. “The History of the Nobility in Moldavia”, Edition Hibanescu, Iasi, 1892, p.91. return
  21. Towns and Boroughs. Moldavia”, vol. II, Buc., 1960, p.96-98. return
  22. E. Schwarzfeld. “Populating…”, p.103-106. return
  23. The Growing Collections of the Romanian Academy in the years 1920-1923, p.232 return
  24. A.S.I. doc.548/16. return
  25. A.S.I. doc.548/16. return
  26. Stela Maries, in “The Year Book of the Institute of History <<A.D. Xenopol>>” Iasi, 1969, vol. 6, p.185. return
  27. The Opinion”, Iasi, January 16, 1935, p.2. return
  28. A.S.I. packet 591, nr. 63. return
  29. A.S.I. packet 591, nr. 63. return
  30. A.S.I. packet 344, nr. 254. return
  31. The dates of the mosaic calendar have been transposed in the current calendar format by using comparative tables, published by rabbi Solomon W. Freud, Wien, 1885. (Vienna) return
  32. A.S.I. packet 119, nr. 50. return
  33. A.S.I. packet 119, nr. 50., letter P/811, file 23-24; letter V, nr. 65, file 138 v. return
  34. Verax. “La Roumanie et les Juifs” (Romania and Jews), Paris, 1903, p.14. return
  35. A.S.I., letter P/811; file 11-12. return
  36. I. Kara, in “Bleter far gezichte”, Warsaw, vol. 12, 1959 return
  37. A.S.I., tr. 875, work 997, file 371, p.22 from 1833 return
  38. Col. I. Kara, Iasi. return
  39. C.C. Giurescu. “The Romanian Principalities in the Nineteenth Century”, p.53-57. return
  40. A.S.I. packet 10, nr. 35-42. return
  41. The Administrative Manual of Moldavia”, I, p.525, appeal from May 14, 1835. return
  42. The Official Bulletin”, nr. 63/1835, p.239. return
  43. A.S.I. packet 646, nr. 41. return
  44. Bulletin”, official document, 1836, p.82. return
  45. Parliamentary Annals”, XIII, second part, p.643. return
  46. Towns and Boroughs...”, p. 241-243. return
  47. Bulletin”, official document, 1839, p.127. return
  48. A.S.I. packet 245, nr. 26, April 6, 1840. return
  49. Village Paper”, 1841, p.251-252. return
  50. Village Paper”, 1841, p.322, 407. return
  51. A.S.I., Secret Documents, nr. 798. return
  52. A.S.I., doc. 776, nr. 56. return
  53. A.S.I., packet 10, nr. 38-40. return
  54. Village Paper”, 1843, p.294. return
  55. A.S.I., Secret Documents, nr. 1228, file 26. return
  56. Bulletin”, official document, 1845, p.210. return
  57. A.S.I. fund I. Kara. return
  58. A.S.I., Secret Documents, nr. 340, file 105. return
  59. Towns and Boroughs...”, p. 280. return
  60. A.S.I., tr. 1772, work 2020, file 3705, p.30 return
  61. Bulletin”, official document, 1845, p.478. return
  62. Village Paper”, 1846, p.127. return
  63. A.S.I., Secret Documents, nr. 1624, file 23. return
  64. A.S.I., Secret Documents, nr. 1624, file 17. return
  65. A.S.I. fund I. Kara. return
  66. A.S.I., packet 125, nr. 79. return
  67. A.S.I., packet 649, nr. 207. return
  68. The Iasi Newspaper”, September 18, 1874. return
  69. Uri Veisi”, nr. 65. return
  70. The Brotherhood” (Newspaper), April 27, 1880, p.2. return
  71. The Brotherhood”, September 25, 1881, p.2. return
  72. The Brotherhood”, November 28, 1881, p.3. return
  73. A.S.I. the fund of the Iasi County Prefecture, 1881, nr. 69. return
  74. A.S.I. the fund of the Iasi County Prefecture, 1882, nr. 32. return
  75. The Jewish Magazine”, 1888, nr. 16, p. 437. return
  76. A.S.I., 1896, nr. 5. return
  77. A.S.I. the fund of the Iasi County Prefecture, 1895, nr. 5, file 5. return
  78. A.S.I. the fund of the Iasi County Prefecture, 1896, nr. 87. return
  79. The Opinion”, Iasi, July 6, 1897. return
  80. The Event” (Newspaper), Iasi, July 14, 1904, p. 1. return
  81. A.S.I. the fund of the Iasi County Prefecture, 1902, nr. 35. return
  82. Most of the information regarding years 1903-1908 are extracted from the Iasi newspaper “The Event”, while for the years 1909-1940, information is taken from the newspaper “The Opinion”. The mentioned event can be found in an issue of this newspaper, published around this date. Other more important sources are described more explicitly in notes. return
  83. Constantin Kiritescu. “The History of War. 1916-1918”, vol. 3, p.31. return
  84. A.S.I. the fund of the Iasi County Prefecture, 1918, nr. 27. return
  85. The Bulletin of the Jewish Community Union from the Old Kingdom”, year I, nr. 2, 1928, p.15. return
  86. The Bulletin of the Jewish Community Union from the Old Kingdom”, year I, nr. 12-14, October 1931, p.27. return
  87. The Report of the Jewish Hospital Guardianship from Iasi of 1932-1934, Iasi, 1935, p.20, 26, 60. return
  88. M. Carp. “The Black Book”, vol. 2, p.33. return
  89. S. Cris-Christian. “Four Years of Wrath”, Buc. 1945, p.114. return

Chapter 7: Economic Life

  1. Cf. Verax, “Literary Works ofreturn
  2. A.S.I., letter IA from 144, file 1 and 8. return
  3. A.S.I., tr. 875, works 997, file 407, p.1, 2. return
  4. Verax, “Literary Works of”, p.14 return
  5. A.S.I., tr. 1423, works 1619, register 1025, p.3. return
  6. A.S.I., Secret Documents, nr. 554, file 34, 35, February 28, 1839. return
  7. The Official Bulletin of Moldavia”, 1842, p.339. return
  8. A.S.I., County of Iasi, 1845, tr. 1619, register 1024. return
  9. Carpica”, Bacau, III, 1970, appendix III. return
  10. A.S.I., tr. 1423, works 1619, register 1025, p.3. return
  11. A.S.I., tr. 1768, works I/2017, file 422, p. 18, 21. return
  12. A.S.I., tr. 1768, works I/2017, file 422, p. 7. return
  13. The Magazine of Archives”, XII, nr. 1/1969, p.89. return
  14. The Scientific Annals of Alexandru Iaon Cuza University - IASI”, s.III, T. XIII, 1967, p.84. return
  15. The Magazine of Archives”, XII, nr. 1/1969, p.92, 94. return
  16. Verax, “Literary Works of”, p.44. return
  17. The Development of the Moldavian Economy”, 1848/1864. Buc., 1963, p.221. return
  18. A.S.I. the fund of the Iasi County Prefecture, 1895, nr. 5. return
  19. Article written by M. Arcu in “The Opinon”, Iasi, August 1, 1928, p.2. return

Chapter 8: Communal Life

  1. The Brotherhood”, Buc., 1882, p.361. return
  2. The Brotherhood”, September 22, 1889, p.1. return
  3. Folksblat”, Buc., January 12, 1895, p.3. return
  4. The Event”, Iasi, November 7, 1901, p. 3. return

Chapter 9: Private and Public Education

  1. A.S.I. the fund of the Iasi County Prefecture, nr. 86/1884. return
  2. A.S.I. the fund of the Iasi County Prefecture, file 117/1886. return
  3. A.S.I. the fund of the Iasi County Prefecture, nr. 1081/1891, file 7. return
  4. The Jewish Newspaper”, January 18, 1913, p.1. return

Chapter 11: Rabbinate

  1. The Jewish Magazine”, 1887, p.579. return

Chapter 12: Hasidism

  1. “Meain hachasidut”, year 2, nr. 2, 1965, p.10-11. return
  2. A.S.I. the fund of the Iasi County Prefecture, nr. 89/1892. return


20  Glossary of Terms

The following glossary was not part of Kara's work. It's an added feature of this English edition.

Legend: Heb=Hebrew, Rom=Romanian, Yid=Yiddish

Term Language Definition
a Rom Son of…
a lui Rom Son of…
Bani Rom Currency, plural of ban. 100 bani equals 1 leu.
Belfer Yid Teacher's assistant
Bereshit Heb “In the beginning”. The book of Genesis.
Braga Rom Fermented soft drink.
Bucuros Rom Happily
Dayan Heb Judge in a religious court
Divan Rom An assembly of the nobles of the country
Dumnezeu Rom G-d
Ebrews Rom Hebrews
El mulei rachamin Heb Prayer said for the deceased
Eretz Yisrael Heb The Land of Israel
Gabaim de Tzadikim Heb Treasurers of the righteous ones. Refers to chief assistants of Hasidic rabbis.
Galbeni Rom An old currency. Literally coins made of gold
Ghiter id Yid Literally a good Jew, i.e. a good person
Ghitn uvnt Yid Good evening
Hahami Heb A ritual slaughter. It's from the Hebrew word “chachma”, wisdom. (It may actually be a word used in old Romanian that came through Turkish???). Also called “shochet”.
Hakafot Heb The ritual of dancing around the Torah.
Hamantashen Yid Special pastries eaten on Purim, formed in the shape of Haman's hat.
Hasidic Heb Religious Jewish sect which emphasized spiritual values
Heder Yid Literally a room in Heb but in Yid used for elementary school.
Hekdesh Heb Sanctified property – i.e. communal property, charity, etc.
Hidromel Rom A light alcoholic beverage made from honey
High Porte Eng The High Porte is a synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Porte, Sublime Porte, and High Porte are similar terms for the Turkish Babý Ali, the court of the sultan. When translated into English, the Turkish term Babi Ali means, literally, “High Gate”. Porte is French for “Gate”, therefore, the term High Porte is a bilingual combination of English High and French Porte that is equivalent to Babi Ali. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sublime_Porte)
Judaeus Rom Jews
Kaddish Heb Prayer said for the deceased
Kobza Rom Type of lute.
Leu Rom The national currency of Romania (plural lei) One leu is subdivided into 100 bani (singular ban).
Lipoveans Rom Orignally refered to people of Russian origin, who settled in the region of the Danube River and the Black Sea. Later it was used to describe all those coming from Russia.
Machlokes Heb Long standing argument
Maot Chittim Heb Hebrew for “wheat money”. This is money given to the poor for their Passover matzah.
Matseva Heb Tombstone.
Melamed Heb An itinerant teacher (plural melamdim)
Minyan Heb A quorum of 10 Jews for prayer.
Mishna Heb A codified collection of Jewish Oral Law compiled circa 200 CE. Together with the Gemara it forms part of the Talmud.
Mitzraim Heb Egypt
Moale Rom Soft
Mozl tov Heb Congratulations, literally lucky constellation (mazel tov)
Nigunim Heb Tunes
Oca Rom Measure of volume, equals 1.5 liters
Parale Rom Currency until 1968
Pericope Latin/ Greek An extract or selection from a book, especially a reading from a Scripture that forms part of a religious service. In a Jewish context it is the weekly Torah reading (Parsha).
Podu Rom Bridge
Sales-sides Heb Literally third meal, used in reference to a meal eaten on Sabbath afternoon (Shalosh Seudos)
Sanatatea Rom Health
Sheli sheloh, sheloh sheli Heb Literally his, mine, mine, his. A children's game
Shochet Heb A ritual slaughter.
Stetl Yid A Jewish market town in Eastern Europe
Sin Rom Son
Stanjen Rom Measure of length equal to 6 feet
Sudit Rom A foreign citizen or native who enjoyed foreign protection while living on Romanian territory, as stipulated by the terms of the treaties signed by the Western powers and the Turkish Empire.
Tales Heb A fringed prayer shawl worn by men during religious services
Talmud Heb Compilation of the Jewish oral law, consists of the Mishna and Gemara
Talmud Torah Heb Study of Torah. Also refers to religious school.
Talmudist   One who is knowledgeable in the Talmud
Treif Heb Non kosher food
Tzadik Heb Righteous one, a moniker used for Hasidic leaders.
Vedre Rom Measurement tool used in Moldova in the past, equaling approximately 15.2 litres.
Yeshiva Heb A Talmudic academy


21  Glossary of Places

The following glossary was not part of Kara's work. It's an added feature of this English edition. It appears in both PDF version available from KME and in HTML format at the JewishGen website.

Place Chapter
Agiud 15
Albesti 16.14
Alesk 12
America 7, 8, 15.6, 17
Arama 15.6
Babylon 11
Bahlui 16.17
Bahlui region 8
Bahlui River 7, 8, 14, 15.3, 15.5, 15.7, 16.3
Bahluiet River 7, 15.7
Balcani 16.14
Barbalata 16.13
Basarabia, Old 15.4
Basceaus 16.14
Basel 9
Belcesti 16.7
Berdicev 15.2
Berlesti 8
Bivolari 15.3
Bogoila 16.14
Boidinesti 16.14
Borseni in Neamt 16.14
Botosani 15.4, 16.14, 16.15
Botosani district 7, 17
Braesti estate 7
Brody 12
Bucharest 7, 8, 15, 15.4, 15.7
Bucovina 7
Buenos Aires 15.4
Buhusi 7, 13, 15.2, 15.4
Bukovina 15
Bulbucani 16.14
Bulgaria 7
Burdujeni 8
Burlacu 16.14
Butuliac 16.14
Cantacuzino's estate 16.14
Carazeni 8
Carligatura county 7, 16.2
Carligatura district 7
Catesti 16.14
Cernauti 7, 15, 15.2, 15.4, 15.5, 16.2
Constantinople 8
Cosateni 16.14
Craiova 15.5
Cristesti 16.14
Darajeni 16.14
Dobrogea 8
Doroscani 16.14
Drancea in Iasi 16.14
Erbiceni 7
Eretz Yisrael 7, 15. 15.4
Erghiceni 16.14
Esi 16.6, 16.14
Falticeni 15.4
Galati 8, 17
Galicia 13
Germany 7
Hanaseni 16.14
Harlau 7
Harpagesti 16.14
Herta 15
Hirlau 8, 15
Hoisesti 16.14
Holland 15.4
Holy Land 11
Iasi 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 15.2, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 16.2,17
Iasi county 11
Iasi district 15.5
Israel 8, 15
Korzec 12
Kuty 12
Larga 16.14
Lazareni 16.14
Lelioaiei 15.1
Lespezi 7
Lint 12
Lipova 16.14
Lipsca 8
Lithuania 13
Lungani 16.14
Lvov 12
Malaesti 16.14
Maramures 7, 12, 15
Memornita 15
Mihaileni (aka Vladeni) 7, 12
Mircesti 16.14
Moinesti 15.4
Moldavia 15.4, 15.7
Moldavian Principality 7
Moldova 7, 8, 15, 15.3, 15.5
Moldova, Republic of 15.4
Neculachi 16.13
Negresti 16.12
New York 15.6
Obresti 16.14
Obrojeni 7
Odobesti 15
Pacurari (Iasi) 13
Palade's estate 11
Paris 7, 15.4, 17
Pascani 13, 15.2
Plevna 7
Podeloi 15
Podliloaei 15
Podu Iloae 17
Podu Iloaiei 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 15.4, 15.7, 17
Podu Iloaiei borough 8
Podu Lelioaiei 7, 15.5
Podul Eloaie (Pont d'Aloia) 15
Podul Lelioaiei 7
Podul Lelioarei 8
Podulelioaia borough 7
Poduleloaiei 7
Poduleloi 7
Podul-ii-leloe 7
Podul-Leloea 7
Poenile Oancii 16.14
Popesti 7, 8, 16.4, 16.13, 16.14
Prague 15.2
Premislean 15.2
Prut River 15.4
Roman 8, 16.15
Romanesti 16.14
Romania 7, 8, 15.1, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6
Romanian County 15.3
Romanian Principalities 8
Sadagura 12, 13
Sarca estate 8
Scheia 7
Scobalteni 7, 8, 16.1, 16.8
Scobalteni borough 7
Scobalteni estate 7, 11, 15.6
Sculeni 16.14
Sinesti 16.14
Sirca 16.4, 16.14
Slavuta 12
Sneatin 16.11
Stefanesti 8, 13, 15.2, 17
Stornest 16.14
Strelite 15.2
Strelitk 12
Suceava 13
Sulita 13, 16.14
Sulitoae 15
Targu Frumos 7, 8, 11, 12, 15.4
Tel Aviv 15
The United Principalities 7
Ticau 7
Timisesti River 7
Tirgu Frumos 16.13, 16.14, 16.15
Tirgu Nou 16.1
Tirgu Ocna 15.5
Todireni 10
Toma 16.15
Totoesti 16.4, 16.13, 16.14, 16.15
Totoesti estate 7
Transylvania 7
Tulcin 8
United States 15.4
Vijnita 12
Vilna 11
Vladeni (aka Mihaileni) 7, 16.1
Zahorna 16.14
Zloczow 13

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