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16  Documentary Appendices

16.1  Appendix A: The Right to Sell Liquor, 1826

Iasi State Archives (ISA)[B-30], letter M, 509, f. 289-292

The council of the town of Vladeni or Tirgu Nou from November 16, 1826 addresses to the King a report establishing that the right to sell liquors is given “… only to those who will receive the acceptance from the landlord as was communicated in the act issued in 1816 by King Scarlat Calimah VV, blessed be his name, and concerning the town of Podu Leloaia as part of the Scobalteni estate to which Your Majesty issued the 1823 act … ”


16.2  Appendix B: Census of 1824

ISA, transport 166, op.184, no. 23

Sudits' census of 1824, Podu Iloaiei

  1. Russian Sudit, Moscu Iticovici: born in Berdicev, settled for 20 years, 45 years old, Jewish clothes, married to a native. He has a shop of his own in the borough Podul Leloaiei in Carligatura county …

  2. K. K. Sudit (Austrian – original note), Berl Leizer: born in Cernauti, settled for 22 years, Jewish clothes, married to a native. House of his own in Podul Lelioaiei, where he lives. Trades horses and rents bars. He is 26 years old.

  3. K. K. Sudit, Moise Maer: born in Cernauti, settled for 12 years, 25 years old, Jewish clothes. House and shop of his own in Iasi. Rented shop in Podul Lelioaiei where he sells things of small value. Married in Cernauti.


16.3  Appendix C: Sale of Land, 1826

ISA Fond I. Kara. Agreement Act

I, undersigning in Hebrew, give my written agreement to Mr. Iacov Lipovean[B-31] that I know to have sold him a piece of land, which I have lawfully owned since the foundation of this town. The place has the following size: From the wall of Lipovean Marin's shop to the bridge over the Bahlui River owned by Serban Negel, mayor, including the piers that stand on this land. The land was sold for 60 lei and I received the total sum. He should hold this place as his own forever, and whatever he wishes to do with it he should do, since the land is rightfully his. I engage to obtain for this written agreement the approval of His Excellency General Constantin Palade, the forever owner of the estate to which this town belongs, so that the agreement should be recognized and the owner can use the land without anyone bothering him. And for these, I alone signed in Hebrew. March 24, 1826. I, Iaakov, son of Smuel.

This sale agreement, which I also received, validates the act.

General Constantin Palade


16.4  Appendix D: Income Sharing Agreement, 1830

ISA, letter P, 811, f. 23-24/1830, December 22, Iasi

The income made by the borough Podu Leloaiei, including the inn and the landlord's wine cellar which is rightfully owned by His Excellency General Constantin Palade, through the power given by the contract signed with General Palade, I sell the income to Mr. Moise Iuster and Mr. Herscu a Mendiloaiei for a three-year term starting on October 26, 1831, under the following terms:

  1. Each year, I have to give him 12,000 lei, meaning exactly 12,000 lei to be paid in the following manner: 6,000 lei now at the conclusion of the deal and 6,000 lei on April 1, 1832 at the end of the first-year debt, and again 6,000 lei on October 1, 1832 and 6,000 lei on April 1, 1833, and so on without delay until all the agreed money is paid.

  2. I am entitled to a share of the town's income from all sources as the contract stipulates, but not a penny more.

  3. They are to keep the inn in the best state during this time, hiring a Moldavian innkeeper and trusting him to be capable of satisfying all the clients who may stay at the inn, no matter what their status. At the end of the period for this contract, they should give back the inn in clean, good condition, just as they received it.

  4. All the townspeople, inhabitants, and visitors, no matter what business they are in, are to help them as much as possible, preventing any mistreatment from anyone. If a situation cannot be resolved, they are to let me know.

  5. The captain of the town is to be nominated by the landlord's authority. Whoever they find fit for the job is to look after the merchants, both those living in town and those visiting. If the opposite happens, the captain will be dismissed at the proprietor's order. No one should claim anything from me, but only if one can arrange to have acceptance …[B-32]

  6. All soldiers living in town who are under the military rule are not to be bothered in any way about working their land for their food as they have done until now, but they only have to pay the usual tithe in products or in any other way they find fit.

  7. The Gypsies, who live in town and are owned by His Excellency the General, will be allowed to pay the tax wherever they are taken, except one man whose duty will be to guard the road and the bridge from which they are not to take any tax.

  8. The cattle belonging to the town's merchants and soldiers may graze on the field that has been used until now, but their number is limited as stipulated in the contract.

  9. Apart from the tithe on the town, I also have to pay with 20 measures[B-33] of grass field and ten measures of land from the Popesti estate, the part in the vicinity of Sirca, and land for a garden at the entry in Totoesti, which belonged to Andrei the gardener.

  10. As until now, they are allowed to use the waters from the Bahluiet mill upwards.

  11. They will be given permission to grind at the Podu Lelioaiei mill 40 measures of wheat or corn per year tax-free.

  12. As in the former contract, regarding the land given to Iancu the carpenter, no one should give him any trouble in raising his building.

  13. The trash resulting from the inn is to be taken out of the town and in no way to be deposited close to the inn, not even for a short time.

  14. Any kind of building or annex raised on the estate or any kind of trade that does not have the acceptance of the forever owner will become part of the estate at the end of these years with no payment in exchange.

  15. If they do not pay at the agreed upon time, I shall be free to sell the town's income and all the rest to any merchant I can find, and I shall be entitled to recover my debt from them without any opposition.

In the above-mentioned terms, I sold the income of the borough Podu Lelioaiei. If all terms are complied with they should have no trouble collecting the town's income until the end of the mentioned period of time. For this purpose, two similar contracts were made for each part and given legal power by my signature. December 22, 1830. Signed: Costache Pelin, moneylender.

On page 38, there is an added request from “the guardians of the deceased General C. Palade” dated November 9, 1831. It is agreed in the contract that the guardians may appoint the captain of the town who becomes the administrator. Tudorache Popovici who was appointed on April 15, 1830 was rejected by Herscu, who then took possession of the Totoesti estate. And it is known that the vice-president of the Divan made a decision forbidding the Jews to lease land. The reconfirmation of the captain's appointment is requested.

On page 11 and 12, it is added the decision of the Divan that Herscu should get his money back and restitute the contract. C. Pelin offered the money, but Herscu refuses to accept it.


16.5  Appendix E: Statistics

In La Roumanie et les Juifs (Bucharest 1903, p. 14), Verax estimated the population of Podu Iloaiei in 1831 to be: 281 local Jews; 281 Christians; and eight Sudits of whom three are Jews (I.K.). In all, 570 people in 164 families. In a report from 1970, Dr. Ecaterina Negruzzi offered the following estimates: 281 Jews, of whom 109 are children, and 560 people in the whole population. The official census indicates that on Palade's estate there were 49 tribute-paying persons, each paying 30 lei per year, and five nontribute-payers. Among the tribute payers, we find the Jews Leiba sin Simon (baker), Moisa sin Iosap (undertaker), Iosap sin Leiba, Moise sin Leizer (brandy maker or seller), Itic sin Strul, Herscu sin Froim, Meier sin Leiba (janitor of the synagogue), Iosap sin Avram (undertaker), Smil sin Leiba (undertaker), and Herscu sin Fisel (undertaker). Living on Neculai Cantacuzino's estate, there were 15 Christian tribute-payers and the Jew Iancu sin Mendel, a ritual chicken slaughterer.

The final documents mention 57 tribute-payers on Palade's estate of whom 14 were Jews: Rabbi Moise sin Leizer, five undertakers, five with no profession mentioned, one butcher, one bath-house attendant, and one wagoner. On N. Canta's estate, there were 12 Christian tribute-payers, four tribute-exempted, and one Jew. The names of six Jewish Sudits were kept: Iosef Leibovici, Moise Ensiberg, Iancu Smil, David Kaufman, Haim Bekir (baker), and Laiba Margulies who did not appear in any of the previous lists (I.S.A., Moldova's State Secretariate, no. 68, 1832, f. 13). The other Jews not mentioned here by name were probably tribute-payers, widows, old, or handicapped. Actually, material published in the magazine Albina Romaneasca[B-34] in the supplement to issue no. 117 on February 23, 1831 lists the shops in Podu Iloaiei: 25 first class, 23 second class, and 14 third class. Another source points out that 70 Jews and eight Christians died from cholera in Podu Iloaiei in 1831.


16.6  Appendix F: Taxes, 1833

Albina Romaneasca, no. 28, April 20, 1833. Taxes

The Treasury of the Principality of Moldova. No. 2649. The law for ensuring the collection of the taxes from the Jewish ethnicity.

Although article 47 from annex Z of chapter 3 of the Organic Regulation establishes the taxes paid by the Jewish ethnicity to be patents equally applied to all, as is the case for the other inhabitants, it has been found that it would be best to collect the taxes from the Jews in another way. Since the Jewish ethnicity from Esi[B-35] found this other way to be the only easy means of collecting the taxes to be paid by the Jews, it is established and brought to the public's knowledge the tax to be paid by the Jewish ethnics from both Esi and the other towns of the Principality, wherever the Jews will solicit, estimating the prices according to the tax for the meat to be sold and for chicken slaughtering in such a way that the taxes for the Jews will always be collected together with what is still to be paid as past debts. The payment of the tax should be done in the Jewish synagogue in the presence of a representative of the local administration and of the elders from all Jewish professions.

The law concerning the taxes to be paid by the fraternities of merchants and craftsmen through their leaders is published in Albina Romaneasca no. 34.


16.7  Appendix G: Deposition, 1836

I.S.A., Letter P., 646, No. 41, Podu Lelioaiei, February 16, 1836.


I, who shall afterward sign Jewishly, trust this deposition of mine in the hands of the merchants who are in judicial conflict with Mr. Gavrilas, administrator of the royal vineyards, maintaining that I know about their case, since at that time I happened to be on the street and saw the policemen pulling the man, Solomon, by his whiskers and beating him. So, I went to the house of the administrator Grigoras and asked him why Solomon was being beaten by the police. Other merchants had already arrived at the administrator's house. Grigoras rose immediately and shouted to the merchants: “Why have you come to beat me up?” The merchants said: “We have come to ask you why the policemen do such a thing, beating merchants in the streets?” This is what I have seen happening in my presence, for the merchants said nothing else to the administrator.

This is what I also stated in front of the commission, and I testify the same now in fear of God. And I signed in faith, February 16, 1836, Iancu Leib from Belcesti.

(Round stamp: Podul Iloaiei administration)


16.8  Appendix H: Agreement with Owner of Estate, 1838

I.S.A., Moldova State Secretariate, no. 552, f. 2, 1838.

Copy of the agreement signed between the inhabitants of Podu Iloaiei and the owner of the Scobalteni estate.

We the townsmen, Christians, Jews, and those in the suburbs of the borough of Podu Iloaiei on the Scobalteni estate owned by His Excellency Chancellor Neculai Canta, since we are forbidden to sell any alcoholic beverages as stipulated in the settlement contract, this being the exclusive right of the owner of the estate, made a request to the forever master, agreeing to the following:

  1. Whoever intends to sell beverages should pay 1 lei and 42 bani for every 12 liters of brandy, 108 bani for 12 liters of rum, 81 bani for 10 liters of wine, and 54 bani for 15 liters of fuel oil or petroleum, following this payment arrangement for the entire time he keeps his business.

  2. For each measure of land[B-36] that is given to us for our shops and is situated on the side of the street, we should pay a long-term rent that is established forever at 3 lei and 72 bani per year, no more or no less, during the time that we maintain our business. We shall be given ten more measures of land rent-free for the yard of each shop, no matter the breadth of the building. But the buildings that are to be built should have no space between them, not even the size of a palm, unless a street is planned to pass across. The roof of all the buildings will not be of any other material than board or shingle.

  3. Butchery, bakery, candle making, barbershops, cooking, (balance) weighing, mortasapie[B-37] remain in the custody of the owner and we, the townsmen, shall have nothing to do with these, with the condition that the butcher is obligated to always have kosher meat and sell it at the price established on the other side of the town, on the estate of the deceased general Costaki Paladi; the same condition holds for candle selling.

  4. If any of us, the merchants, is proven to have dared to bring alcohol in secretly, without the knowledge of the owner and without paying as agreed, all the alchool will be confiscated, and the merchant will be banished from the town and his shop will remain in the possession of the owner of the estate, without any possibility of forgiveness, for this is what we agreed upon.

  5. We shall be allowed to build a church on the place of the cemetery at no cost to us. We will also be given land for the school and the public bath at no cost.

  6. Any building built from now on will respect the plan of the town, without narrowing the space between shops.

  7. Besides the conditions mentioned above, any merchant is allowed to run a business in his house or shop without any payment to the forever owner.

  8. We, all townsmen present today and all those who settle in the future, are allowed to bring a herd of 60 cattle to graze in the field of the Scobalteni village at no cost. If there are more cattle, we shall buy a new place from His Excellency if he agrees to sell it to us.

  9. His Excellency sold this agreement for the exact price of 37,350 lei, thirty seven thousand, three hundred, and fifty lei, to us who sign below: Toma Gavrilovici, Izrail sin Isar, and Avram Leiba. We are to pay in four rates of eight months each, paying the first rate on January 1 of the next year (1839) and the other three rates every eight month until the end of the two years.

  10. We shall keep this agreement, and those who settle in this town in the future will respect the old rules. So, until the completion of the formalities, we give to the forever owner for his assurance the contract that we signed and receive in exchange his copy.

November 28, 1838

(Two Jews and one Christian are signing.) (Similar to the original: Iordache Gavrilovici, baker.)


16.9  Appendix I: Rental Agreement, 1841

I.S.A., I. Kara fun d. November 25, 1841. Podu Iloaiei

Document to the peace-loving administration

For the piece of land of six measures in breadth and twenty measures in length that the merchant Moisa Itic possesses in the borough Podu Iloaiei, property of the undersigned, and on which he has his shops, he will pay rent and other taxes as established in the property contract, and I shall give him no trouble in using the land. This document addressed to the peace-loving administration was given to him with my signature and seal. In accord with the property contract, November 25, 1841, Ghika Ceacuz (?).

(The act comes from the I. Klingher family from Podu Iloaiei who gave it to me in 1966).


16.10  Appendix J: Occupations, 1842

I.S.A., package 10, no. 41.

Podu Iloaiei rent-payers list for 1842, from which I established the occupations of the Jewish rent-payers: 1 baker, 1 barrel maker, 5 butchers, 10 tailors, 2 lengths-measuring men, 2 shoemakers, 2 synagogue janitors, 1 fur cap maker, 3 teachers, 1 wheat flour seller, 1 candle carrier, 1 shochet, 1 stone mason, 2 brandy makers, 1 glass seller, 1 joiner, 1 tax collector, and 1 money lender.


16.11  Appendix K: Sale of House, 1845

I. Kara collection (Podu Iloaiei, January 8, 1845)

Certificate (translated from Hebrew)

Intended to be proof in the hands of Mr. Slomo, son of Avraham, and Mr. Mose Itchak, son of Naftali, who bought the house that was left here by the deceased Eliahu from his uncle Iaakov with the acceptance of the rabbi who assisted and Mr. Iaakov who assisted, as they received a letter from the rabbi of Sneatin. The mentioned house was sold for 1,676 lei, one thousand, six hundred, and seventy six lei, with the condition that the money be paid at the moment of delivering the papers to the authority, both the papers from the rabbi and the Court on our expanse. The above-mentioned associates will give Mr. Iaakov 1,000 lei and for the remaining 676 lei write a note to be paid on the day of Saint George (1845) at the latest. Mr. Iaakov took 20 galbeni in advance with the condition that, once the associates arrive in Iasi, no one should give them any trouble with the papers (signed) at the rabbi of Sneatin or at the Chancellor's office, though they must pay the whole sum they owe.

It also has been stipulated that we shall leave the things that are in the house, the windows, the barn, as well as the debt from the builders of the house who pawned their tools until the termination. Thus, we sign today, Wednesday the 29th of Tevet 5605, here, Podu Iloaiei, Iaakov, son of Zeiev (Lupu) Segal.

(Signed: Moise, the rabbi of this place.)


16.12  Appendix L: List of Taxpayers, 1834

I.S.A., tr. 644, op. 708, no. 502, f. 22-25.

Regarding the proposals made by the treasury's inspector Ion Teodoru on June 30, 1834 concerning “the good tax-payers,” the representatives of the community and the former chief policeman of the town, Todorachi, made a statement in front of the actual captain of the town, Colonel Constandin. The commission establishes the following individuals:

  1. Smil sin Itic, orphan of father, 17 years old, works as a porter, poor.
  2. Avram, brother of Iosip the lengths measurer, 20 years old, poor, works for his brother.
  3. Moisa the tailor, old, ran away from the town.
  4. Itic the tailor, old, lives from charity.
  5. Itic, brat David, 17 years old, orphan, poor.
  6. Sloim, his brother, 20 years old, same situation as Itic.
  7. Ghidale, son of Iancu Belcescu, 17 years old, married, helps his father in the trade business.
  8. Sulim, butcher, pays the tax in Iasi.
  9. Lupu, old, lived in the villages, poor.
  10. Avram, teacher, came for six months from Iasi.
  11. Moisa, teacher, same situation as Avram.
  12. Avram, teacher, old, his wife owns a hut, poor.
  13. Avram, tailor, 18 years old, from Tirgu Frumos, settled temporarily
  14. Froim, bar owner, from Vaslui, rented a bar in Scobalteni for six months, Austrian subject, left Podu Iloaiei four years ago.
  15. Solomon Herscu, business in Negresti, pays tax.
  16. Leiba Meilich, opened a shop in town, not registered as a taxpayer.
  17. Moisa Leiba, married for one year, a Sudit's son.
  18. Saim, furrier, came from Suceava, taxpayer.
  19. Moisa, bar owner, married, wants to rent a bar in the country.
  20. Smil, bar owner, shoemaker in the suburbs, can pay tax.
  21. Calman Ber, married, shop, can pay tax.

The conclusion of the administrator of Carligatura county (page 32): seven can pay tax, two are Sudits, two are new arrivals, two are not of age, two are not restricted by the settlement agreement, six are poor and helpless in all ways, and two can pay the third class tax.


16.13  Appendix M: List of Rent Payers, 1842

I.S.A., Manuscripts, no. 1842

A report on the money collected from the rent payers of Podu Iloaiei in 1842, following the official possession catalog. At the street, there are 43 houses inhabited by Christians (Romanians, Russians, Serbs, Armenians, and Bulgarians) and 58 houses inhabited by 54 Jews. In the suburbs of the town, there are 40 houses inhabited by Christians and 17 houses inhabited by 16 working Jews. Below are the names of the Jewish inhabitants in the order that they appear in the list: 1) Leiba Doroscanu; 2) Iosap Crestinu; 3) Smule from Tirgu Frumos; 4) Izrail sin Iosap; 4a) Tij Izrail; 5) Herscu Hahamul from Tirgu Frumos; 5a) Izrail sin Iosap; 6) David Casap; 7) Marcu Casap; 8) Smile Chioru; 9) Haim Croitoriul[B-38] ; 10) Munas; 11) Smil sin Ilie; 12) Sruli Popa; 13) Ilie Croitoriul; 14) Nusam sin Avram; 15) Marcu sin Avram; 16) Herscu Dascalu; 17) Avram sin Leibis; 18) Iosup Cotariul (deceased)[B-39]; 19) Ghiza Seinova; 20) David sin Avram; 21) Smil sin Haim; 22) Zeilic sin Haim; 23) Marcu Berlescu; 24) Leiba Chitar; 25) Leiba from Totoesti; 26) Mahal Bujor; 27) Altar Rabinovici; 28) Lazar Barbalata; 29) Iancu sin Ghedale; 30) Froim Barbalata; 31) Moisa Barbalata; 32) Iancu Steclaritii; 33) Iancu Belcescu; 34) Leiba Zaraf; 35) Solomon Taxieru; 36) Lupu Fainariu; 37) David sin Iosup; 38) David Cotar, (deceased); 39) Sulim sin Marcu; 40) Zisu Faclier; 41) Marcu Osap; 42) Filal Rachieriu; 43) Sender Croitoriu; 44) barren place of Leiba Zaraf; 45) barren place of Haim Ber; 46) Iancu Mochioaiei; 47) Leiba sin Iancu; 48) Izrail Casap's sister; 49) Lupu Volf; 50) Haim from Popesti; 51) Meer Croitor; 52) Iancu Stoleriu; 53) Marcu Croitoriu; and 54) Moisa Ciobotariu.

In the suburbs: 1) Meer Ceaus; 2) Cos Butnar; 3) Smile Dascal[B-40]; 4) Smile Croitor; 5) Herscu Pagu; 6) Altar Croitoru; 7) Avram Croitoriu; 8) Nusan Croitoriu; 9) David Croitoriu; 10) Smil Leib Ceaus; 11) Avram Rachieriu[B-41]; 12) Marcu Berlescu; 12) Marcu of Barbalata; 13) Herscu from the bar of Neculachi; 14) Golda Jidauca; 15) Iuchel Ciobotar[B-42]; 16) Iosap Chetrar; and 17) Idel Dascalu

The list contains the rent payers from one part of the town, which had two owners. I think it is Neculai Cantacuzino's part.


16.14  Appendix N: List of Renters, Year??[B-43]

I.S.A., tr. 1423, op. 1619, dossier 1025, Report.

The Jews from the Borough Podul Iloae Living on His Excellency Mayor Lascaras Cantacuzino's Estate.[B-44]

Columns (only those filled in): 1) Number of houses and shops; 2) Name and nickname; 3) Professions; 4) Authority; 5) Sudits; 5b) Helpless old people; 6) Widows; and 7) Notes.

No. 3. Herscu sin Iancu, bar owner, subject of the High Porte[B-45] from Glodurile village, lives with rent at a Christian's house.

No. 5. Moisa sin Herscu, tax collector, subject of the High Porte from Madarjaca Fetii, lives with rent at Herscu Croitor

No. 6. Pascal sin David, also a subject of the High Porte, old taxpayer, lives with rent at Herscu Avram sin Strule.

No. 7. Avram sin Strul, also a subject of the High Porte, old taxpayer, his own house.

No. 8. Mois sin Itic Lozneanu, also a subject of the High Porte, from Poenile Oancii, his own house.

No. 9. Itic sin Herscu, lime maker, subject of the High Porte, from Borseni in Neamt district, lives with rent at Moise Itic.

No. 10. Herscu Badiu, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, from Stornesti, lives with rent at Ioan Rosan.

No. 11. Mihail sin Aizic, also a subject of the High Porte, from Drancea in Iasi district, lives in the same house.

No. 13. Ioina sin Pascal, also a subject of the High Porte, from Esi, lives with rent at Avram sin Strule.

No. 14. Nisal sin Avram, also a subject of the High Porte, old taxpayer, lives in the house of Solomon sin Iancu, no business, helpless old man.

No. 15. Marcu Esanu, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, his own house, unregistered in the previous census.

Herscu sin Lupu, also a subject of the High Porte, lives in the same house, just married, Esanu's partner.

No. 16. Moisa sin Aron, also a subject of the High Porte, from Malaesti village in this district, lives with rent at widow Bruha's own house.

No. 17. Avram sin Leibu, wagoner, helpless old man, poor eyesight, lives from charity.

No. 18. Nuta sin Lupu, trades things of small value, subject of the High Porte, lives with rent in Avram sin Leiba's house.

No. 19. Gaina sin Froim, also named Herscu Gaina[B-46] no business, helpless old man, poor and in all vicious.

Iancu sin Haim, moneylender, subject of the High Porte, lives with rent at Munis from Tirgu Frumos.

No. 20. Haim sin Croitoru, tailor, subject of the High Porte, his own house.

Falic sin Herscu, butcher, subject of the High Porte, in that house in Tirgu Frumos.

Leiba Cazacu, cattle trading, helpless old man, also living in that house.

No. 25. Strule sin Itic, also named bartender, brandy maker, helpless old man.

No. 26. Marcu sin Pascal, also a subject of the High Porte, his own house.

No. 27. Bercu sin Strule, also a subject of the High Porte, lives with rent at David Grosul.

No. 28. David sin Ancel, butcher, subject of the High Porte, his own house.

No. 30. Herscu sin Smil, brandy maker, from Tirgu Frumos, lives in his inn.

No. 31. Zelic Caldarariu brandy maker[B-47], subject of the High Porte, also lives in this inn and also is from Tirgu Frumos.

No. 32. Izdrail sin Iosap, also a subject of the High Porte, his own house.

No. 33. Smil Baetul, also named Burlacu[B-48], also a subject of the High Porte, rented house.

No. 34. Avram Leiba sin Aron, also a subject of the High Porte, his own house.

No. 35. Iosap sin Bercu, also named Ursul[B-49], also a subject of the High Porte, his own house.

No. 36. Avram, son of Haim Lungu, also a subject of the High Porte, from Cristesti.

No. 37. Avram sin Lupu.

No. 37. Leiba Hanovici, also a subject of the High Porte, from Doroscani, his own house.

Alter, his son, no business, subject of the High Porte, lives in Hanovici's house.

No. 41. Aron sin Herscu, tailor, subject of the High Porte, from Esi, his own house.

David sin Aron, horse trading, subject of the High Porte, from Botosani.

No. 44. Meer sin Faibis, brandy maker and grocer, subject of the High Porte, from Sirca, lives with rent at Danila sin Iosif Cotar.

No. 45. Danila sin Iosap Cotar, huckster, subject of the High Porte, lives in his own house.

No. 46. Ghita(l) Saina, widow.

No. 47. Solomon sin Avram, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, from Cosateni, his own house.

No. 49. Solomon sin Haim, also a subject of the High Porte, his own house.

No. 50. Zelic sin Haim, also a subject of the High Porte, his own house.

No. 51. Avram Bercu, grocer, subject of the High Porte, lives with rent in Zeilic's house.

No. 52. Nuham sin Pascal, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, lives with rent in Moise Barlic's house.

No. 53. Marcu, shochet, subject of the High Porte.

No. 54. Moscu Barlic or Moise sin David, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, his own house

No. 55. Marcu, shochet, subject of the High Porte.

No. 56. Leiba sin Simon Chitariul, baker, subject of the High Porte, his own house.

No. 57. Ancel sin Strule, brandy maker, lives with rent in Moise sin Leiba's house.

No. 58. Moise sin Leiba, subject of the High Porte, from Totoesti, his own house.

No. 59. Iancu Leibu Teodorescu, subject of the High Porte, bar owner, has his house in Catesti.

No. 60. Haim Nuham sin Avram, wagoner, subject of the High Porte, lives with rent at Leibu.

No. 61. Mehal sin Pascal Bujor named Pisahovici, grocer and glass seller, lives with rent at Neculai Codrescu.

No. 62. Marcu sin Avram, brandy maker and grocer, lives with rent at the rabbi's.

No. 63. Moise Rabinu, rabbi, helpless old man.

No. 64. Mazar sin Moise Barbalata, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, old.

No. 65. Faibis sin Herscu, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, from Sirca.

No. 66. Ghidale sin Iancu Belcescu, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, old.

No. 67. Froim sin Moise Barbalata, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, old.

No. 68. Moise sin Herscu Barbalata, no business, helpless old man.

No. 69. Iancu sin David, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, his own house.

No. 70. Moise sin Iancu Belcescu, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, lives with rent in his father's house.

No. 71. Iancu sin Nisim Belcescu, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, his own house.

No. 72. Avram sin Calman, no business, helpless old man, disabled.

No. 73. Solomon Tacsieru, brandy maker and grocer, subject of the High Porte, his own house.

No. 74. Froim sin Marcu, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, lives with rent at widow from Roman.

No. 75. Mendel sin Avram, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, from Sinesti, lives in the same place.

No. 76. Sulim sin …, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, lives with rent at Itic from Roman.

No. 77. Calman Ber sin Moisa, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, from Sinesti, his own house.

No. 78. Itic sin Leiba Moscu, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, his own house.

No. 82. Marcu sin Leiba, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, lives with rent at Trofin.

No. 83. Itic sin Moisa, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, his own house.

No. 84. Zamvel sin Bercu, also a subject of the High Porte.

No. 85. Itic sin Haim Fisel, the same, from Sulita, lives with rent at butcher Marcu.

No. 86. Iancu sin Calman, joiner, subject of the High Porte, from Popesti, his own house.

No. 87. Moisa sin Iancu Calman, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, his own house.

No. 88. Fisel sin Iancu, no business, helpless old man.

No. 89. Aba Labu named Zeilic, cattle trading, subject of the High Porte, from Zahorna, lives with rent at Fisel's daughter.

No. 90. Lupu sin Strule, also named Padurariul[B-50], flour seller, subject of the High Porte, has his own house.

No. 95. Zeilic sin Iancu, sells wine and brandy, subject of the High Porte, from Harpagesti, lives with rent.

No. 96. Avram sin Aizic, no business, subject of the High Porte, lives with rent at Luca Barnovi.

Solomon sin Leiba, no business, subject of the High Porte, lives with rent at Stefan the widow's son.

No. 98. Isac sin Avram, no business, helpless old man, lives in Balcani.

No. 99. Meer sin Fisil, teacher, subject of the High Porte, from Iasi, has his own house.

No. 101. Ili sin Avram, … and cotton seller, subject of the High Porte, from Iasi.

No. 103. Zisu sin Iosap, procession candle carrier, subject of the High Porte, from Erghiceni village.

No. 104. Danila sin Avram, … and things of small value, subject of the High Porte, lives with rent at Izdrail.

No. 106. Leiba Zaraf, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, his own shop.

No. 107. Strul Avram sin Iosup, also a subject of the High Porte, from Sulita, lives with rent in the house of the widow from Piatra.

No. 108. Herscu sin Moisa Barbalata, also a subject of the High Porte, from Darajeni.

No. 109. Romascanita the widow.

No. 110. Mendel Surdu, no business, helpless old man, from Malaesti, has one crippled arm and is deaf.

No. 111. Haim Herscu sin Moisa, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, his own shop.

No. 112. Iancu sin Leibu, silver lines metallic objects, subject of the High Porte, from Esi, lives with rent at widow Haita.

Widow Haita, husband left her.

No. 113. Iancu a Muchioaiei sin Marcu, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, has his own house.

No. 114. Haniel sin Aron, Iancu's nephew, also a subject of the High Porte, lives with rent.

No. 115. Aron David sin Haim, also a subject of the High Porte, from Bulbucani, lives with rent in Lipova.

No. 116. Pascal sin Bentin, cattle trading business, subject of the High Porte, from Esi, lives with rent at the Russian.

No. 117. Moscu sin Mendel, brandy and wine maker, subject of the High Porte.

No. 120. Sender sin Irimia Croitoriu, tailor, subject of the High Porte, has his own house. Smerl sin Rivel, fur cap maker, subject of the High Porte, lives with his father-in-law.

No. 122. Marcu sin Iancu, tailor, subject of the High Porte, his own house.

Aron sin Mendel, also a subject of the High Porte, lives in the house of Marcu sin Iancu.

No. 123. Moisa sin Pascal, shoemaker, subject of the High Porte, his own house, from Esi.

No. 124. Smil Leiba, janitor of the synagogue, janitor of the school, subject of the High Porte, from Esi.

No. 125. Avram sin Nisim, tailor, subject of the High Porte, from Esi.

No. 126. Avram sin Itic, no business, helpless old man, his right arm is crippled.

No. 127. Altar sin Strule, leader of the Jews, subject of the High Porte, has his own house.

No. 128. Malca the widow.

No. 129. Avram sin Copil, butcher, subject of the High Porte, from Esi, lives with rent.

No. 130. Iosap sin Leiba, barber, subject of the High Porte, his own house.

No. 131. Itic sin Bercu, teacher, subject of the High Porte, from Esi.

No. 132. Strule sin Iosap Chetrariu, tailor, subject of the High Porte, his own house.

No. 133. Strule sin Toderos, teacher, subject of the High Porte.

No. 134. Altar sin Meer, owns an alcohol-making machine, subject of the High Porte, lives with rent at Sruli.

No. 135. Simon sin Lupu, teacher, subject of the High Porte, his own house.

No. 136. Itic Zamvel sin Solomon, tailor, subject of the High Porte.

No. 137. Ilie's widow Haia.

No. 138. Avram sin Dascal, no business, subject of the High Porte, infirm and deaf old man.

No. 139. David sin Solomon, tailor, subject of the High Porte, his own house.

No. 140. Hoisie sin Leiba Dascal, teacher, subject of the High Porte.

No. 141. Buium sin Simon, water carrier, subject of the High Porte.

No. 142. Smil sin Iodos, no profession, old and blind.

No. 145. Osap Chetrariu, the same, old.

No. 147. Bercu sin Avram, bald and vicious old man, so nobody hires him.

No. 148. Iosap sin Iosap, shoemaker, subject of the High Porte.

No. 149. Ilie Croitoriu's widow Golda.

No. 150. Strule sin Mihailovici, wagoner, subject of the High Porte, lives in Tanase's house.

Leiba sin Simon, no business, old and insane.

No. 163. Lupu sin Haim, also old, infirm.

No. 172. Herscu sin Bercu, old tailor, insane.

Leiba a Iarmuchioaiei, trades things of small value, subject of the High Porte, his own little house.

No. 180. Meer sin Iancu, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, from Albesti, lives with rent.

No. 190. Usar Iancu sin Smil, tailor, subject of the High Porte, lives with rent at Vornic Ioan.

No. 195. Rafail sin Usar, bar owner, subject of the High Porte, from Mircesti, lives with rent.

No. 196. Herscu sin Iancu, tailor, subject of the High Porte, has his own house.

No. 228. Moisa sin David, no business, old and sick.

No. 229. Lupu sin Smil Herscu, wagoner, has his own house.

Solomon sin Smil, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, from Romanesti.

Aron Iancu, brandy maker, subject of the High Porte, from Bogoila, no house.

A. Ilie, bar owner, also a subject of the High Porte, from Basceaus, no house.

Strule sin David, no business, old.

Strule sin Iancu, no business, old, crippled leg.

In all, 121 inhabitants are subjects of the High Porte, 23 are elders, and seven are widows. (Jewish signatures: Lazar from Iasi, Zelic sin Haim, Simha from Tirgu Frumos, tax collector, Moisa Birlescu, Iancu Leib, Leib Ghitman.)

(After this, there is a sum of those who figured in the census): 68 tax-paying Jews were mentioned in the settlement act, of whom 47 were third-class merchants, six were third-class craftsmen, and 15 were elders. Four were dead, four moved to Jerusalem, Codresti, Bucharest, or Focsani, eight went nobody knows where, and 10 are listed as helpless.

The Jews from the Borough Podu Iloaiei Living On His Excellency Mayor Neculai Cantacuzino's Estate (61816). (All locals except those indicated as Sudits.)[B-51]

1) Herscu sin Iancu, horse seller, his own house.
Meer from Larga, brandy maker, came from Larga.
2) Zambel sin Nuhim, soles maker, his own shop.
3) Lupu Lipscanu.
4) Altar sin Strule, brandy maker.
5) Mendel sin Strule, brandy maker.
6) Leiba sin Ida, tobacco seller, lives at Alter.
7) Smil Raizic, merchant, his own house.
8) Moisa sin Aron, merchant, lives with rent.
9) Ghersin sin Nuham, merchant, lives with rent.
10) Heilek sin Naftule, merchant, his own house.
11) Solomon sin Marcu, merchant, his own house.
12) Malca Reiza, widow.
13) Aron sin Lupu, brandy maker, came from Esi, his own house.
14) Leiba Grosul, also named Godal, brandy maker, his own house.
15) Heim sin Oizer, brandy maker, came from Zahorna.
16) Smil Itic sin Lupu, brandy maker.
17) Pinhas sin Iancu, brandy maker.
18) Moisa Haim sin David, brandy maker.
19) Leiba Sfart, brandy maker, from Boidinesti, his own house.
Haim sin Itic, soles maker, lives with Sfart.
20) Itic sin Danila, brandy maker, from Tirgu Frumos, lives with rent.
21) Nuham sin Gersin, brandy maker, his own house.
22) Froim sin Ioise, brandy maker, rented house.
23) Leiba sin Herscu, brandy maker; he also lives with rent at Moise Bercescu.
24) Zamvel sin Marcu, brandy maker, his own house.
25) Strule sin Sulin, glass seller.
26) Ilie sin Nusam, merchant, trades cattle.
27) Faibis sin Marcu Froim, no business, old.
28) Iancu sin Smil, huckster, from Esi, lives with rent.
30) Itic sin Moisa, teacher, his own house.
31) Haim sin Iosap, shochet, lives with rent.
32) Simon Casap, butcher, his own house.
34) Mendel sin Leiba, brandy maker, lives with rent.
51) Leizer sin Solomon, brandy maker, his own house.
52) Mehal Obrejan, brandy maker, from Obresti, his own house.
53) Zeilic zet Faibis[B-52], brandy maker, lives with rent.
54) Iosap sin Herscu, brandy maker, from Lungani.
55) Avram sin Leiba, …, lives with rent.
56) Saia Leiba sin Iosap, no business, old, both legs crippled.
Herscu sin Strule, zet Iosap, brandy maker, his own house.
60) Moisa Iancu, brandy maker, lives with rent.
61) Iosap sin Itic, the same, from ?iganesti, lives with rent.
62) Herscu sin Avram, brandy maker, came from Hoisesti.
63) Leibu Itic sin Bercu, brandy maker, from Butuliac.
66) Mihail sin Iosap, sieve man, from Esi.
67) Marcu sin David, fur cap maker, from Lazareni.
68) David sin Mer, brandy maker, from Hanaseni, his own house.
73) Haim Sulim sin Iosap, brandy maker, lives with rent at Timofte, the winter coat maker.
74) Haim sin Marcu, brandy maker, from Popesti, his own house.
75) Iosap sin Smil, fur cap maker, his own house.
76) Strule sin Marcu Iosap, wagoner, lives with rent at Avram Leiba.
77) Ester the widow.
78) Herscu Croitoriu, tailor, lives with rent.
79) Izdrail sin Moisa, trades cattle, from Zahorna.
80) Mendel sin Solomon, huckster, from Sculeni.
81) Huna sin Rubin, butcher, from Tirgu Frumos.
82) Ilie Cusmariu, fur cap maker, from Tirgu Frumos.
83) Avram sin Iosap, joiner, bachelor, lives with rent at Leiba Zaraf.
84) Hescu sin Itic Saper, trades cattle, his own house.
85) Malca, widow.
89) Solomon Aparu, no business, old, sick, poor.
90) Moisa sin Mendel, teacher, old, poor, likes his condition.
95) Haim sin Herscu Lupu, brandy maker, lives with rent.
96) Leiba sin Itic, brandy maker, his own house.
97) Itic sin Haimovici, baker, from Esi.
98) Sosia Vadana.
Rahmil Leibu, horse seller, lives where he can.

(Total: 63 locals, five helpless elders, and four widows. Signed by the same persons: Leib Ghitman, Eliezer from Esi, Zeilic sin Haim, Simcha from Tirgu Frumos, tax collector, Iaakov from Tirgu Frumos, Moisa Barlescu, and Iaacov Leib). “29 Jews were mentioned in the settlement act: seven merchants of the third category, three craftsmen of the third category, one apprentice, and six tribute-payers. Subtract: three deceased, two moved to Esi and Tirgu Frumos, and three left for nobody knows where. Add: 12 married people, 27 who came from other places, and the inhabitants who were listed in the census for 1838” (A total of 70 Jews).


16.15  Appendix O: A Complaint by the Community, 1844

I.S.A., tr. 1772, op. 2020, dos. 3705, f. 15, May 24, 1844.

To the honorable Department of Internal Affairs, the community of Christian and Jewish inhabitants of the borough Podu Iloaiei complains.

It has been brought to the attention of the Honorable Department the unbearable consequences of Captain Tudorache Radovici's acts, who, living in this town, has so many times as a commissar brought us much misery. So now, in secret … so as the named commissar was appointed. As in all humble subjects, we pray for mercy and for getting rid of this pest, so that another one can be appointed, whoever may be found appropriate, except for the one mentioned above. For we are confident that one will find enough information by consulting the archives with the former commissars who brought us much trouble and misery.

(Signed: Tanase baker, Constandin Munteanu, Gligore community leader, Toma Popa, Timofte Cojocaru, Ion Svat…, Vasile Bucur, Vasile Velciu, Lazar sin Sasului, Constantin Bodescu, Gheorghe sin Nedelcu, Ion Ungurianul, Nica Ceausul, Gheorghe al lui [B-53] Iacob, Ion Bejanu, Ion Recleanu, Andrei Morariul, Costachi a Mosneagului, Ion a lui Iacob, Toader Raileanu, Lazar Micu, Vasile Carlateanu, Vasile d… Ion Cosiganul, Petre a Stalei, Gheorghe's nephew from Toma, Vartolomeu Costache, street lighting attendent, Axinte Ciobanu, Grigore Muntianu, Toma a… Gheorghe Ciubotar, Gheorghe Melencus, Vasile Tincu.

(Jewish signatures: Mose Sfarlester, Iaacov from Tirgu Frumos, Iehuda Leib, Faibis ben m… Pesach Barad, David Coda…, Israel ben Ancel, Mordechai…, Simcha from Tirgu Frumos, David ben Avraham, Ancel Iehuda ben Israel, Haim Tvi ben Mose, Tvi from Botosani, Daniel ben Iosef, Avraham ben Iehuda, Nachum ben Pesach, Eliezer Efraim, Mose Itchac, Mordechai Itchac, Mordehai ben Avraham, Dob ben Israel, Efraim from Tirgu Frumos, Itchac Leib ben Mose, Alter ben Meir, Salom Iaacov from Tirgu Frumos, Henich ben Froim Itchac, Zisu Hellir, Azriel ben Iosif from Tirgu Frumos, Iosif ben Dov from Roman, Menase from Totoesti, Tvi ben Iaacov, Lectel ben Iaacov, Iaacov Leib, Rachmiel Leib, Iechiel Michel ben Pesach Nisan, Dov ben Israel, Natan Avraham ben Israel).


16.16  Appendix P: Census, 1898

I.S.A., Fond Iasi District Administration, No. 71, 1898

1898 Census of the Jewish Population Living in Podu Iloaiei

Note from KME . The census appearing in Kara's book is a list of 722 Jewish households, showing the following information: Record#, Head of Family, Age, Occupation, How long in Podu Iloaiei, Spouse's Name & Age, and #of Children.

Here is the first page as it appears in the book.

pod007.jpg [77 KB] - 1898 Census of the Jewish Population Living in Podu Iloaiei

And here is the census in downloadable PDF format:

Introduction to the Census   The Census

The introduction covers the following topics: Explanatory codes, occupations, surnames and given names found in the census.

Note from KME . Although the census is already available as part of the JewishGen Romania Database (at http://www.jewishgen.org/databases/Romania/PoduIloaieiCensus1898.htm) it is made available here in its entirety as a downloadable PDF file. Compared with the database, the PDF file above has its distinct advantages.

First of all, as powerful as the database is, unfortunately the census can not be browsed in its entirety from beginning to end. To do a search you must enter a family name. I'm afraid that as a result Podu Iloaiei (PI) researchers are really going to miss a lot by not seeing the list in its entirety. There's much to learn from the very juxtiposition of one record to the next. These relationships will not be detected through the current database interface.

Let me explain a case in point from my own family.

The first two entries in the 1898 census are...
Mendel Ilie - age 34, Laborer, 6 years in PI; wife Toba Ilie - age 33, 5 children
Sura Ilie - age 56, 6 years in PI

When I first saw the census I knew right away that this Mendel Ilie was my great grandfather because his immigration papers show that he came to Canada with his wife Toba and 5 children in 1907.

However for some time I was wondering about this Sura Ilie. She's been in PI for 6 years as has Mendel, however she's 22 years older than him. Could she be his mother, who's name I did not know at the time?

My hunch was that Sura was Mendel's mother. Had I not seen the list in its entirety, with the juxtiposition of the two, I may not have come to this conclusion. As it turns out my hunch was right. A few years later I discovered that Mendel had a sister whose marriage license shows Sura for her mother.

From this you can see why it's so important that PI researchers have access to the entire list.

Another thing about the current database engine (as good as it is) is the deficiency in Soundex searches.

Let me give some examples. The census contains the following names...

  1. Sfart - 11 times
  2. Vecsler - 9 times
  3. sin Haim - 6 times (sin = son of)

In regards to #1, let's say someone does a search for SCHWARTZ. They are not going to find SFART with a Soundex search. However if they are browsing the entire list, when they come across SFART they will probably realize that it's the same as SCHWARTZ. .... Incidentally, Kara's family lived in PI and their name was SFART. So his neice (who I happen to know) will not find her family name on the census. ... By the way I'm really surprised that Soundex doesn't treat SFART like SCHWARTZ.

In regards to #2, let's say someone does a search for WEXLER. They are not going to find VECSLER with a Soundex search. However if they are browsing the entire list, when they come across VECSLER they will probably realize that it's the same as WEXLER.

In regards to #3, let's say someone does a search for CHAIMOVITZ. They are not going to find SIN HAIM with a Soundex search. In fact there are no SIN names on the database. The census contains 86 names beginning with SIN - Sin Avram, Sin Moshe, etc, etc. None of these appear in the database. The 6 SIN HAIMs do not appear as SIN HAIM or as HAIM either.

This is a big problem!

Yes it's true that many of these SIN names are not real surnames, nevertheless I believe they should still be included somewhere, if not in the database then at least in the PDF file we are providing here.

End of KME's note


16.17  Appendix R: The Statute of Podu Iloae, 1925

Romania. The Jewish community of Podul Iloae.

The STATUTE of the Jewish community of Podul Iloae voted on by the General Assembly on May 3, 1925. Iasi, A. Grinberg Publishing House, 9 Unirei Street, 1925.

By the record no. 33037 from October 16, 1925, released by the court clerk's office at the Iasi Court of Justice, s. I, this community is granted the status of legal entity (no. 62/1925). The report of the General Assembly, which had Mr. Virgil Popovici, administrator of the Bahlui district, and Mr. C. Balan, president of the ad-interim commission of the commune, as its honorary presidents, and Mr. Michel Sanielevici as its full president and Mr. Iancu Horodniceanu as its secretary, describes the discussions and the voting of the statute.

Chapter I. The Community's Goals.

Article 1. All Jews living in Podul Iloae make up the Community of the Jewish Cult of Podul Iloae. The existence of this community dates from before the year 1823, and this statute reorganizes this community as modern times demand it.

Article 2. The name of the Community of the Jewish Cult of Podul Iloae can never and under no circumstances be changed.

Article 3. The missions of the Community are:

  1. To take care of its clergy and to supervise through its commissions the practice of the Mosaic cult;

  2. To take care of the institutions that are designed to educate the masses: the boys and girls primary schools, the professional schools, the kindergardens, the courses for adults, etc;

  3. The maintenance and administration of the social assistance institutions, the public bath, the school's cafeteria, the asylum for the aged and disabled, the medical unit, and any other charitable institutions that are eventually established;

  4. To administrate the holy establishments and the maintenance of the cemeteries.

Chapter II. The Organization of the Community.

Article 4. The community will be presided over and administered by a committee named the Guardianship of the Community and made up of 13 members elected by universal, equal, and direct vote. This committee will have four sections: a) the administrative section; b) the section for religion; c) the cultural section; and d) the section for public assistance and the holy establishments. Each section will have its own special set of regulations, according to the present statute.

Article 5. Three gentlemen will be in charge of each section. All sections put together form the Guardianship of the Community. The president of the administrative section is also the president of the guardianship, while the presidents of the other sections will be the vice presidents of the guardianship. The guardianship will have a cashier, a supervisor, and a secretary who will also be enrolled in the administrative section. The secretary accountant of the guardianship, as well as any other clerks to be employed when the circumstances demand it will be hired and paid only by the guardianship.

Article 6. The sections work autonomously, but in exceptional cases as well as at the times stipulated by the statute, when the reports will be presented, the general assembly of the guardianship would be called upon.

Article 7. The specific tasks of each section will be established by special regulations.

Chapter III. Revenues.

Article 8. Every member of the community, meaning every Jew who lives in Podul-Iloaei, has the duty to contribute either directly or indirectly in the form of the tax on kosher meat or the tax on the slaughtering of poultry. Those members of the community who do not subscribe to the paying of the tax will have to bring their direct contribution depending on the number of the members of their families and on their wealth. The taxpayers will be registered in a special record, will receive a community member card, and will enjoy all the rights conferred to them by this status.

Article 9. The community also has the following alternate sources of income: a) the statistics taxes on births, weddings, and deaths, other certificates, etc. The members of the community have the duty to inform the statistics section of any change that has occurred in their families; b) taxes on burials and gravestones, which will be differentiated into several classes according to the special regulation of the section that administers the holy establishments; c) the money from the making of the Passover matzoh, from the public bath, the school, the tax money on the kosher meat (a special regulation will establish the way of imposing this tax); d) the proceeds of money deposited in banks or other institutions for the benefit of the community, as well as the revenues from donated properties or from properties that will be donated to the community and from the personal or real estate purchased by the community; e) donations or voluntary gifts, as well as profits from the charity balls and from theatrical performances or cinema shows; f) in case the revenues do not cover the expenses required for the community's basic needs, the members of the community will have to accept a temporary tax that will depend on the needs at that time. In case of a surplus, the taxes on kosher meat and poultry slaughtering can be reduced.

Chapter IV. The Election of the Community's Guardians.

Article 10. All the Jewish inhabitants of Podul-Iloaiei, who are also contributors to the community's budget and own the membership card stipulated in Article 8, have the right and the duty to take part in the election of the community's guardians by direct, equal, and secret vote.

Article 11. In order for someone to be elected it is requested, besides the conditions that make him an elector, that he not have been blamed with a discreditable punishment and that he must have his payments to the community up to date.

Article 12. The elections will be based on lists containing the names of 13 candidates. Any Jewish organization, synagogue, or other ad-hoc formed group with at least 25 members is allowed to present its own list of candidates. The payment for the publishing of the list will also be presented. One candidate may appear on more than one list, but the endorsers of one list cannot guarantee a different one.

Article 13. The Guardianship of the Community is elected for a three-year term.

Article 14. The announcement for the gathering of the community for the new elections will be made 30 days before the term of the previous committee expires. During these 30 days, a special bureau will be in charge and will release the elector's cards free of charge. During this period of time, new electors will be included in the electors' record from among the persons who haven't been included by then, if, of course, they fulfill the conditions stipulated by Article 10. Also, this bureau will register the candidates' lists. These lists will each bear a distinctive sign, the candidates' names will be written both in Romanian and Hebrew and each will have a number. All the lists will be put on a single list in the order of their presentation at the bureau. Five days before the elections, the candidates' lists will be considered irrevocable and will be made public.

Article 15. The voting is done by applying the stamp “VOTED” on the distinctive sign, which means that the whole list was voted for as such. Candidates from several lists can be voted for by erasing with a pencil the names of those not voted for. Under no circumstances can more than 13 gentlemen be voted for.

Article 16. The voting is valid no matter the number of voters who show up to vote between eight in the morning and six in the evening during one day.

Article 17. The electoral bureau, which will be formed by two representatives from each synagogue and by one delegate from the commune who will be invited in due time by the previous committee, will manage the elections. The elections require a relative majority.

Article 18. The results of the election will be mentioned in a report signed by the delegate and the electoral bureau. This result will be communicated to the honorable mayor and to the public the next day. If, after five days, no legal appeal is made, the elected guardians are considered in function and the previous committee has the obligation to hand in the financial administration and the community's wealth during the next eight days.

Article 19. The cash belonging to the community, which is at the time kept by the former cashier or by other persons, has to be handed in to the new committee's cashier, unless it was deposited in a bank within 60 days of the elections. The newly elected guardians will take a vow before receiving their prerogatives in the presence of the community's rabbi and the delegate of the communal authority.

Chapter V. Sanctions.

Article 20. Any Jew who has lived in Podul Iloaiei for at least one year and refuses to obey the present statute, either not willing to contribute materially or commits infringements like refusing to hand in possessions or documents belonging to the community to its guardianship or encourages certain persons who do not have the necessary authorization or to whom this authorization has been declined to enroll in certain Jewish community functions, will be erased from the record of the community's members and will not be able to make use of, not even for a fee, any of the community's institutions, any assistance from the community's sections being denied until the issue is resolved.

Article 21. In those cases where the property or the documents of the community are being retained, the possibility remains to appeal to the enforcement of the penal code.

Article 22. The bureau of the administrative section will keep a special record of the persons who refuse to contribute to the community's budget, and their names will be made public at the end of each month.

Chapter VI. General Dispositions.

Article 23. Any contracts signed by the guardianship of the community remain valid and have to be considered by the next guardianship.

Article 24. The places that may become vacant in the guardianship, following death, resignation, or expulsion, will be given to those candidates who won the largest number of votes.

Article 25. In case the guardianship is dissolved or its majority is incomplete without the possibility of restoration as stipulated by Article 24, then, in order to avoid disturbances within the community, the remaining guardians have the duty to form an ad-interim commission made up of members of the Jewish community who will organize the election of the guardians in no more than 60 days.

Article 26. All the financial documents, receipts, confirmation of receipts, and money orders will have the president's signature or by special appointment the signature of the vice president of the administrative section.

Article 27. The community, as the rightful owner of all community properties, even if they apparently belong to private persons, will do all that is necessary and fulfill all the legal forms to obtain the full right of property over them.

Article 28. No religious function that requires a special qualification like a wedding service, religious divorce, religious assistance in the pursuit of justice if needed, the religious service, the ritual slaughtering of animals, the making of circumcisions, or the funeral service will be held in the area of this community by persons other than those employed by the guardianship of the community in accord with the contract they will agree upon. Any service that this article refers to that is performed by employees of the guardianship of the community whose contract has expired or by foreigners will be considered usurpation and they will be prosecuted in accordance with the country's laws. The guardianship has the right to temporarily authorize other persons who are not the employees of the guardianship, from other towns or from this commune, to perform the religious services mentioned above, in which case a written authorization from the guardianship is absolutely necessary. The guardianship reserves the right to revoke a given authorization. Any disputes on payments for the religious services that may arise between the parishioners and our employees will be resolved by the guardianship of the community.

Article 29. The regulations for each of the sections will be drawn up by the sections themselves and voted on by the guardianship of the community.

Article 30. Any statute or regulation previous to the present statute is and remains annulled.

Article 31. Changes to this statute or its entire modification cannot be done unless there is a motivated request from two thirds of the members of the community.

Article 32. The present leading committee that was functioning when the work on this statute began will continue to exercise its functions until the termination of the two-year term for which it has been elected; then it will proceed according to the dispositions stipulated by articles 10, 11, 12, and 13, and the following ones.

This statute was voted unanimously and the leading committee, especially Mr. President Michel Sanilovici and Secretary I. Horodniceanu, were given full authority to obtain the legalization of the statute and the recognition of the quality of legal and moral entity for our community. Thus, we have signed it.

Leading committee: President M. Sanilovici, Vice-president M. I. Schor, Cashier I. Schneer, and Secretary I. Horodniceanu. Members: Avram Solomon, Moise Solomon, Anciu S. Anciu, Moise Goldenberg, Haim sin Haim, Lupu Leibovici, Marcu Iosipovici, Lipa D. Maizner, Iechil Blumenfeld, and Moise Hachman.

(A booklet of 16 pages, format 32)


16.18  Appendix S: Schools, 1904

The Newspaper Evenimentul (The Event), Iasi, November 17, 1904, page 3.

The school under-inspector I. Petrov found several (Jewish) confessional schools in Podu Iloaiei that had no authorization. He wants them closed. They are located at Strul Veinberg's (Srul der poliser) on Lapusneanu St., Beris Dascalu's on Vanatorilor St., Iaic Dascalu's on Naaionala St., and Sami Frenkel's on Scob'laeni St.


16.19  Appendix T: Schools, 1914

The Newspaper Egalitatea (The Equality), Year XXV, No. 30, May 23, 1914.

“The Laying of the Foundation Stone for the Jewish-Romanian school in Podul Iloaiei”

On May 11, 1914, this ceremony took place in the presence of a large audience. The following persons gave speeches: Sch. Steinberg, president of the community; Rabbi Dr. Thenen; Moritz Wachtel who praised the initiative and condemned the path of hatred; Petre Comarnescu, student and member of the Student's Society of Iasi, criticized the poor condition of the Jews living in the country; Aron Rosenthal, speaking in Hebrew on behalf of the local Zionist group, demanded a greater development of the Hebrew language; Ghizela Wechsler, former president of the committee that managed the building of the school, thanked all the donors; Adolf Magder related the hardships they had struggled with to obtain the necessary funds for the building of the school. Among the other people who spoke were Dr. Vittner, the physician at the communal hospital, institutor Dumitru from Iasi, Mozes Duff, and school inspector Ionescu who held the closing speech, praised the teaching staff and expressed his wish for a closer cooperation between the country's elements for its own well-being. Afterward, the founding document of the school was signed and built in the foundation of the school).

  1. [KME] Iasi State Archives… In the Romanian edition it is refered to as Arh. St. Iasi (ASI) return
  2. [Ed-Com] Lipoveans – Orignally refered to people of Russian origin, who settled in the region of the Danube River and the Black Sea. Later it was used to describe all those coming from Russia. return
  3. [Ed-Com] Probably unfinished text. return
  4. [Ed-Com] a measure equals 14,322 square meters. return
  5. [Ed-Com] Albina Romaneasca means Romanian Bee. return
  6. [Ed-Com] Esi = Iasi return
  7. [Ed-Com] this measure varies from 1.96 to 2.23 meters. return
  8. [KME] Mortasapie: This word was not translated. Nothing was found by searching with Google. I thought it may mean funeral undertaker or mortician (from Latin “mort”, death). After consulting with a number of our Romanian friends, I was eventually told that “a sapa” means to dig. So mortasapie probably means a grave digger. return
  9. [Ed-Com] Croitoru means tailor. In the 19th century it was common for people to use their trade as their last name. return
  10. [Ed-Com] Cotariul means evaluator. return
  11. [Ed-Com] Dascal means teacher. return
  12. [Ed-Com] Rachieriu means a person who makes “rachiu” – an alcoholic drink made by distilling fruit or natural juices, sometimes adding some water and sugar, similar to brandy. return
  13. [Ed-Com] Ciobotar means shoe, boot maker. return
  14. [KME] Kara's book does not give a date for this list. return
  15. [KME] In Kara's book the entries go from 1 to 229, however for some unknown reason there are a lot of gaps. Perhaps they were missing from the source documents or they could not be deciphered. The following entries are missing: 1-2, 4, 12, 21-24, 29, 39-40, 42-43, 48, 79-81, 91-94, 97, 100, 102, 105, 118-119, 121, 143-144, 146, 151-162, 164-171, 173-179, 181-189, 191-194, 197-227 return
  16. [KME] A subject of the “High Porte” means a subject of the Ottoman Empire. See glossary of terms. return
  17. [Ed-Com] Gaina means hen and is used as a nickname for old people. return
  18. [Ed-Com] Caldarariu is a name derived form caldare, meaning bucket used for making brandy. return
  19. [Ed-Com] Burlacu: Romanian for bachelor. return
  20. [Ed-Com] Ursul: Romanian for bear. return
  21. [Ed-Com] Padurariul: Romanian for forester. return
  22. [KME] In Kara's book the entries go from 1 to 98, however for some unknown reason there are a lot of gaps. Perhaps they were missing from the source documents or they could not be deciphered. The following entries are missing: 29, 33, 35-50, 57-59, 64-65, 69-72, 86-88, 91-94 return
  23. [Ed-Com] Zet is the letter “Z” in Romanian. Its meaning in entries 53 and 56 is unknown. return
  24. [Ed-Com] Al lui: Romanian for “son of”. return

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