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[Page 49]

Documents about the banishment
of the Bukowinian Jews

Translated by Jerome Silverbush

July 30, 1941

In interest of public order and safety

We Alexander Riosanu, as an authorized representative for General Ion Antonescu for the administration of Bukovina decree:
Art. 1. Jews are strictly forbidden to appear on the street in groups of more than three people and they are only permitted to go out between 6 am and 8 pm.

Art. 2. Jews are only permitted to make purchases in the marketplace between 9:30 and 11 am. Bread can only be purchased after 6 am.

Art. 3. All Jewish company name signs are forbidden on stores.

Art. 4. Flying of any flag on Jewish stores and houses, including the national, the German and Italian flag is strictly forbidden.

Art. 5. Jewish professionals must immediately post a sign at the entrance to their houses stating their name, profession, the word “Jew” and their office hours.

Art 6. Jews of all ages and sexes are obliged to wear visibly on the left breast side a badge consisting of two equilateral triangles made of yellow linen each side being 6 cm. long, one placed over the other to form the Jewish star.

Art. 7. Every deviation from the above ordinance will be punished with incarceration in a prison camp with more severe punishment possible in accordance with the ordinary and special penal laws.

Alexandru Riosanu

Supreme Commander of the Army, Department of the Civil Government of Transnistrien, August 19, 1941,


Considering the circumstance that a numerous Jewish population is to be found in Transnistrien, who to secure the rear of the front, have been evacuated from various areas of hostilities, and in view of the necessity of organizing the community life of these evacuees, considering the circumstance that this population must find the means of existence through its own strength and work, by the power of the general authority granted by Decree Number 1 issued August 19, 1941 at Tighina


We, Jon Antonescu, Marshal of Romania, commander in chief of the army, through Prof. Gh. Alexianu, Civil Governor as follows:
Art. 1. All Jews who have come from areas of hostilities to Transnistrien, as well as the Jews from Transnistrien, who for the same considerations have been brought to various centers or will be brought in the future are subject to the rules of this ordinance.

Art. 2. The Commissar of Gendarmes in Transnistrien will specify the towns where the Jews will stay. The Jews will be quartered in the dwellings left by the Russian or Jewish refugees, whereby, the number of family members should be taken into consideration.

Every Jewish family which receives a house is responsible for getting it into good condition and for keeping it clean.

When the above mentioned dwelling is not sufficient, the Jews will be assigned rented quarters for which they must pay the rent demanded.

Art. 3. All Jews from a community will be entered in a special registry which will contain the following information: first name and family name, nationality, religion, age, profession, place of origin.

Every Jew will carry an identity card containing this information.

Art. 4. Without permission of the district prefect, no Jew is permitted to leave the community in which he is assigned to live.

Art. 5. The Jews of a community constitute a “colony.” The “rayon provost” will select from among the residents of the community a supervisor who will administer the colony.

The supervisor of the colony will be supported by the group leaders.

Every colony supervisor will form groups of 20 Jews.

The supervisor of the colony and the group leaders are responsible for the presence of all the Jews as well as for the execution of all the orders issued by the administration and the gendarmerie.

Art. 6. The supervisor of the colony is obligated to provide lists of all the residents of the colony who have a trade and all those who are capable of working. On the basis of the lists provided by the supervisor of the colony, the mayor will organize the work in the colony and the community as follows:

Those who have a trade must accomplish all work that belongs to their trade. The professionals must make themselves available to the community officials for use as required. The workers will stand ready to be used by the mayor for work necessary for the colony, the mayor's office or the general interest.

They will be used for farm work, repair of streets and bridges, cutting of trees in the forest and for transporting stones and other materials.

As pay for work accomplished, every worker receives a ration card. For simple workers, the card is worth one mark and for skilled workers the card will purchase two marks worth of food.

The gendarmerie will regularly inspect and control the Jewish colonies and report the results to the responsible authorities.

Art. 7. Use of the Jews for work in another community can only be done with authorization by the prefect. The use of specialists from one district in another district requires the authorization of the administration and work leaders of the government.

Art. 8. Every Jew who is found in a different community from that which he is assigned to live in and who has no authorization from the authorities will be considered as a spy and will be punished in accordance with wartime military laws.

Art. 9. The Jewish specialists will, with the authorization of the government will be used for rebuilding the industries destroyed in the war and for working in factories and any other work deemed necessary.

Art. 10. The district prefect and the inspector of the gendarmerie will be responsible for carrying out the above regulations.

Written in our office, today, November 11, 1941.

The Governor,
signed Gh. Alexianu

(Translated from the Romanian)


The supreme commander of the Wehrmacht decided that the entire Jewish population should be put in a single ghetto. To this purpose the evacuation from the city shall take place.

Accordingly, the Jewish population is ordered on

OCTOBER 11, 1941 before 6:00 pm

to move into one district which is bounded by the following streets:
Patia Dacia, Eminescu Street, Petre Liciu Street, Sf. Treimii Street, Bratianu Street, Prutului Street up to the train tracks and then along the train tracks until they cut through Calicenanca Street and from there in a straight line to Strada Pocutiei, Anton Silvestru until it crosses Elena Doamna Street, Stefan Tomsa Street including the Jewish Cemetery, Cimitirului Street until Romana Street, then Romana Street until Putnei Street and from there in a straight line until the rail road tracks and along the tracks to Petru Rares Street and then Petru Rares Street until the street which lies between Wichenhauser Street and Maseranu Street, then Strade Razboeni Street, Worobkiewicz Street, Marasesti, Gen. Averescu Street, Sf. Nicolae Street, Gen Mircescu Street, Turcesca Street, a line which runs behind the Lyceum and behind the Conservatorium from Gen. Prezan Street through the Division Quarter which cuts Dr. Reiss Street, then the Reg. Ferdinand Street beginning below PlatzKommando, Hormuzachi Street and Piata Dacia.
Every Jewish resident can take with him: warm clothing and other types of clothing, as much food as possible, that is, as much as each person can carry, as much as is necessary for his establishment in the ghetto and for the evacuation; no one will be allowed to return to his dwelling.

Every Jewish head of family, before leaving will prepare a list of all the objects that remain in his former dwelling.

When leaving, he will take the key of the dwelling with him.

The inventory list and the key will be placed in an envelope upon which the name and address are written.

The envelope will be surrendered upon entering the ghetto.

The sick will be evacuated to the Jewish hospital in the ghetto.

If anyone is found outside the ghetto after 6:00 pm, he will be shot.

Moreover, anyone who tries to resist, uses force or causes unrest, anyone who destroys or tries to destroy his possessions, who tries to escape from the city, or who helps others to do the above listed actions will be shot.

The Jews who already live in the ghetto are obliged to take in the new arrivals.

The Governor of Bukovina,
signed General C. CALOTESCU

(translated from Romanian)


1) All Jews who live in the ghetto are obliged to completely put themselves at the disposal of the military officials. Wearing of the Star of David in the ghetto is obligatory. Not subjugating one's self or fomenting of non-subjugation or insurrection will be punished by death.

2) No Jew is permitted to leave the ghetto unless authorized by a special written permission from the military governor of Bukovina. All those who leave the ghetto must be entered in a special register with the date, hour, reason, authorization number and hour of return. Jews can only leave through gate number 1 (Russischegasse) where there will constantly be a gendarme officer.

3) Jews are only permitted to leave the ghetto (because of a summons by judicial officials because of an arrest warrant or in the interest of the public good) and only after obtaining authorization from the governor. All authorizations issued prior to October 12, are invalid.

4) No one can enter the ghetto without a written authorization from the governor. These authorizations as well as those issued for leaving the ghetto will be registered.

5) Trade, exchange, sale and gifts between Jews and Christians are forbidden in the ghetto as well as between Jew and Jew in paper money, gold, silver or other valuables. All those who break this rule will be shot.

6) The entire ghetto will be controlled and monitored by the commander of the gendarmerie. He is responsible for order in the ghetto and for preventing the above listed crimes. At the same time, he is responsible for the actions of his subordinates.

7) The ghetto will be divided into several sections by the commander. each under control of a gendarmerie unit. Every unit commander has the same responsibilities as the commander of the ghetto.

8) The Jewish community is responsible for registration and material help for their fellow Jews. It is also responsible for providing medical help for the Jewish population in the sectors. For this purpose, the doctors named by the Jewish community will be able to bring the necessary medical instruments and drugs into the ghetto. The isolation of the sick and their evacuation as well as eventual burials will also be carried out with the help of the Jewish community.

9) The following market places will operate in the ghetto: a) Sf. Treimei Street at the corner of Strada Petre Liciu, b) Dr. Roth Street at the corner of Dr. Reiss Street, c) Asachiplatz, d) Ziegelei Patria. Also two bakeries: a) Romana Street at the corner of Barbu Lautaru. b) I. C. Bratianu street.

The bakeries will function under supervision of the community and the bakers will be Jewish. The market places will function under the authority of the “Primaria” and the ghetto commander will take measures to insure that farmers who come to sell their products are not given letters, securities or objects of value and that among those who come to sell provisions, there are no dangerous elements or those who want to obtain securities or objects of value. The market places will only function from 8:00 am to 12:00.

The Governor of Bukovina
S.S. General C. Calotescu

(Translation from Romanian)

Regulation number 38 of October 11, 1941

We, General Corneliu Calotescu, governor of Bukovina, in view of the necessity of maintaining order and protecting the security of the state decree:

1) Anyone who promotes unrest or acts of force will be punished with death as well as all those who do not immediately obey the orders and decrees of the military authorities.

2) All people who incite others to commit the above acts.

3) All people who commit robbery or take any goods from houses left by their owners.

4) All people who hide strangers in their dwelling or aid the flight of those who don't leave the town.

5) Until new ordinances are issued, the buying, selling, and exchange of precious metals, jewelry and precious stones is forbidden. Anyone who acts contrary to this regulation will be punished with 10-20 years at forced labor. The same punishment will be given to anyone who receives for safe keeping jewels, precious metals, precious stones and any other valuable objects from strangers.

6) Any one who has knowledge of the above mentioned crimes and does not report it immediately to the military authorities will be considered guilty of complicity and will be punished with 5-8 years at forced labor.

7) This Ordinance will go into effect immediately after its publication which will take place on October 11, 1941 at 7 am.

8) All military and civil officials are charged with the enforcement of this ordinance.

Written in Czernowitz on October 11, 1941

The Governor of Bukovina
S.S. General Corneliu Calotescu

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