“Dorohoi” - Encyclopedia of Jewish
Communities in Romania, Volume 1
(Moldova)

47°57' / 26°24'

Translation of “Dorohoi” chapter from
Pinkas Hakehillot Romania

Published by Yad Vashem

Published in Jerusalem, 1969


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This is a translation from: Pinkas Hakehillot: Encyclopedia of Jewish Communities, Romania,
Volume 1, pages 104-110, published by Yad Vashem, Jerusalem, 1969


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[Page 104]

Dorohoi, Romania

Translated by Avi Klammer

A provincial town in N. Moldova (Moldavia) on the Bukovina border.
Dorohoi is a city in the Botoşani County, Romania, on the right bank of the river Jijia.
In 1938, (Dorohoi) was joined with Bukovina & in 1944-was returned to Moldova.

Jewish Population

% of Jews
of general
population
NumberYear
 600 tax payers1803
 1,133 tax payers1831
50.13,031 people[1]1859
53.66,804 people1899
 6,400 people1910
36.65,820 people1930
34.65,389 people1941
 2,315 people1942
 7,600 people1947

Till the end of WWI

The beginnings of the Jewish settlement & its development

Already in the 14th &15th century, Dorohoi used to be an important crossroad in trade with Poland & many Jewish merchants passed through it. According to tradition, the city's old cemetery had headstones dating back to the 15th century but the oldest one in it is from 1656. In Landlord[2] ownership documents as well as in court sentences from the 17th century, names of Jews appear. A document from 1768 speaks about Jewish merchants dealing in crude oil & spirits[3], in Dorohoi.

The first document (bill) of rights was accorded to Dorohoi's Jews in 1779, similar to those accorded to Jews in the rest of Moldova's towns, in those days. In 1795, Prince Constantin[4] Şuţu ordered that tax revenues from trade/commerce in Dorohoi would be given to the church in the town of Herţa[5] & in the same place, a list of taxes that the Jews had to pay, was found. In 1799, the taxes which the “Jewish Guild”[6] (a kind of a community to the state's treasury) was deemed liable, were established, plus 10 percent of the (total) amount of taxes which was required as payment to the Boyars[7]. In 1814, the total (amount) of taxes was 1,200 Lei approximately, in addition to the 15% for the “Boyars”.

In 1808 & 1823, the Jews were awarded new entitlement documents. The fact that, in 1923, when the Land Lords wanted to construct homes in the cattle market & the Jewish merchants threatened Moldova's price that, if he did that, they would leave town, attests to their power (of influence) at that time. In 1834, the “Jewish Guild” was terminated[8] (disbanded) & the meat tax - the main source of income for the Jewish communities, was collected by the town hall. In 1872, it also imposed a special (poultry) tax for every fowl that was slaughtered by Jewish slaughterers & its revenues - 20,000 Lei annually, were dedicated for the construction of a Christian church. This tax was in effect until 1894. Besides that, since 1891, the town hall had instituted a kind of lottery, the revenues of which were devoted to the same purpose & whose tickets all the Jews were obligated to buy its tickets. A Jewish tailor, who refused paying the tax, was arrested; (consequently), about a 1,000 Jews, tradesmen & workers surrounded the police building & succeeded in bringing the release of the Jew.

In 1881, the expulsion of the Jews from villages in Dorohoi's province started A few months later, on September 8th, the Minister for internal affairs, C.A. Rosetti ordered a halt to the expulsion, declaring it an arbitrary & illegal act. He claimed that persecution should & could not occur against…/


[Page 105]

The original copy of this page-per E-Mail attachment, is blurred & hence very unclear (difficult) to translate-especially, with respect to dates! Where in doubt, I've placed a question mark!!! AK


…/people who had been born in the same country, as if they were flotsam & jetsam. But in December, that minister resigned. The expulsion was first reinstated in 1882 & reached its peak in 1884. During that period, the Jews constituted only 5.5% of the general population. But their number reached 40.6% of the total number of Jews in the province. The expulsion was carried out with cruelty & the important Romanian newspaper “Lupta”[9] wrote then, that “Dorohoi is Romania's Siberia”. The expelled came to Dorohoi & the number of Jews in it was doubled. An (almost) concurrent incitement against Jews was conducted, for their, so-called, secretive ties with the “all Israel Are Friends” Society[10], in Paris. On this charge, Rabbi Taubes was arrested in 1883 & expelled from town. After a while, he was allowed to return.

In 1884, the Jewish journalist, I. H. Fior[11], who wrote articles protesting the persecutions (led by the) chief of province, was deported from Dorohoi. In 1889, he returned to town but was immediately arrested & deported again with serious threats (made against him).

In 1889, the historian & journalist, Dr. Elias Schwartfeld[12] & the Rabbi, Dr. Elias Gaster, who had also protested against the persecutions, were expelled out of Romania, too.

At the same time period, the police imposed various restrictions on the Dorohoi's Jewish merchants. In 1880?, they were prohibited from selling vegetables, grains, wood & home utensils. In 1890, the town hall ordered the destruction of the wooden synagogue which, according to the Jewish tradition in Dorohoi, had been in existence for 200 years (prior). This, under the pretext of being on the verge of collapse, which constituted danger (already in 1877, the provincial chief, Carus, had ordered its demolition but, at that time, the Jews managed to rescind the order). The synagogue was demolished but, when its beams were to be used in the construction of the church, to which, for 20 years, the Jews had been contributing payments of a specially-levied tax, Dorohoi's Jews forcefully opposed the plan forcefully & hence, it was not executed.

The community

Since the termination of the “Jewish Guild” & until the last years of the 19th century, there hadn't been an organized community in Dorohoi. Only in 1886?, the new mayor, G.G. Burghelea[13], proposed to the leaders of the Jewish congregation, to establish a community & allowed them to introduce a meat tax. He also promised to return the synagogue courtyard to them & leave a land plot for a cemetery at their disposal. A committee, headed by the mayor, was elected to draft the regulations. The regulations were presented to an assembly of representatives from various synagogues & a temporary administration was elected. Some time later, a permanent administration, which represented all Jewish public strata[14], was elected. In the same year, the senior center[15] & soup kitchen were established. The great synagogue had been built before then, in 1825. (At some point), a synagogue named: “Beit-Shlomo”[16]. Additional synagogues (existed, which) belonged to craftsmen's unions - according to their field of specialty; that of the waggoners[17] & wagon-holders[18]; of hatters, shoe makers/shoe-repairers & of tailors.

In 1989, the community was reorganized. A school with 164 students (of whom only 56? were paying tuition) was established - a school shich the community had funded all the expenses of. At the same time, there were 8 teachers for young children & 6 - for the ten year-olds & over. In 1895, Speranţa[19] company “Talmud Torah”[20]. The same year, an experiment to open a modern elementary (primary) Jewish school failed.

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The same afore-mentioned Mayor, Burghlea, also initiated the establishment of two Jewish schools & even participated in their opening ceremonies. At the end of the first school year, he instructed that the award ceremony, honoring excelling students, be held in the town's park along with all (other/regular) state schools. The school building was erected in 1909, with the help of “Y”KA”?'s loan & in 1920, the community opened a school for girls, as well.

Rabbis

The first Rabbi about whom we know is Mathetyahu Kimen?[21], deceased in 1824. In the years of 1886-1887 (there was) the Rabbi Moshe Tsvi Ben Israel. Followed him onto the rabbinical throne was Haim Maubas/Maumas/Maupas?[22] who served until 1909. Another Rabbi, the writer of the Hassidut (Hassidic) book: “Yad Yossef”[23], (Cluj[24], 1925 or 1926??) was Rabbi Yossef Bar Eliezer Ze'ev (deceased in 1983?).

From 1889, Rabbi Dov Bar Drimer functioned (in this office) in Dorohoi, (in May? 1929) for 49 years until his decease in 1929. (He was) the father of the writer Carol Drimer[25] who fell victim in the pogroms of Iaşi.

Personages

Abraham Goldfaden, who was popular among the local Jews, settled in Dorohoi in the years 1851-1852, where he wrote his play: “The Sacrifice of Issac”. Its (staging) premiere took place in the city, in 1892 with the participation of all of the Jews from outlaying areas.

In 1879, Stefan Antim[26], an economist & sociologist, was born. He published many books, among which was the famous study on the Jewish problem in Romania (deceased in Bucharest in 1944).

The Economic Situation

Many of Dorohoi's Jews were craftsmen & certain professions were exclusively concentrated with (were in the hands of) Jews. For example, in 1831, there were 24 butchers in the town, all of whom were Jewish. Of the 28 tailors, 27 were Jewish & of the 6 shoe-repairers-5 were Jews. The only baker in town was Jewish, too.

In 1998, there were 357 Jewish merchants, contrasted with the 29 Romanians, in Dorohoi. In 1902, out of 297 craftsmen, 231 were Jewish.

The Zionist Movement

As early as the Khibat-Tsiyyon's[27] period, beginning in 1893, there were (certain) moves (thereof). In 1901, a Zionist youth organization called: “Kissufim Le Tsiyyon”[28] was operating in it & in 1909, the adult “Carmel” Zionist organization was reestablished. In 1911…/

IMAGE: The Community School Building


[Page 106]

Khovevey Tsiyyon[29] (The Lovers of Zion)

The spring[30] will set all the universe, which is upon the great land, free…in its splendor all the forest trees would clap their “hands” (boughs), welcoming…will gather its scattered from the distances of the land; the winged creatures, to build a nest & home & in us, too, it has breathed new life & given hope in our hearts, that the time of resurrection will arrive (rest of text is in Yiddish, signed: the Hovevey Tsiyon Commission).

A calling voice[31] of the Hovevey Tsiyon Association
[a collection of the general Archives for Israel's history/chronology]

.../ a branch of the collective union of the Jews (Uniunea Evreilor Pãmânteni[32]) was founded in that place.

Persecutions of the Jews: to Jews, the peasant revolt[33] (1907), constitued the source of rioting in the region. In the Dorohoi Province[34], there then lived the lessor of estates, Moki Fischer, who became the focal point of defamation (_”_). Incited by priests, farmers & teachers stormed Dorohoi & looted the homes of 333 Jewish families, in March of the same year. Even the mayor, throughout the years[35], “changed his spots”[36] over the years & turned into an oppressor of Dorohoi's Jews. In 1914, he ordered the liquidation of the old cemetery, under the pretext that it was too close to the barracks of the military camp & hence, it might thus cast a spirit of depression[37] on the soldiers. Firemen destroyed the cemetery's wall, which was erected by the community a short while earlier at a very large expense. The same (mayor) also expropriated part of the community's schoolyard. In 1916, after Romania entered the war, the military commander of Dorohoi, General Petala, spread announcements in which he warned the (general, non-Jewish) population about the Jews, labeling them as “spies, traitors, military-duty dodgers”. In January 1917, he ordered the recruitment of Dorohoi's Jews for the work of building quarters for the soldiers. In the summer of same year, Jews who had missed work due to illness or who had been exempted of it due to paying a bribe, were detained & flogged naked on the town's street.

Between Two World Wars

During this period of time, the livelihood of Dorohoi's Jews was in great decline. Rich people did not exist among them at all. Most were craftsmen, laborers & fledgling grocers[38]. Nevertheless, immediately after the war, the community founded a kindergarten, kept the school running, supported the “Maccabi” sports organization & with its assistance, a sports field was purchased & even…/...

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.../A public park was planted for the Jews - as, in the town's park, they would be harassed by Christians. In 1920, it (the community) founded a hospital & a nearby pharmacy, as well as a purification mikveh[39]. In 1921, the community established a new senior home. The community paid the salaries of two Rabbis & seven ritual slaughterers[40].

In 1932, the official community was confirmed (acknowledged) as a public entity, which included 2,000 tax payers. The community's administration consisted of 36 members.

In 1930, three youth-movement organizations operated on Dorohoi: The “Zionist Youth”, “The Young Guard” & “Beytar”[41].

During those years, too, Dorohoi was a nesting place for anti-Semitism. In 1924, it was the third in order of cities, in which branches of The Fraternity (or Brotherhood) of the Cross[42]-an anti-Semitic organization (made) of gymnasium students-(as) a part of the Iron Guard(s)[43], were opened. In 1930, the Jews voted against the ruling Peasant party, in the elections for the city council because, in previous elections, that party collaborated with Cuza's[44] anti-Semitic party. In response to that, the leader of the local Peasant Party declared that Dorohoi's Jews would not be allowed to participate in elections anymore. That year, the authorities shut down a Hebrew day care center (kindergarten). In 1933, during the elections to the parliament, when the Jewish party submitted its registration, demonstrations took part in Dorohoi against Jews.

In 1903, the writer Ion Cãlugãru[45], who published, among others, a few stories on Jewish themes, was born in Dorohoi. After WWII, he served for a while, as the chief editor of the mouthpiece newsletter(-of-sorts) of the Communist party in Romania.

The Holocaust

The calamity in Dorohoi started already in June of 1940, with the annexation of Bessarabia[46] & N. Bukovina[47] to the U.S.S.R. This provided the pretext to Israel-haters to take revenge in the “Bolshevik” Jews. On the 30th of the month, the soldiers of the 29th infantry platoon that was stationed in Dorohoi, caught their Jewish comrades, stripped them naked, imprisoned them in one of the barrack cells & intended to execute them. One Jewish soldier had managed to escape his confinement & informed two officers-Colonels Marino & Captain Stino, of the goings-on and the latter hurried onto the barracks…/

IMAGE: The Community Hospital


[Page 107]

/…& prevented the massacre. In the meantime, rumors spread about impending pogroms. It was hinted to several Jews, by their Christian friends, that they had better taken shelter & hiding as, the people of neighboring villages were about to assault them. The Christians hung portraits of their saints on their windows & crosses on the walls of their houses so that their houses would not be ransacked by the mobs of rioting vandals.

On the same night, three Romanian military battalions entered the city, on their route of retreat from North Bukovina. During a border clash between the Romanians & Russians, a Jewish soldier (Iancu Solomon[48]), attempting to defend a Romanian officer from Russian bullets, got killed. The following day, in the afternoon of July 1st, he was brought to burial. Dorohoi's headquarters sent an honor guard made of 10 Jewish soldiers & a Christian corporal to the Jewish cemetery. A delegation of Dorohoi's Jews, accompanied by the leader[49] of the community & two Rabbis also participated at the funeral. Suddenly, shots were heard & in fright, the escorts escaped to a(n adjacent) building within the cemetery. The Jewish soldiers had attempted leaving the premises but soldiers from the 3rd border battalion disarmed them, lined them up facing the cemetery's fence & shot them to death. Later, additional soldiers from the same battalion arrived on site, pulled out the Jews who had hidden in the building, brought them to a nearby road & shot them to death with machine guns. Among the killed were 8 women & 3 children as well as the community's undersecretary[50] Issac. I. Issac. An 80-year-old man, who was not hit by the bullets, was hit to death by a blow to his head. The only survivors were the community chairman, two Rabbis who had left the cemetery before the arrival of the murderers & the community's undersecretary who managed to run for his life. At the same time, Romanian soldiers rushed upon Jewish streets (overflowing them in great numbers), shouting: “the Bolsheviks are coming” while robbing, torturing, maiming & killing (Jews). The pogrom riots spread so far as the suburbs. Close to 200 Jews were killed although, in an official document, only 52 dead were mentioned. A far greater slaughter was been prevented only by accident: storms & torrents of rain interrupted the soldiers from continuing the massacre.

When the sound of the shootings reached the camp barracks of the 29th battalion, a unit, under the commandment of Lieutenant Isãceanu[51] was organized to guard & maintain the order in town. Lieutenant Isãceanu ordered that 10 Jewish soldiers march ahead (in front) of the unit lest the town Jews shoot at the army. The unit went past town with its Christian soldiers shooting through windows into Jewish homes. Lieutenant Isãceanuj had informed the town commander that no Jew would shoot at the military. Nevertheless, the commander ordered the arrest of many among the Jews. Those were brought to the camp's yard but were (later) released by Colonel Marianu[52]. Arriving the following day, farmers, stripped (the bodies of) the victims, which were scattered in the streets. The 3rd border battalion left town afterwards, its carts[53] loaded with robbed Jewish possessions.

The military authorities ordered an investigation to be conducted into the matter but in his own report, the head/chief of police announced that a few Jews had been killed in “an incidental[54] scuffle”. The relatives of the victims were forced to sign a declaration (which stated) that unknown passers-by had murdered their relatives. Still, in his investigation, the government prosecutor reached the conclusion that the soldiers had been (coached) on (maintaining) that (argument/position) in advance.

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Even after the killing, the terror of the military units arriving in town, continued. In the middle of the night, weapon searches were conducted in the homes of Jews &, while at it…, the soldiers & officers helped themselves to anything their hands fell on…

With Antonescu's[55] rise to power (September, 1940), the terror increased. The Green Shirts Police[56] stripped off/dispossessed[57] (the Jews from) of their community school buildings. The Jews, who escaped town during the riot days, were never permitted to return to it. During the revolt of “The Green Shirts” against Antonescu, in January 1941, hundreds of Dorohoi's Jews were arrested by the “Iron Guard(s)” under the pretext that they had organized a communist assembly. Even after the Iron Guard was disbanded, the police continued harming Jews, prohibiting many to deal in (any) commerce or craft.

With the outbreak of the Romania-U.S.S.R war, in June 1941, another wave of persecutions intensified. Many of the Jews in the (little) towns surrounding the district ( Sãveni, Darabani, Mihãileni, Rãdauţi[58]) were expelled to Dorohoi, thereby creating a great burden to the community. 300 of Dorohoi's Jews led by[59] the community leaders were detained & sent to XXXXXX Târgu Jiu & Craiova[60] in Western Romania, “suspected” of communism & anti-government (“Subversive”) activities. The same month, all of Dorohoi's Jews were ordered to wear a yellow piece of cloth with a star on it & were prohibited from leaving their houses during the hours of 8p.m. 7a.m. At the end of August-beginning of September of 1941, some 2,000 Jewish men from the district & some 300 Jews from the town itself, who had been incarcerated in the (afore-mentioned) Western-Romanian camps, were brought to Dorohoi. In October, the local garrison, by orders from the (central) command post, prohibited the Jews from leaving town, even for urgent medical care or in order to stand trial in another city.

In November, the district & city authorities started defaming the Jews who had been brought from (little) towns to Dorohoi, claiming that they disturb the order & therefore, required expulsion. On November 5th, the head (chief) of the community was summoned to the municipality[61] & was told that, in 24 hours, all of Dorohoi's Jews had to surrender their entire possessions of gold, silver-even wedding rings[62], valuable (bank) notes, as well as foreign & Romanian currency to the local branch of the National Bank. In exchange for the Romanian currency, they would receive one Rubel[63] for every 40 Romanian Lei[64] & in exchange for the rest; they would receive amounts based on appraisal/estimate. At the same time, this order to Dorohoi's Jews was passed around by means of a (publicly-)made announcement, accompanied by drums. Thus, the signal was given to the Christian population to start looting Jewish stores. The Jewish merchants could not muster enough power to defend themselves while the police was standing by idly... The deputy to the community leader[65] attempted to protest against the sheer barbarity[66] & the scant return given for possessions but in response, was beaten up. Two days later, on Novemebr 7th, the deportation of the Jews from Darabani & Rãdauţi to Transnistria started. And on the Sabbath (Saturday), November the 8th, the Jews from Sãveni & Mihãileni were also brought to the railway station: a total of 6,000 people[67], among whom, were the elderly, sick & children that had been deported, at the time, from little towns, as paupers & in complete nakedness, some, not having any shoes on their feet. Their clothes were searched & anything valuable was taken out of them. Later, the deportees were loaded onto cattle & freight wagons, 50-60 to a wagon. The doors were shut & they were (all) taken to Transnistria.


[Page 108]

Following the endeavors of Dr. Filderman, the chairman of the union of congregations in Bucharest, a classification was established, in which the chief of province, mayor, chief of police, the head of the bureau of labor affairs & two officers, who had arrived from Cernauţi[68], participated. By law, every Jew was afforded the option of submitting a substantiated request to the committee. In effect, the decision depended not on substantiation but on the amounts of money which the committee members, with help from middlemen-Jewish & Christian, managed to extort. There were Jews who paid 200,000-1,000,000 Lei to be saved from deportation. In return for their endeavors (hard work), the wives of influential Romanian noblemen received jewellery, furs, etc…Many of the thusly-issued licenses (permits) to stay were canceled the (very) next day, so as to extort its owners of additional amounts (of money). A total of 450 certificates of exemption from deportation were issued.

The expulsion of the Jews from Dorohoi itself started on the November 12th, 1941. The night before, it had been announced that all the Jews had to be present at the railway station at 8a.m. & that anyone who violates the order would be shot to death. The first group of deportees set out on their way on the (very) same day. The second group set out the following day. The apartments of the deportees were sealed by town hall clerks & on their doors were posted notices declaring them be state property.

 

rom1_108.gif [49 KB] - Photocopy of document/letter
Photocopy of document/letter
Image text very unclear-therefore, am unable
to translate the body of the letter itself!


an appeal from the administration of Dorohoi's congregation to the Union of congregations, requesting intervention (on their behalf) in preventing the deportation of a few young people from Dorohoi


And whoever tempered with them would be executed. Nevertheless, neighbors ransacked all that was in them. The third group was to set out on November 14th but was returned from the railway station in the pretext of shortage of train cars (wagons). In reality, the town authorities received an order to stop the deportation, even before the departure of the first group yet, they (ignored/) disobeyed it. The head of the commerce committee, the Christian merchant Gheorghe Timuş[69] had spread the rumor that the deportation was going to last for a while longer, demanding the handover of shops of Jewish merchants to Christians. Many Christians advised their Jewish friends to turn their property over as collateral.

In the two transports from Dorohoi, 2,500-3,000 Jews were deported, many of whom received a license (permit) to stay but, who did not wish to separate from their family members. Among the deportees were community leaders headed by David Schechter[70]. Many of the deportees died of cold in locked train wagons even before arriving to Ataki[71] station on the Dniester river bank. There remaining were sent in groups to the town of Ataki, escorted by guards of soldiers, after additional searches of their clothes had been conducted. On the way, many were robbed & a few even killed by soldiers & Ukrainian gangs. The bodies of the murdered were tossed into the river (in dilapidated houses in the town of Ataki, puddles of (dry) coagulated blood & decomposing bodies were found along with the (following) wall inscriptions: “Don't remain here! Here, we were shot at, a few hundred Jews. Keep marching on!”. After 8-10 hours, they started crossing the Dniester on boats, in groups of 3-4 people. Some of the boats capsized, with their people left to drown. Bodies of women, children & the elderly floated on the river. Across the Dniester, escorted by military (army) guards, they (i.e. the Jews who survived the crossing) walked on foot to the town of Moghilev, from which they were sent to various provincial camps: Copaigorod[72],Murafa[73],Capusterna[74], Tropova,Vindiceni[75],Crasnoie[76],Lucineţ[77] & others.

A few of Dorohoi's synagogues in which the deportees were lodged, were not returned to the community, after the deportation but (rather) closed, sealed & a notice placed on their doors read: “state property”. At the end of that month, a “Romanization Center” was established to which the town hall handed over the houses of the Jews. At the same time, a few of the Jews[78], who had been drafted into forced labor brigades & who did not find their family members (deported during their absence) returned to Dorohoi. Their apartments were closed & sealed and they were denied access (entrance in) to them. They sent a telegram to the Bucharest community committee, requesting to be xxxxx sent to their families. On the other end, Dorohoi's Deportee Board sent a telegram from Transnistria, to the committee of congregations, requesting intervention[79] in granting them permission to return, since Dorohoi had always belonged to the [80] “Regat” (from where Jews had not been expelled). In the beginning of December 1941, with intervening endeavors of the afore-mentioned Dr. Filderman, the dictator xxxx Antonescu ordered the return of Dorohoi's Jews to their town. Yet, his order was not executed until 2 years later, during which time thousands of deportees had perished.

On June 7th, 1942, the expulsion from Bukovina resumed & on the 14th (of the month) its wave reached Dorohoi. In the town, a hunt for Jews was conducted by


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military units which blocked the streets & performed searches in apartments. However, this time, as the rumor of the new expulsion was spreading in town, Dorohoi's Jews started holding counsel[81] & many were hidden in Christians' xxxx homes. In this second wave, 450 men were taken, mostly Jews who returned from the forced labor squads of Brãila[82] Province & whose family members had already been deported in the first deportation. A small number of the Romanians, who had hidden Jews in their homes, were punished for it & sent to concentration camps but, the surviving Jews remained in their places. The deported were sent to Transnistria[83] in the same way xxxx which their predecessors had been sent. After 6 days, on June 20th, 1942, they arrived in Mogilov/Mogilev[84]) yet, they were not allowed to stay. Then, their family members joined them & on the following day, 950 people continued their journey to the river Bog. Upon arrival in Oleaniţa[85] in the Tulcin[86] Province, they were all sent to the Cariera-de-piatrã[87] transitional camp xxxx by the river Bog. From there, many were transported to German labor camps where they almost all died (*Braţlav[88]). In Dorohoi, there were xxxx some 2,000 Jews left. The municipal authorities turned synagogues into storage warehouses. The old cemetery was ruined & the quarries were used to pave the latrines in the barracks of the 29th battalion & in the school for priests. Of the 500 shops[89] & workshops, only 80 survived yet, even against those, the authorities & Dorohoi's town hall conspired. In order to destroy them completely, in March of 1943, the mayor, Jean Pascu[90], forbade farmers (peasants) from selling their merchandise to Jews as well as buying in their stores. Jews' groceries were shut down & the remaining businesses (stores) were posted with xxxx signs on, displaying the Star of David & declaring that farmers are prohibited from patronizing them. Only 4 Jewish stores remained.

All that while, the congregation's administration[91] in DorohoiX made efforts for xxxx the city to rejoin the *“Regat”, so that deportations cease. Apart from its attempts for that, in Bucharest, it paid 4,000,000 Lei in a fundraising collection which took place in the city.

In January 1943, the central government in Bucharest decided to return Dorohoi's Jews to Transnistria & Gendarmerie units started registering the names of deportees from all of Dorohoi's districts. In 1943, the dictator Antonescu rescinded the resolution but, in July of the same year, only few Jews were allowed to return. In November, an inter-ministerial committee, specifically designated for the Jewish problem, decided to return (“repatriate”) Dorohoi's Jews, again. On December 8th, the central government informed Transnistria's authorities that The Jews from Dorohoi's district were to be returned. Close to their return time, the Romanian soldiers beat them up viciously & the officers robbed them of all the money they had had left xxxx. During those days, the Jewish Committee sent a delegation to Transnistria to help manage xxxx the issue of the “repatriated” (the “returnees”). The head of the delegation, Fred Şaraga[92] found 3,198 Jews from Dorohoi's district who were barefoot, wearing rags, being weak & sick, in Mogilev.

On December 20, 1943, the first group of Dorohoi's deportees left Transnistria & by the end of that month, 6,053 of all the 10,368 deportees from the entire Dorohoi province, returned. Of the 3,074 deportees from the city of Dorohoi proper, some 2,000 people returned.

When the deportees arrived,

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.../the community was faced with severe financial problems. Iaşi's community was the first to send assistance: food, heaters (warmers), kitchenware & silverware. At the end of January, 1944, assistance also arrived from the assistance committee in Bucharest. In the interim, the Anti-Semite leaders, headed by Professor CuzaX & the province Deputy, Colonel Barcan, conducted an incitement campaign (propaganda) against the Jews. Dorohoi's authorities continued (with) the persecutions. Permission was not granted to dwellers of (smaller &/or surrounding) towns & villages to travel outside of the city (of Dorohoi). Apartments of deportees which had been seized by Christians were not returned (to their original rightful Jewish owners). Male deportees were sent to forced labor. The community administration, which had asked for a few months of respite for the sick, was not responded.

On January 26th, 1944, the local authorities prohibited Jews from walking in the town's central streets, dealing in commerce & coming in contact with Christians. Even though Dorohoi was again included in the province of Moldova (Moldavia), the orders of the military governor in Bukovina were not annulled only until great pains (endeavors) were taken. Most of Dorohoi's Jews were quite dwindled & did not have the means to hand over to the authorities the (mandatory) clothing tax which Romania's Jews were made pay & (cecause of that), many (of them) were given 5 years of imprisonment (as punishment).

Despite all (of) the obstacles, the community managed to ensure (succeeded in ensuring) a continuation (of)…/

 

rom1_108.gif [18 KB]
Subscript: 1943 ordinance of the mayor
on restrictions imposed on Jews: curfew'
prohibition on food purchase from peasants
(farmers)' closure of Jewish stores as well as
prohibition of passage of Jews in main
(central) streets during Christian holidays


[Page 110]

/…the studies in two elementary (primary) schools & even to establish a gymnasium for a 100 students. It also reorganized the senior home & even sent assistance-in the form of food & medicine, to people in the labor squad who worked out of town.

In April 1944, the Russian military (army) occupied Dorohoi.

D”OL?

>>>>>>>>> <<<<<<<<<<

The History of Israel General Archives-RM 158; RM 183

Yad va'Shem's Archives…

Y. Filderman's Archives…

M. Carp (Karp)'s Archives…

Bibliography


Please note:

Broken line (- - - -) represents a break of column (where one column of text ends & another begins, on very same page!)

Asterisks represent letters which appear as certain abbreviations or acronym with whose meaning I am not familiar with the & therefore, could not translate (some, are sentences in what appears to me to be Aramaic or, some others-even entire parts of a text in Yiddish, in neither one of which I am not fully versed…-yet!).


Translator's Footnotes

  1. People-in the original Hebrew: souls (like, when performing a head count) Return

  2. Landlord-in the sense of landowner Return

  3. Spirits-such as: brandy, gin, whiskey Return

  4. Constantin –Romanian version of Constantine. His last name is pronounced: Shoo-tsoo Return

  5. Herţa=pronounced: her-tsaah (or, more accurately: khehr-tsa, with 'kh', as the sound of 'ch' in Lo Return

  6. Jewish Guild-in Romanian: Breasla Jidovilor=pronounced: Breh-aahs-leh-aah Djee-doh-vee-lor-where 'Dj' is a non-existing sound in the English language, existing in languages like: Russian &French & is similar to the 'J' in the French names: Jean/Jacques. The singular of the word ' guild' in Romanian, would be: Braslã=pronounced: Breh-aah-slih yet, the plain 'a' (without the inverted “rainbow” sign over it) at the end indicates the possessive case: 'of' (the Jews). Jidov-in singular=pronounced: Djeeh-dohv –with 'Dj' again, as the 'J' in the French name Jean-(Jidovi-in plural, with same pronunciation), refers to the ethnic epithet Romanian (but also almost all other E. European people) Christians used for the Jews to insult, shame, belittle, mock & patronize them (instead of the correct & neutral: Evrei-in singular: Evreu= pronounced: Ehv-rey/Ehv-rehoo, meaning Hebrew & also, Jewish). As mentioned, for example, in Russian (like in many other E. European Slavic nations), that epithet was almost identical: Djid (singular)-again. 'Dj' as the French 'J' in Jean. Return

  7. Boyars-in Romanian: Boier (sing.)/Boieri (Pl.)=pronounced: Boh-yehr (same pronunciation in the singular & plural)-Romanian noblemen Return

  8. Terminated-in the original Hebrew, it would be the equivalent of annulled, cancelled, rescinded, revoked, etc… Return

  9. Lupta=pronounced: loop-taah,which means: the battle/combat in Romanian Return

  10. All Israel are Friends Society-from Hebrew: Kol Israel Khaverim=pronounced: Kohl Is-raah-el Khaah- veh-reem (with 'kh' as the 'ch' in Loch Ness) Return

  11. Fior=pronounced: Fee-or Return

  12. Elias Schwartfeld=pronounced: Eh-lee-aahs Shvaahrts-feld. Elias is the equivalent of Elijah (Eli'ya'hu=pronounced: Eh-lee-yaah-hoo, in Hebrew & last name is German for: Black Field. Return

  13. Burghelea=pronounced: Boohr-ghe-leh-aah Return

  14. Strata-in the sense of “classes”, walks-of-life Return

  15. Senior center-center is the closest in terms to the original Hebrew: Moshav (pronounced: moh-shaahv), which actually means: settlement-a place for the elderly to come to &“sit” in, congregate & even stay in, Return

  16. Beit-Shlomo (or: Beyt Shlomo) is the exact translation of the House of Solomon Return

  17. Waggoners-cabmen, coachmen Return

  18. Wagon holders-coach owners (owners of wooden carts, for the most part-nothing “fancy…!) Return

  19. Speranţa=pronounced: speh-raahn-tsaah, Romanian for: The Hope Return

  20. Talmud Torah-the learning & study of the Torah (like a seminary) Return

  21. Kimen-unlike other places in the text where a Romanian official's name in Hebrew would be accompanied by its original Romanian language equivalent (in parenthesis), this time, this Rabbi'slast name is spelled only in unvocalized Hebrew-namely: without those VOWEL reading marks which instruct HOW to pronounce his name correctly…Hence, his name can be read in English, as: Kaiman, Kayman, Keaman, Keeman but due to poor copy quality, there is a chance of a misread (“misdeciphered”) letter, where the 'i'/'y' sound may actually be an 'r'-making his name: Karman/Kerman.Whichever the case, the first letter 'K' is correct (clear enough to decipher) but, since in Romanian (as opposed to many names of German derivation, where this letter exists) there is no 'K', the spelling would/must have been: Caiman (carman). 'y' doesn't exist in Romanian either (hence, Cayman is impossible) Return

  22. Maubas/Maumas/Maupas-same problem a in footnote 21 above, encountered. Name may also be read as: Meubas/Meumas, Meupas Return

  23. Yad Yossef-The Hand of Joseph Return

  24. Cluj, TRPV/TRPZ-place of publication (Romanian city's name) & year according to the Jewish calendar- again, very unclear from copy. Coversion table to the Gregorian (Christian calendar year would be necessary to get the equivalent English year version. Return

  25. Carol-is a Romanian MALE'S name, pronounced: Kaah-rohl Return

  26. Stefan= pronounced:: steh-faahn (in German: Shteh-faahn)-the equivalent of Stephan Return

  27. Khibat-Tsiyyon (alternative spellings: Chibat-Tzion/Zion) which in Hebrew literally, means: the fondness (love) of Zion-a certain, most crucial Jewish nationalist (Zionist) movement founded during the late 19th century in Russia Return

  28. Kissufim Le Tsiyyon=pronounced: Kee-sooh-feem leh tsee-on. Kissufim- a literary Hebrew word for: nostalgia, yearnings. The original Romanian name was: Dorul Sionului=pronounced: Doh-roohl See- ohnoo-loohy Return

  29. Khovevey Tsiyyon=pronounced: Kho-veh-vehy tsee-yohn (with 'kh' sound as the 'ch' in: Loch Ness). Alternate spellings: Chovevey/Hovevey Tzion; in Hebrew: the “lovers” of Zion. Khovev/Chovev/Hovev is the singular form. Khoveveem/Choveveem/Hoveveem-the masculine plural & Khovevey/Chovevey/Hovevey is the possessive (the lovers of). Khovev is not exactly the equivalent of the English word: lover. Although close, it really means: “fonder” (one who is fond of…) & related to the word for fondness (Kheebah/Cheebah/Heebah)/ Hence, the name of the movement: Kheebaht Tsiyyon/Cheebaht Tsiyyon /Heebaht Tsiyyon=the fondness of Zion, whose members were: Khoveveem/ Choveveem/Hoveveem Return

  30. All this text is a short poetic introduction Return

  31. A Calling Voice in Hebrew, historically, often refers to a pamphlet/leaflet spread within the community Return

  32. Uniunea Evreilor Pãmânteni=pronounced: ooh-nee-ooh-nee-aah ehv-rey-ee-lor pih-mihn-tehn. Romanian for: the Union of the Earthly (Earth-Connected/Earth-Cultivating) Jews Return

  33. Peasant-is used interchangeably with the more common U.S. word: farmer. Peasant is mostly more appropriate to be used in this text, to denote simpler & unsophisticated people (in education, including even literacy & in way of life) Return

  34. Province-in the U.S., in the sense of county or dictrict Return

  35. In Hebrew, the expression goes: throughout the days… Return

  36. Change its spots-in Hebrew: change its skin Return

  37. Cast a spirit of depression-in Hebrew: cast black spleen (cause them to become spleenful/splenetic=melancholic) also: black bitterness (after the spleen's bitter fluids)-and depression was associated with a state of feeling bitter (miserable) Return

  38. Fledgling grocers-in Hebrew: small grocers (in the sense of: small businesses of grocery) Return

  39. Mikveh-a place of/for ritual baths. Originally, from the Hebrew word root: K-V-H, which refers/relates to the collection (drainage) of rainwater in one place senior home-home for the aged; elder-care facility Return

  40. ritual slaughterers-in Hebrew: Shokhet (sing.)/Shokhateem (pl.)-with 'kh' pronounced as the 'ch' in Loch Ness Return

  41. “Zionist Youth”, “The Young Guard” & “Beytar”-transliterated into Hebrew, each respectively, as: “Haah-oo-aahr haah-tsi-yo-nee”; “Haah-sho-mehr Haah-tsaah-eer” & Beytar-also an acronym-perhaps unrelated: the name of last stronghold of Bar-Kokhvah/Kokhbah aka Bar-Kusseybah/Kusseivah, the Jewish hero, leading the battle against the Roman armies of Caesar Adrian, in the years 132 & 135 BCE. For further information-please consult Jewish history sources. Return

  42. The Fraternity (or Brotherhood) of the Cross-in Romanian: Frãţia de Cruce=pronounced: Fraah-tsee-yaah deh krooh-cheh Return

  43. Iron Guard(s)-in Romanian, the notorious: Garda de Fier (in the singular)=pronounced: gaahr-daah deh Fee-yehr Return

  44. Cuza=pronounced: Kooh-zaah Return

  45. Cãlugãru=pronounced: Kih-looh-gih-rooh, meaning: the monk/the friar Return

  46. Bessarabia or Bassarabia-current-formerly one of U.S.S.R.'s republics; current-day republic of Moldova or Moldavia & part of S. & S.W. Ukraine Return

  47. Bukovina-in German, spelled: Bukowina & both pronounced: Booh-Koh-Vee-naah, a mostly German- speaking area in Romania Return

  48. Iancu=pronounced: Yaahn-Ko (Romanian equivalent for: Jacob/Yiddish for: Yankel/Yank'l) Return

  49. leader-in the original Hebrew: head of the community (“headperson”) Return

  50. undersecretary-since this person is mentioned again, it'd be logical to assume that there was more than one person holding this title/position within the Jewish community Return

  51. Isãceanu=pronounced: Ee-zih-chee-aah-nooh Return

  52. Marianu=pronounced: Maah-ree'aah-nooh (the Italian/Portuguese version of which ends with an 'o': Mariano Return

  53. Carts-or wagons Return

  54. incidental-can also mean: accidental Return

  55. Antonsecu=pronounced: aahn-to-nes-kooh Return

  56. The Green Shirts Police-in Romanian: Cãmãşile Verzi=pronounced: kih-mih-shee-leh verz Return

  57. Stripped/dispossessed-in the original Hebrew the meaning is: expire or make expire hence, the closest English translation version Return

  58. Sãveni, Darabani, Mihãileni, Rãdauţi=pronounced (each, respectively): Sih-ven; Daah-raah-baahn; Mikhi-ee-lehn-with 'kh' pronounced as the 'ch' sound in Loch Ness; Rih-daah-oots Return

  59. led by-in the original Hebrew: “headed” by…the leader of the community was at their head Return

  60. Târgu Jiu & Craiova=pronounced: Tihr-ghoo Jew & Kraah-yo-vaah Return

  61. municipality=town hall (or, in bigger urban areas, the equivalent of: town hall) Return

  62. wedding rings-in Hebrew: Taah'baah'ot (plural of Ta'baah'aaht) Kee'du'sheen-keedush (pronounced: Kee'doosh) meaning: sanctification Return

  63. Rubel=in Russian, pronounced: Roohb'l (the name of the Russian currency) Return

  64. Lei-the plural of Leu (the Romanian currency) Return

  65. Barbarity-in Hebrew: cruelty Return

  66. See footnote 1 Return

  67. Cernauţi=pronounced: Cher-naah-oots (Romanian name version); current-day Russian city of Chernovtse/Chernovtsi (Russian name version) Return

  68. Gheorghe Timuş=pronounced: Geh-or-ghe (Romanian for George) Tee-moosh Return

  69. Schechter=pronounced: Shehkh-tehr (with 'kh' as the 'ch' in Loch-Ness)-a German name in origin Return

  70. Ataki-by pronunciation (spelled: Otaki, in Russian)-name of town. Return

  71. Copaigorod=pronounced: Koh-paahy-goh-rod Return

  72. Murafa=pronounced: Mooh-raah-faah Return

  73. Capusterna=pronounced: Kah-poo-strehr-naah Return

  74. Vindiceni=pronounced: Veen-dee-chehn Return

  75. Crasnoie=pronounced: Kraahs-noh-yeh, meaning: Red, in Russian Return

  76. Lucineţ=pronounced: Looh-chee-nets Return

  77. The Jews who returned from forced labor work Return

  78. Intervention (to engage on behalf of…, attempting to coax, cajole & persuade someone to do something) Return

  79. hold (take) counsel-confer so as to try to devise a way to save themselves (avoid deportation) & try to find a solution to the impending threat Return

  80. The original Romanian term România Mare did not carry the expansionist and irredentist sense of its English translation. The literal translation in English is actually Great Romania. The name was coined right after World War I, when Romania came to include all the historical Romanian provinces, by comparison with Small Romania, or the Regat, which did not include the provinces of Transylvania, Bessarabia, and Bukovina. An alternate name for România Mare, coined at the same period, was România ╬ntregita (Whole Romania or Integrated Romania). România Mare was seen (and is still seen by many) as the natural national Romanian state, and a symbol of national renaissance.The term România Mare acquired an irredentist meaning after the Second Vienna Award and the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact which lead to the separation from Romania of Northern Transylvania, Bessarabia, and Northern Bukovina. Nowadays, the term is most often used in English to convey a nationalist meaning, though it does not have expansionist meaning in Romanian. When used in a political context, especially with reference to the Greater Romania Party, is conveys in English an irredentist connotation, mainly concerning territories taken after World War II by the Soviet Union, and now part of the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine (Wikipedia-see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greater_Romania) Return

  81. Hold counsel-confer so as to try to devise a way to save themselves (avoid deportation) & try to find a solution to the impending threat Return

  82. Brãila=pronounced like: Brih-ee-laah Return

  83. Transnistira- Trans (across ) the river Dniyestr (Rus.)/Nistru (Rom.) Return

  84. Mogilev/Mogilov-also pronounced: Mohilov/Mohilev because of a variant in local pronunciation, whereby 'g' may sound/replaced by 'h' OR, may also be pronounced with an inserted 'y' sound: Mogilyev/Mohilyev. Another very common variant: 'O' replaced by 'AAh' sound ('u' as in: up ), hence: Magilev/Magilyev/Mahilev/Mahilyev Return

  85. Oleaniţa=pronounced: Oh-lee-nee-tsaah Return

  86. Tulcin=Pronounced: Tool-cheen Return

  87. Cariera-de-piatrã=(pronounced: Kaah-ree-yeh-raah deh pee-aaht-rih) means: The Stone Quarry Return

  88. Braţlav=pronounced: Braahts-Laahv Return

  89. Shops-in the sense of businesses (U.S: stores) Return

  90. Pascu=pronounced: Paahs-Kooh (his first name: Jean is French in origin & pronoun) Return

  91. Administration-or, directorate (the body that managed the community's affairs) Return

  92. Şaraga=pronounced: Shaah-raah-ghaa (other variations, such as the Israeli one: Shraga) Return

  93. Schwartzfeld=pronounced: Shvarts-feld, meaning: BalckField, in German Return

  94. Manaşcu=pronounced: Maah-naah-shkoo-most likely, a variation of Menashe (other variations are: Menasse. Manasse, etc…) Return

  95. Mosaic-of or belonging to Moses Return

  96. Bernstein=pronounced: Behrn-Shtaahyin, in German, meaning: Berry Stone Return

  97. Stern=pronounced: shtehrn, meaning: Stars, in German Return

  98. Herzog=pronounced: Hehr-tsog, meaning: Duke, in German Return


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