Encyclopaedia of Jewish Communities in Romania
(Volume I)

Translation of
Pinkas ha-kehilot. Romanyah: entsiklopedyah shel ha-yishuvim ha-Yehudiyim
le-min hivasdam ve-`ad le-ahar Sho'at Milhemet ha-`olam ha-sheniyah.

Editors: Dr. Jean Ancel, Dr. Theodore Lavi, Aviva Broshi, Zvi Shal

Published by Yad Vashem

Volume I - Published in Jerusalem 5730/1969


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Towns listed in Encyclopaedia of Jewish Communities in Romania Vol. I
Additional places in Transnistria
 

Translated by Shalom Bronstein

Title Pages 1
Introduction by Jacob Robinson 7
Comments of the Editorial Staff 13
Terminology, Spelling, Transliteration 16
 
History of the Jews of the Regat - Dr. T. Lavi*

To the End of World War I

1. Historical and Geographical Data 19
2. The Beginning of Jewish Settlement in Romania 20
        A. Facts and Conjectures 24-15
        B. Jews in the Princedoms of Walachia and Moldova 21-22
        C. The Establishment of Jewish Town in Moldova 22-24
3. Internal Organization 24
        A. The Haham Bashia 24-25
        B. The Guilds 25-26
        C. The Reorganization of the Communities as a Result of the Mendelsohnian Influence 26-27
4. The First Stages of Anti-Semitism in Romania 27
        A. The Religious Basis 27-29
        B. The Economic Factor 29-30
        C. The Organic Code 30-31
5. The Beginnings of the Struggle for Equal Rights 31
        A. The 1848 Revolution 31-32
        B. The Intervention of Foreign Powers and the Attempts of Intercession of Foreign Jewish Notables 32-35
        C. Congress of Berlin 35-40
6. Organized Anti-Semitism and its Principals 40
        A. The Social and Economic Background 40-41
        B. The Theoretical Platform 41-43
        C. The Earliest Anti-Semitic Organizations 43-44
        D. The Jewish Reaction – First Attempts at Political Activity 34-37
7. The Pre-Zionist Movement 47
        A. First Waves of Immigration 47-55
        B. The Beginnings of Settlement in Eretz Yisrael 45-48
        C. The Hovevei Zion (Lovers of Zion) Movement 58-61
8. Attempts at Organizing the Communities 61
9. Cultural and Spiritual Life 67
        A. Jewish Creativity in Hebrew 67-83
        B. Jewish Literature in Yiddish 83-84
        C. Jewish Literature in the Romanian Language 84-91
10. Intensification of Anti-Semitism in the Beginning of the Twentieth Century 91
        A. Immigration on Foot 91-94
        B.The Farmers' Rebellion 94-95
        C. Koza and Yurga – The Founders of the National Democratic Party 95-97
        Persecution of the Jews During World War I 97-98
11. The Organized Jewish Reaction 98
 
Between the World Wars
1. Geographical and Economic Data 106
2. The Struggle for the Recognition of Rights as Citizens 107
3. Romanian Anti-Semitism 111
4. Internal Organization 118
        A. The Legal Status of the Communities 118-119
        B. Internal Political Trends 119-124
        C. The Zionist Movement 124-128
5. Cultural and Spiritual Life 128
        A. Jewish Creativity in Hebrew 128-133
        B. Jewish Literature in Yiddish 133
        C. Jewish Literature in the Romanian Language 133-141
 
The Holocaust
1. The Nazi Penetration of Romania 141
2. The Goga-Koza Government 142
3. The Dictatorship of King Carol II and the German Pressure to Enforce Anti-Semitism 144
4. The Situation of the Jews during the Royal Dictatorship 146
5. The Struggle of Romania's Jews to Defend Their Rights 148
6. The National-Legionnaire Government 151
7. Short Intermezzo – “Legalized” Anti-Semitism 154
8. The First Stage of the War 155
9. The Struggle for Jewish Defense in Romania after the Outbreak of the War 159
10. “The Jewish Center” 165
11. Jewish Leadership Comes to the Defense 174
        A. “The Final Solution” Regarding the Jews of Romania and the Ways to Subvert It 174-175
        B. The Jewish Underground Council 175-177
        C. The Zionist Organization and Aliyah to Eretz Yisrael 177-186
        D. The Underground Pioneering Movement 186-189
12. Towards the End of the War 189
        A. The Political Situation 189
        B. Activity to Repatriate the Exiles 189-196
        C. Activity for Self-defense 196-198
13. The Period of the Holocaust – Results and Conclusions 198
        A. The Balance Sheet of Losses 198-199
        B. Changes in the Demographic and Economic Status of Romania's Jews 199-201
        D. Other Conclusions 201-203
14. Shearit Hapleita – The Survivors 203
Sources and Methodological Problems 204
Bibliography 209
 
* The chapters on Jewish Creativity (5A and 9A) were written by Mr. Joseph Cohen
and the chapters on Jewish literature in Yiddish (5B and 9B) were written by Mr. Nathan Mark. Return
 
Regat – Historic Romania
Page number follows name of location
Adjud 3
Bacau 10
Bacesti 9
Barlad (Birlad) 17
Beresti 88
Bivolari 77
Botosani 29
Bozieni-Bals 29
Braila 78
Bucecea 39
Bucuresti 40
Buhusi 21
Bujor 28
Burdujeni 76
Buzau 24
Caiuti 227
Calafat 228
Calarasi 229
Campina 230
Caracal 231
Codaiesti 232
Constanta 232
Copou-Targ 235
Corabia 235
Damienesti 101
Darabani 102
Dorohoi 104
Draguseni 110
Dranceni 111
Falciu 192
Falticeni 188
Focsani 203
Foltesti 202
Frumusica 225
Gaesti 89
Galati 90
Garlele-Gazariei 99
Giurgiu 100
Hanesti 111
Harlau (Hirlau) 111
Heci-Lespezi 117
Herta 118
Husi 114
Iasi 141
Ibanesti 8
Ibanesti 8
Liteni 176
Marasesti 177
Mihaileni 180
Moinesti 177
Moreni 179
Negresti 181
Nehoiu 182
Odobesti 4
Oltenita 6
Onesti 6
Panciu 193
Parincea 195
Pascani 195
Piatra-Neamt 208
Pitesti 216
Ploiesti 218
Plopana 224
Podul-Iloaei 197
Puesti 202
Pungesti 203
Racaciuni 245
Raducaneni 240
Ramnicu-Sarat 242
Ramnicu-Valcea/Ramnicul de Olt 241
Ripiceni 254
Roman 246
Rosiori-de-Vede 253
Roznov 245
Sascut 184
Saveni 183
Sculeni 187
Slatina 186
Stefanesti 255
Sulita 185
Targoviste 124
Targu-Frumos 130
Targu-Gloduri 125
Targu-Jiu 126
Targu-Neamt 127
Targu-Ocna 123
Tecuci 138
Tibana 226
Tiganasi 226
Tulcea 132
Turnu-Magurele 134
Turnu-Severin 135
Urziceni 7
Valea-Rea 120
Vaslui 120
 
Southern Transylvania
History of the Jews of Southern Transylvania 261-271
The Romanian Name is followed by the Hungarian Name
 
Aiud/Nagyenyed 274
Alba-Iulia/Gyulafehervar 277
Arad/Arad 279
Beius/Belenyes 286
Beliu/Bel 289
Blaj/Balazsfalva 288
Brad/Brad 290
Brasov/Brasso 291
Buteni/Korosbokeny 286
Buzias/Buziasfurdo 285
Calatele/Kiskalota 339
Campia Turzii (Ghiris)/Aranyosgyeres 340
Caransebes/Karansebes 341
Ceica/Magyarcseke 338
Cermeiu/Csermo 339
Chisineu-Cris/Kisjeno 343
Ciacova/Csak 337
Ciuleni/Incsel 338
Curtici/Kurtos 342
Deta/Detta 298
Deva/Deva 295
Dumbraveni/Erzsebetvaros 297
Fagaras/Fogaras 331
Faget/Facsad 334
Geoagiu/Algyogyfalu 294
Gurahont/Honczto 294
Hateg/Hatszeg 298
Hunedoara/Vajdahunyad 300
Iernut/Radnot 316
Jimbolia/Szombolya 302
Lipova/Lippa 320
Ludus/Marosludas 318
Lugoj/Lugos 316
Lupeni/Lupeny 319
Medias/Medgyes 321
Mociu/Mocs 322
Nadlac/Nagylak 322
Orastie/Szaszvaros 273
Oravita/Oravicabanya 273
Orsova/Orsova 274
Pancota/Pankota 335
Petrila/Petrilla 337
Petrosani/Petrozseny 335
Radna 343
Resita/Resicabanya 344
Rovine-Pecica/Vilaagos-Pecska 344
San-Nicolaul-Mare/Nagyszentmiklos 323
Sarmas/Nagysarmas 324
Sarmaselul/Kissarmas 326
Sebis/Szaszsebes 326
Sibiu/Nagyszeben 327
Sighisoara/Szgesvar 329
Tarnaveni/Discoszentmarton 302
Teius/Tovis 307
Timisoara/Temesvar 308
Tinca/Tenke 315
Turda/Torda 304
Uioara/Marosuyvar 272
Vintul de Jos/Alvincz 301
Vulcan/Vulkan 300
Transnistria
Transnistria – An Area of Exile and Annihilation 349-388
Transnistria – Camps and Ghettoes 389-390
Acmecetca 399
Alexandrovca 398
Ananiev 398
Arva 400
Balanovca 400
Balchi 402
Balta 400
Bar 403
Berezovca 409
Bersad 411
Birzula 407
Bogdanovca 404
Bondurovca 407
Brailov 410
Britavca 410
Bucov 407
Budi 406
Capusterna 494
Capustiani 494
Cariera de Piatra 496
Cariscov 497
Carlovca 498
Cazacioivca 494
Cernevti 493
Cetvertinovca 491
Chianovca 505
Cicelnic 492
Codima 498
Colosovca 500
Conatcauti 500
Copaigorod 501
Crasnoie 507
Crijopol 508
Crivoje-Ozero 507
Cucavca 504
Cuzminti 499
Derebcin 425
Dimidovca 425
Djurin 421
Domanovca 419
Dubasari 418
Frunza 490
Golta 414
Gorai 415
Grabivti 416
Grosolova 417
Hrinovca 441
Iampol 451
Iarisev 454
Iaruga 452
Israelovca 398
Ivascauti 397
Kernasovca 509
Klokotnia 506
Kurievka 505
Ladejin 455
Lozova 457
Lucincic 459
Lucinet 457
Luhova 456
Mala-Kiriuca 459
Manicovca 460
Marinovca 461
Martinovca 461
Mateewka 459
Miscovca 478
Moghilev 461
Molocneea 473
Mostovoi 473
Murafa 475
Nemerci 478
Nestervarca 479
Nicolaevca 478
Odessa 390
Oleanita 397
Olgopol 395
Ozarinet 394
Pasiuca 487
Pavlovca 487
Peciora 488
Penchivca 488
Popivti 487
Rabnitza 509
Sargorod 511
Savran 480
Scazinet 485
Slidi 486
Slivina 483
Smerinca 440
Stanislavcic 482
Stepanchi 483
Suha-Balca 481
Sumilova 517
Tatarovca 442
Tibulovca 491
Tiraspol 445
Tivriv 444
Tridubi 449
Trihati 449
Tropova 448
Trostinet 447
Tulcin 443
Vapniarca 426
Varvarovca 432
Vazdovca 426
Verhovca 438
Veselinovo 438
Vigoda 436
Vindiceni 436
Vinoj 437
Vladislavca 438
Voitovca 433
Vorosilovca 434
Zabocrici 439
Zarudnyce 440
Zatiscea 439
 
German Camps Across the Bug River
German Camps across the Bug River by Dora Litani 518
(Map 520-521)
Berezowka 528
Bratslaw 526
Bugakow 525
Czukow 539
Krasnopolka 540
Michajlowka 531
Narajewka 536
Nicolaev 538
Niemirow 536
Oradowka 525
Owamgorod 525
Seminca 539
Talalajewka 528
Tarassiwka 529
Teplik 530
Ustia 524
Mass graves in Transnistria by Dora Litani 541
 
Maps
Roman Dacia 21
Waves of Jewish Immigration to Romania 22
Jewish Settlements in Regat [Historic Romania] 104
Greater Romania in 1930 107
Romania after the Annexation of Bessarabia and Bukovina to the Soviet Union,
Northern Transylvania to Hungary and Southern Dovrodgia to Bulgaria (Fall 1940)
145
Earliest Jewish Settlements in Transylvania (1620-1735) 264
Jewish Settlements in Southern Transylvania 280
Transnistria – Camps and Ghettoes 520
Mass Graves in Transnistria 545


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