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Nuremberg in the Thirties: Red Turned Brown

"Nuremberg was thanks to Streicher probably even before 1933 the most anti-Semitic city in Germany. For this reason I do not remember that our mother let us play in the street. Even then insults were frequent. I can only remember that we knew as children that one should not go to some neighborhoods ..."

Herbert Kolb, October 1998

 

The humor of the superior race: Streicher and two "Jews" during carnival in Nuremberg

The humor of the superior race: Streicher and two "Jews" during carnival in Nuremberg (NCA E 39 no. 2355/15)

"Nuremberg's new position is well justified: Julius Streicher, the fantastic admonisher and intrepid fighter against Marxist Jewry soon gathered a group of enthusiastic supporters who didn't want to be Nuremberg a red stronghold. It wasn't by chance that on September 1st and 2nd, 1923 the "German Day" was held in Nuremberg which allowed a first glance at the upcoming turn in Germany's destiny. Even then the storm troopers of the national socialist movement marched over Hauptmarkt saluting Adolf Hitler. The rallies of the NSDAP could be held here in the years 1927 and 1929, cheered with enthusiasm by wide, national feeling circles."

The director of the municipal library Nuremberg, Dr. Friedrich Bock, in a city guide of 1938.

Section Nuremberg-Gibitzenhof of NSDAP campaining for Hitler's presidency in November 1932 (NCA E 39 no. 1963/9)

Section Nuremberg-Gibitzenhof of NSDAP campaining for Hitler's presidency in November 1932 (NCA E 39 no. 1963/9)

"We were all idealists ... We acted very humane towards the people. We didn't succeed in the complete destruction of the apartments for a lack of time. No Jew had been beaten ... We didn't carry any tools or weapons. We destroyed only little pieces of furniture. Only 5 apartments were destroyed in every district. We were especially regardful for sick and elderly people and for pregnant women."

Citations from the statement of the SA troop leader Trambauer accused of heavy breach of the peace in the "Reichskristallnacht" during the main hearing at the district court Nuremberg-Fuerth on August 19, 1947. Verdict: 10 months custody. In "Reichskristallnacht" the SA men in court at least committed one murder but could not be tried for this crime because of lack of witnesses. (NCA F 14 no. 19)

"On the morning of November 10, 1938, my brother and I went to the main streets of the city and saw the destruction and vandalism incurred by the Jewish owned stores and properties. We witnessed the burning of the synagogue (Essenweinstrasse) where the fire engines were just standing by and watching the synagogue go down in flames. The next day I volunteered to help repair the building of the cemetery which had also been vandalized. There were hundreds of small windows which had been smashed and needed to be replaced. On that day there were at least 12 to 15 bodies lying side by side waiting to be buried. These were people who were killed the night before or had committed suicide in desperation. This is where I came face to face with death for the first time in my life. I was 15 years old." From a report of Albert Kimmelstiel, May 12, 1998 (NCA F 14 no. 19)

The ruins of the orthodox synagogue at Essenweinstrasse after

The ruins of the orthodox synagogue at Essenweinstrasse after "Kristallnacht" (NCA C 20/V no. 2549)

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