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[Page 185 (Hebrew)] [Page 64 (Yiddish)]

Reb Yaakov Korn

Translated by Jerrold Landau

Jacob Korn was born in Tysmienica on April 13, 1899. At the age of 8 he lost his father. His widowed mother was left with several young children. After he graduated from the Hirsch School, the Hirsch fund enabled him to go to Vienna to study iron construction as well as general studies. In 1916 he was drafted into the Austrian Army and he took part in the Austrian-Russian war. After the war, in 1918, he returned to Tysmienica. He joined the Zionist movement and occupied himself as well with welfare activities. After his wedding he began thinking of going to Israel. He fulfilled his dream in 1923.

In Israel, he worked at several jobs in the Jewish Agency and in various kibbutzim. In 1925 he volunteered in the Haganah and helped defend Tel Aviv from the Arab attacks. He later became a regular member of the Haganah. Starting in 1934 he was very active in the Arlosoroff fund which was designed to raise money for the Haganah. Arlosoroff was a prominent figure in the Socialist movement and he was the victim of a political assassination -- the first political assassination in Zionist history.

In the year 1937 he was very active in a company called Solel Bonai connected to the Jewish Agency and was involved in building British army bases in many settlements.. Later they became Israeli army bases. In 1939 he joined the Civilian Guard and recruited other Tel Aviv workers to the Jewish Brigade within the British Army. Due to his political activities he had to hide from the British authorities. He began working in the Ministry of Defense after the establishment of the state. As a citizen of Holon, he was the head of the overseeing committee of the local workers association. In 1955 he was very active in the fund that raised money from all the citizens of Israel to contribute to the army for the Sinai war. He raised a large sum of money and was invited to participate in the establishment of Jewish Nazareth. He was active in the establishment of the Haganah Museum in Tel Aviv and in the Haganah Naval Museum in Haifa.

In spite of his national activities he did not forget his home town. He was active in the organization called Elan for paralyzed children. His house was always open to every needy person both from his native town of Tysmienica and for all the people he knew. He helped many people settle in Israel. He died in Holon on January 4, 1972. In Upper Nazareth which is the Jewish Nazareth, there is a Square named Jacob Square as a memorial to his contributions to that community.
"Kikar Yaakov" In Nazerat Illit


[Page 201 (Hebrew)] [Page 89 (Yiddish)]

Zionist activity in Tysmienica

Translated by Jerrold Landau

Zionist activity in Tysmienica was interrupted by the first world war and was renewed after the end of the war within an organization named after Dr. Theodore Herzl, but its activity was hindered by the battles between the Poles and the Ukrainians at first and later by the battles between the Poles and the Soviets. Zionist activity in fact began only in 1921 when all of the old and new members came together and elected a central management team. This group included Beryl Korn, Jacob Korn, and Yasio Sommer as secretary. This Zionist organization included about 100 men and women who gathered every evening to study Hebrew and to listen to lectures on Zionism and on Israeli history as well as other topics of interest to older Zionists. These topics included Jewish customs and folklore and political matters such as elections in the Jewish community, in the Polish legislature, and how to attend Zionist congresses.


[Page 204 (Hebrew)] [Page 96 (Yiddish)]

Industry, Commerce,
and Handcraft Prior to 1914

Translated by Jerrold Landau

There were large -scale merchants as early as the 18th century in the Jewish community in Tysmienica. We know they attended the industrial fairs in Wroclaw. We cannot be sure about the number of these merchants in those days but we do have some information about their numbers in later days from the population census. In 1910 there were 2,305 Jews in Tysmienica, 23.8% of the general population. Prior to the First World War, they worked in commerce and handcrafts, including wholesale commerce, the textile business, in iron works, food production, warehousing, sheepskin fabrication (a company owned by several partners including Moishe Korn, and Feivel Korn). They employed both Christian and Jewish workers. There was also a large exportation company and a big warehouse for wood construction in Tysmienica. Large oil tanks were held in a basement near the synagogues. Oil was very important in these times for providing illumination. Another important commercial endeavor was the preparation of wool for knitting that was then used by the rural population.


[Page 208 (Hebrew)] [Page 102 (Yiddish)]

Commerce and Industry
after the first World War: 1918-1939

Translated by Jerrold Landau

After the First World War all of the Jewish industrial establishments had been burned and torn down. Most of the merchants, especially the rich ones, left the town and did not return. The economy was paralyzed. Raw materials were not available, and there was no demand for their products. The merchants had neither funds nor materials. This situation continued for several years after which time economic conditions improved and became more stable. Consequently, productive activities were renewed, but the heavy taxes imposed by the Polish government prevented them from flourishing. In addition, there was severe competition from the Polish cooperatives which were established in the rural areas. These cooperatives were purchasing products from the Polish peasants and selling them supplies they needed for their households. Yet, during that time the economy of the Jewish population was stabilized and the commerce in sheep-skins was renewed.

The Kreimitz family arrived in Tysmienica and bought the old buildings for fur manufacture, bought new machinery, and re-instituted the production of sheep-skins, employing about 70 employees, most of whom were Jewish.

Moshe Korn and his son Beryl who were also well-known in this profession began to produce fur products and employed many of the Tysmienica Jews. Merchants came to Tysmienica daily from all over Poland to buy the sheep-skins. Moshe Korn was known all over Poland for his fur products which he labeled "Zakopana furs." There was great demand for these furs all over the country. There was also an active charity fund in Tysmienica that lent money to merchants and to poor artisans, whose chairman was Beryl Korn.


[Page 210-214 (Hebrew)] [Page 105-110 (Yiddish)]

Jews in the Economic Life of Tysmienica

Translated by Jerrold Landau

It is my duty to mention here those Jews who, with their talent, established the industrial infrastructure of the Jews of Tysmienica, and contributed to the economic development of the city until the outbreak of the Second World War. They met the same fate as the 6,000,000 Jews who were murdered by the Nazis.1

1. The Textile Industry

Sara Zamler and her son-in-law
Leib Blond and his son Yosef
Menashe Shtengel
David Baron
Pinchas Gottesman
Shmuel Shafer
Avraham Shtrik and his brother-in-law Yozef
Miriam Gottesman
Mottel Kook
Monio Feier
Gershon Korger

2. The Leather Industry

Shimon Feder
Gittel Lustig
Mondzio Provizer
David Feder
Leizer Feder
Mendel Kern
Yosef and Chaika Lustig

3. The Fur Industry

Moshe Korn
Berel Korn
Yozia Sommer
Malka Kreinis (the widow of Yitzchak Kreinis)
Binyamin Kreinis
Chaim Kreinis

4. The Food Supply Industry

Yaakov Shtim
Israel and Moshe Shtim
Rachel Shtim
Yehoshua Ivanier
Pinieh Shtim
Shlomo and Yosef Fisher
Yozef Mendel
Roize Shrager (the widow of Brottman)
Archie Flicker
Feivish Stretiner
Eli Ber Buchhalter
Reuven Broit and his son-in-law
Hirsch Binem Freidberg
Shalom Baron
Hirsch Baron
Feivel Leiberman

5. The Haberdasher Industry

Mendel Kern
Aryeh Erlich
Michel Markman
Yitzchak Scheiner
Monio Spiegel

6. The Iron Works Industry

Baruch Oster
Michel Greif
Yaakov Greif
Feivel Greif
Yaakov Wachs
Shlomo Lunenfeld

7. The Paint and Chemical Industry

Zigmond Fisher

8. Lumber for Building and Fuel

Yaakov Zeigler
Hirsch Knoll
Moshe Fistreich
Yaakov Fistreich

9. The Earthenware Industry

Necha Knopp
Babe Berger (Babe Ganies)

10. The Wool Industry

Eliezer Margolies
Israel Margolies
Wolf Margolies

11. Butchers

Abner Kook
Yitzchak Kook
Ezriel Kook
Moshe Pesach Zviren
Bozio Zviren
Zisie Meir Provizer
Yosef Lustgarten
Moshe Hifshman

12. Foul, Eggs, and Dairy

Chaim Leibish Zinger
Hirsch Leib Zinger
Chana Bentzer
Itzi Hutt
Leon Halpern
Hirsch Horowitz
Nachum Fishman
Avraham Shindler (the son-in-law of Chaitzke)
Dvora Shnier

13. Plaster and Gypsum

Avraham Zuckerkandel

14. Grain Merchants

Avraham Sherf
Moshe Sherf
Avraham Zuckerkandel

15. The Horse Trade

Eli Kook
Shmuel Kook
Avraham Wiener
Chaim Silver and his sons
Leib Fishbein
Hirsch Kook
Baruch Zviren

16. Middlemen

Itzik Kook
Yaakov Kook
Michel Roth
Leib Yosef Oster
Hirsch Horowitz
Zechariahu Knopp
Leib Kader
Yitzchak Scheiner
Yaakov Diringer

17. Soda Water Producers

Fidzche Krigel
The brothers Avraham and Zeev Gaster

18. Cooking Oil Producers

Avraham Kodish
Itche Knopp
Meir Zisie Provizer

19. Doctors and Dentists

Dr. Reizler
The son-in-law of Dr. Sheps
Max Alweil (dentist)
Hesie Fishbein (dentist)

20. Lawyers

Dr. Fichman
Dr. Weiroch
Dr. Mann (a former magistrate)

21. Teachers2

Weizenfreund
Mrs. Hefter
Yaakov Fishbein
Israel Udelsman

22. Pharmacists

Goldberg

23. Restaurateurs

Dora Sommer -- Shmuel Flicker
Zukerberg
Yaakov Scheiner
Shachna Shtengel
Sara Zand-Shtengel
Yosef and Shia Saferon
Babchie Shpond-Zwieback
Anshel Rodner
Leib Rizer and his son Yosef
Teichberg by the train station

24. Tailors

Leib Blond
Leib Shalom Unger
Chaim (Totke) Unger
David Hager
Kiva Lichtenstrahl
Yaakov Tzichiner
Osher Zilfinger
Eliemelech Unger
Leib Rubin
Shlomo Evenstein
Pinchas Gutenplan
Berel Keler
Shmuel Papik
Yona Kern
Eizik Meizeles (Chipchak)
Leizer Shtengel
Yosel Baal-Shem Meisels
Two Diringer sisters

25. Shoemakers

Avraham Zviren
Aaron Goldberg
Leizer Goldberg
Leib Goldberg
Chaim Ofer (from Botchich)
David Weisberg

26. Carpenters

Chaim Oster
Leizer Adler

27. Barbers

Menashe Shtengel
Menashe Fishbein
Paul Kerner
Bonio Meser
Zisie Keler
Yaakov Zilber

28. Furriers

Itzik Flicker (Divek)
Berel Flicker
Wolf Flicker
Leib Yoel Flicker
Chaim Flicker
Natan Flicker
Yitzchak Flicker
Israel Flicker
Hirsch Leib Flicker
Mordechai Itzik Flicker
Itzik Buchhalter
Chaim Buchhalter
Zalman Yosef Rottman
Israel Rottman
Aaron Shtengel
Leibish Kern
Hirsch Gleizer
Kopel Rubin
Leib Eichler (der Langer)
Binyamin Eichler
Gedaliahu Eichler
Yortzia Dermer

29. Tinsmiths

Yaakov Shrater
Leib Elenberg
Nota Safran
Shmuel Evenstein
Zaler Shtengel

30. Locksmiths

Israel Zand
Shlomo Flicker
Efraim Stretiner
Meir Ronder

31. Clockmakers

Hirsh Fleser

32. Glassmakers

Aryeh Erlich
Lishe Erlich
Mendel Erlich
Feivel Brecher

33. Paper bag manufacturers

Lubichke (Banah)

34. Bakers

Yaakov Grach
Israel Dolberg

35. Rope makers

Leib Shames

36. Coachmen

Israel Fishbein
Fishel Rater
Aaron Dichek
Berel Henigsberg
Leib (Fameh) Kook
Zisie Keler
Yosel Kutsher
Chaim Fishbein

37. Clerks and Salespeople

David Urman
Babe Fafer
Yona Fafer
Eliahu Shevach
Yosef Lerner
Elza Knall
Mrs. Weisenfreund (the notary)
Hodieh Udelsman
Natan Udelsman
Chaya Knopp
Mesie Kader
Shmuel Keler (of the town council)
David Petlora
Auerbach (in agriculture)
Berish Laftash (worked in a warehouse)
Meir Kamerling
Tzvi (Hirsch) Lustig
Fisieh Lustgarten
Meisels Shlomo (Chipchak)

38. Miscellaneous

Moshe Udelsman
Chana Shisel
Baruch Zeman
Hefter
Gittel Lustgarten
Sheindel Evenstein
Roza Kook
Rachel Freda Merker
Nechama Grab
Weisenfreund
Dvora Marder

"Yad Charutzim"

In 1928, a union of "Yad Charutzim"3 was established in our city. It was founded by Yitzchak Buchhalter, Leib Shalom Unger, Avraham Zviren and Yaakov Zeichner. Avrahamche Zviren was chosen as the chairman. The union concerned itself with the affairs of the Jewish workmen in Tysmienica in their relations with the city and the community, and conducted itself in a socialist fashion. The union was under the influence of "Hitachdut" and its members participated in Zionist activities.


Translator's Footnotes

  1. I translated these names from the Hebrew text. In some cases, the Yiddish names are slightly different. For example, in the Yiddish version of the lists, Yiddish equivalents of Hebrew names may be given (e.g. Zeev -- Wolf). In some cases either the Yiddish text may have some additional information that the Hebrew text does not. I made an attempt to incorporate such information.
  2. 21 and 22 are interchanged in the Yiddish.
  3. The organization of the diligent ones.


[Page 220 (Hebrew)] [Page 116 (Yiddish)]

Tysmienica under Soviet occupation

Translated by Jerrold Landau

The Soviet Army left Tysmienica in the second half of July, 1941 whereupon the Hungarian Army entered but did not harm the Jews. They only asked the Jews to wear yellow stripes on their arms and to obey all the working orders. They also brought Hungarian Jews who had Polish nationality to Tysmienica, and the Tysmienica Jews shared with them the few things they had. As a result the population of Jews in Tysmienica increased. But soon an order came that all the Hungarian Jews were to be transferred to Stanislawow. The transport was undertaken by Jewish horse and wagon drivers. No one ever returned from Stanislawow neither the Hungarians nor the drivers.

Then the Germans arrived along the head of the Gestapo from Stanislawow who ordered the Jews to wear white stripes with blue star of David insignia on their left arms. All Jews aged eight and above were obliged to wear these stripes. They appointed Jacob Ziegler as a Judge of the Jews. The also established Jewish police and they appointed Eliahu Bar Buchhalter as the head of the police. About 30 Jews were deported to Stanislawow and were never seen again. On October 12, 1941, there was a huge killing of Jews in Stanislawow. This murder included a number of Jews from Tysmienica. Then the ghetto in Tysmienica was established just before Pesach of 1941, and its area was 300 meters by 350 meters. All the Jews still living in Tysmienica were forced to move into that ghetto. The Judge of the Jews determined how much food there would be for each family according to the number of children, and which Jews would go to compulsory work. Some Jews smuggled food into the ghetto. Sanitary conditions were very poor in the ghetto and there was a great deal of sickness, especially dysentery. There was a small hospital, and a Jewish doctor who lived in a pharmacy outside the ghetto gave medical assistance as was possible. But many people in the ghetto died daily from dysentery.

Some Jewish families who owned agricultural land outside the town were allowed to live on their farms and they smuggled food into the ghetto during the nights. The ghetto was liquidated in August, 1942. The ghetto had been in existence for barely one year. Some Jews were able to escape and they succeeded in reaching the ghetto in Klomatz. A surviving witness commented that after the liquidation of the Tysmienica ghetto about 30 Jews survived who were living in one house. Among them were Beryl Korn and Yazio Sommer. One day they were all taken to Stanlslawow but it is not known what happened to them.

Another witness believed that since he was in the fur business he could stay alive because the Gestapo required these professions. But after the liquidation of the Tysmienica ghetto all of these people were transferred from Tysmienica to Stanlslawow and were held in prison where they established a shop for making fur gloves. They were working under guard and this witness managed to escape. He was hidden by some very honest Polish people who built him a bunker in the nearby forest. He was given food and all his needs were supplied. This witness stayed in the bunker until the German occupation in Poland was ended. But after the war he was killed by a Russian soldier on his way to Wroclaw.

Another Ukrainian citizen said that after the liberation he lived near the Jewish cemetery in Tysmienica. He had seen the Germans bringing the Jews of Tysmienica there in groups and shooting them. Once he was in his field near the cemetery and he saw them being executed. He recognized a number is Jewish people that he knew. When the Jews were brought to the cemetery they had to take off all their clothes and were shot one by one. One young woman was forced to stand for hours in front of the Gestapo and to witness this horrible spectacle. After everyone else was killed, they killed her. Thus ended the Tysmienica Jewish community, its rabbis, its Hassidim, its scholars, authors, and scientists. The community had been famous for its great merchants and great professionals.


[Page 228-229 (Hebrew)] [Page 132-133 (Yiddish)]

Tysmienica Survivors

Translated by Jerrold Landau

An x beside the name indicates that they have passed away.

Tysmienica natives who immigrated to Palestine between the two world wars
 
1. Wili Adler
2. Shaul Bader
3. Pepchie Bernfeld
4. Dr. Karel Bernfeld
5. Tonka Binstack (Lesberg)
6. Mordechal Gelert (Matia Grab) (x)
7. Shlomo Golan (Gottesman)
8. Zonia Gelert (Udelsman)
9. Mordechai Weiss (x)
10. Shmuel Weiss (x)
11. Sara Weiss (Korn) (x)
12. Rozia Litman (Weiss) (x)
13. Chana Liblin (Bader)
14. Natan Lister
15. Zisie Leister
16. Yosef Merfeld (x)
17. Fishel Parish (x)
18. Pesachyahu Fisher
19. Yozek Feier (x)
20. Giza Bir (Zeman)
21. Dr. Gizele Feier
22. Sironia Feier
23. Rozia Chechkes (Bernfeld)
24. Yaakov Korn (x)
25. Shaul Knaper
26. Bela Ramrez (Evenstein)
27. Genia Shutz (Lerner) (x)
28. Leib Streit
29. Pepi Eichler
 
Tysmienica natives who immigrated to Israel after the Second World War
 
1. Shlomo Blond
2. Pnina Blond
3. Leizer Goldberg (x)
4. Berel Goldberg
5. Feiga Reichman (Shtangel)
6. Shmuel Haut
7. Yaakov Zilber
8. Fridel Leister
9. Dora Lautman (Gishe)
10. Itta Markovitz (Kreinis)
11. Nemet (daughter of Baruch Zviren)
12. Fishel Fishbein (Boitchik)
13. Kitzieh Fishbein
14. Kalman Flicker
15. Rachel Feiler (Kook)
16. Yozek Fisher
17. Israel Feicher
18. Finkelstein (son of Itzia Zelig)
19. Malka Kreinis (x)
20. Dorka Kreinis
21. Shmuel Kook
22. Yehudit Kook (Shisel) (x)
23. Sender Krum (Horowitz)
24. Eliahu Kook (x)
25. Dvora Kook
26. Leib Kook
27. Bonio Kook
28. Baruch Keler
29. Leib Keler
30. Moshe Rubin
31. Chana Strubauer (Fishbein)
32. Sara Strubauer (Zilflinger)
33. Chava (Eva) Kreinis
 
Tysmienica natives who live in the Soviet Union
 
1. Moshe Oster
2. Manes Wiener
3. Hirsch (Tzvi) Treter (Fleser)
4. Lipa (Teichberg)
5. Two sons of Feicher the barber
6. Hanoch Fishbein
7. Yone Fleser
8. Leib Shrager
9. Gisha (the youngest daughter of Altau Gisha)
Tysmienica natives who remained in Poland
1. Yaakov Fishbein
2. Minchieh Fishbein (x)
3. Dora Fleser
 
Tysmienica natives who live in England
 
1. Mendel Flicker
2. Aaron Ronder
 
Tysmienica natives who immigrated to America
 
1. Chaya Gittel Birenbaum (Rottman)
2. Hirsch Gleizer (Fishbein)
3. Dora Gleizer (Wiener)
4. Hirsch Lichtenstrahl
5. Nita Fichman (the widow of Dr. Fichman)
6. Meir Flicker (the son of Nathan)
7. Zinia Wagenberg (Kreinis)
8. Nancy Rottman (Shrater)
9. Panke Steinmetz (Kader)
10. Dolek Shtim
11. Israel Shprechman (x)
12. Lottie Blond (Shprechman)
13. Max Shtim (x)

 

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