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Zionist Archives, Jerusalem
1801 5 (Zionist Archives, Jerusalem) [1]

The Protocols of the Elections to the 20th Zionist Congress, 1937

The results from Zgierz: 729 shekels were sold; on cards, 718.

The List of the Zionist Federation in Poland:

The World Union of General Zionists – 174. The list of Mizrachi and Torah Vaavoda in Poland – 174. The block of Working Land of Israel in Poland – 403.

Number 59 11.3.1901

In Zgierz, all of the different organizations were united by the community for a certain charitable institution named “General Charity”. In Zgierz, masses of wagon drivers were added to the ranks of the poor due to the action of the transport train [2].

Number 205, 1913

Through the efforts of the Christian barbers in Lodz, during these days there was a meeting of the barbers' guild in Zgierz, whose purpose was to elect a Christian to serve as the vice chairman of the guild to replace the Jew Kempczinski, the founder of that guild who served as its vice-chairman since its founding until now. The guild has 11 members: 5 Poles, 2 Germans, and 4 Jews. At first, the Germans voted with the Jews and the Jew Kempczinski was elected, but later the Polish barbers enticed the Germans to not vote for a Jew. The enticement worked, despite the fact that the German barbers in Zgierz earn their livelihoods from the Jews.

The Zionist Archives, Jerusalem

The following are the results in Zgierz of the elections to the 21st Zionist Congress, 23.7.1939.

The number of shekels was 775, on cards the number was 683. The World Union of General Zionists – 69. Mizrachi – 190. Working Land of Israel – 329. The Left Leaning Poale Zion – 53. The Youth of the General Zionists – 41.

Photocopy page 168: Part of the first page of the one time publication of "The Young Faithful of Israel", 1924.

Text of the newspaper is as follows:

Zgierzer Idysze Sztyme. Price 500 Marks. Jednodniowka.

The Organ of The Young Faithful of Israel in Zgierz

Zgierz June 1, 1924. Sunday of the Torah Portion of Bamidbar, 28 Iyar (47 Eruvin [3], 43rd day of counting of the Omer.

Today is the elections in Zgierz
All Jewish householders vote today for the list

Our candidates are:

  1. Aharon Hirsch Kompel
  2. Moshe Skosowski
  3. Avigdor Kaufman
  4. Yisrael Sziedlowski
  5. Shalom Hirsch Zelmanowicz
  6. Moshe Blankiet
  7. Yitzchak Sztajnfeld
  8. Yisrael Jakubowicz

{Note: the above 8 are arranged in 2 columns, with a large 1 between the columns.}

National Archives in Lodz, number 6584

From the report to the official of the gendarmes in Lodz and Lask – to the Piotrkow Gerndarme Cabinet 25.10.1905.

On November 18, 1905, a crowd gathered in the courtyard of the magistrate in Zgierz, and continued on to the new market. From there, under the leadership of a student from the Zgierz business school, they set out in the direction of the old market. During the time of the demonstration, the student of the business school wrapped himself up in a red flag. At that moment, cavalry patrol arrived and the demonstrators, after hiding the flag, set off in the direction of the new market, towards where the patrol drove them off. Two students of the business school – Max the son of Jonas Szrejner and Moshe the son of Jedrzej Zajdman, were detained, and were later released after exonerating themselves.

That same day in the afternoon, there was another demonstration with red flags under the direction of a student of the business school. They were also driven off by a patrol.

Number 23 26.9.1913

Regarding the Economic State of the Jews of Zgierz

There were many mechanized workers. The number of Jewish factory workers increased. There were 25 mechanized chairs in the “Sirkes and Ejger” factory, and Jews worked in 10 of them.

The weekly earnings of a worker are 10-11 rubles. The Jews only work 5 days a week, but they work no less than the Christians do.

In the factory of H. Szlumiel, only Jews work, on 8 machines. Their weekly earnings are 9-10 rubles.

In another factory, all 8 workers are Jews. There are 10 mechanized weavers at Frenkel's – 8 Jews and 2 Christians. At Mendel's there are 10 Jewish workers and 10 Christians. Today, Jews are 1/3 of all the factory workers. The wages of a Jewish mechanist weaver are 4-5 times that of a hand weaver.

Stuffers and Spoolers earn 3-5 rubles a week [4].

The situation of the workers is difficult.

“Lodz Folksblat”
Number 108 1.7.1914

On July 4, in the hall of the kitchen (in Zgierz), there will be an academic evening dedicated to T. Herzl.

“Lodzer Folksblat”
Number 112, 4.7.1915 (a précis)

The Jewish Library organizes courses in language and general knowledge. There are already groups for Hebrew and elementary mathematics.

The funeral [5] of Dr. Y. Lewin took place at the location of the evening courses in the handworkers club.

“Lodzer Folksblat”
Number 124 12.7.1915 (a précis)

Among the 25 members of the Zgierz city council, there are 4 Jews, 3 manufacturers and one homeowner.

“Lodzer Folksblat”
Number 179 27.7.1914 (a précis)

On July 28, 1914, an information office for Jewish workers opened up in Zgierz (in the soup kitchen). Those who seek work can acquire help from the office.

“Lodzer Tagblat”

Zgierz. At the last meeting of the city council, 1,000 Marks were designated for the benefit of the victims of the Rzogow fire.

From Thursday, August 16, the ration offices for bread cards must also give out cards for sugar, with which one can acquire one pound of sugar. These cards are only valid until August 13. The cards are to be obtained by the homeowner who will distribute them to the tenants.

The regime certified a Jewish library.

D. L.

“Lodzer Tagblat”

Zgierz. Today at 3:00 p.m., a Chanukah evening will take place in the “Venus” theater for the children's home of Mrs. Berkholcz. The children will conduct various tournament [6] exercises under the direction of director H. Leczyski, and various recitals, one-act plays and joyous pictures under the direction of Mr. Z. Zylberzweig.

The entire income is designated for the Jewish children's home.

Photocopy page 171: A decree of the mayor from August 11, 1914 to the residents of Zgierz, as the armies of Germany and Austria marched in.

The text of the letter, translated from Polish, is as follows [7]:

To all citizens of the Town of Zgierz

The President of the town of Zgierz and the police committee request from all
citizens of our town that, in the event of the expected entry of the
Austrian army to Zgierz, they maintain the calm and do not give any pretext for

All gatherings and rallies that are not in accordance with the martial law
may precipitate problems for the town's population.

At the same time, we ask parents and guardians to pay attention to the
children and youth, who through their naivete might do something that
incurs severe punishment from the army.

Let us show maturity, calm and order.

Zgierz, August 11, 1914.

Town President
Police Committee

“Lodzer Tagblat”

Zgierz. A report meeting of the Zionist Conference

On Saturday night in the Jewish Library, a meeting of the local Zionists took place, attended by 200 people. Reb Isuchar Szwarc and V. Reichert, delegates of the Zionist conference opened the meeting. They presented a report and impressions of the 5th Zionist Conference in Warsaw.

Then Mr. Horowicz from Lodz delivered a long speech about the importance of the resolutions, and demanded action toward actualization of the decisions in real life, to found a women's “Bnot Zion” organization and a pioneering group. It was quickly decided to found a “Bnot Zion” women's organization, to which all of the women would speedily register.

“Lodzer Tagblat”

Zgierz. On Saturday night, the Jewish scouts gathered together under the direction of Mr. Zylberzweig from Lodz and organized a formal Chanukah evening in a large hall. The Jewish touring and sports organizations participated. The hall was decorated with various national emblems and badges, and the stage upon which they assembled themselves made the best impression.

There was overflowing crowd of the parents of the scouts, various guests and delegates from the scouting organization from the nearby area, who were traveling to the pre-conference in Lodz. It was opened around 6:00 p.m. by Mr. I. Szwarc, in the name of the local Zionist organization.

With the lighting of Chanukah candles, the young scout Abramowicz sung M. Rosenfeld's “A Yir Kleine Lictelech” and the scout's choir sung “Maoz Tzur Yeshuati”. The scout Cincinatus delivered a long speech in Polish about the meaning of Chanukah.

In the second part, the scout Cohen presented a recital in Hebrew of Sh. Frug's “Matityahu”, and a bit of “My Death” by M. Z. Maneh in Yiddish. Then the Hebrew one-act play “Chana and her Seven Sons” was then performed, in which Mrs. Reichert excelled as Chana, N. Anaf-Kesef as Antiochus, Y. Katz as Ranus, and Skosowski as Shaul. After that, the scout Mrs. Grynwald recited with great feeling a Polish recital of “By the Rivers of Babylon”, and Mr. Skosowski ended the evening with a speech about the aims and objectives of Jewish scouting.

The evening, which was very well received and left a strong impression on all those gathered, ended with “Hatikva”, sung by the entire gathering. Then, the scouts, singing national songs, marched home through the city.

“Lodzer Tagblat”

Zgierz. The curfew was again imposed at 12:00 midnight. During that time, from 12:00 a.m. to 4:00 a.m. traffic without a night-light was forbidden.

“Lodz Tagblat”
Number 122 31.5.1918 (précis)

Regarding the Arguments Between the School-Issue and the Zgierz City Council

There were five Jewish schools in Zgierz. The chairman of the budget committee of the local city council is a Jew – Mr. Morgensztern. In the budget of 1918, among other things, a subsidy of approximately 5,000 Marks was allocated for the Jewish middle school, which had to commence a new school year. A subsidy was also assigned for the Jewish library.

Number 4, 23.4.1919 (précis)

In the Zgierz City Council, 11 Endeks, 7 Jews, and 6 Pepesowczes [8] were chosen.

Photocopy page 174: A portion of the first page of “Zgierzer Blat”, a bi-weekly non-partisan social and sport newspaper (1924).

Text of the newspaper is as follows

Zgierzer Blat No 1. Price 50 Groszy

Zgierzer Blat

Non-factional social and literary bi-weekly.

Zgierz, May 24, 1924. First year of publication.

Subscription Price: 1 year 12 Zloty, ½ year, 6 Zloty, ¼ year 3 Zloty, an individual copy, 50 Groszy.

Advertising price: An entire page 75 Zloty, ½ page 40 Zloty, ¼ page 20 Zloty, etc.

To our readers!

We were condemned to silence until this time; we like one of the most important living nerves, who has given us the possibility.

“Lodzer Folksblat”

A Jewish Proposal in the Zgierz City Council

An echo from the national celebration; mounted police rode in to the midst of the march; they drove out the school children; they arrested students from the national gymnasium; a proposal to turn to the Starosta; G. Z. R. the representative said that they sung Bolshevik songs; the proposal was accepted with a large majority (from our correspondent).

On the final sitting of the current city council, which took place on May 11th, the following proposal was presented by the councilor Mr. Morgensztern.

On May 4th, the local Jewish communal organization presented the following letter to the commander of the local national police.

“Regarding the ordinance of May 6th about the excursion of the children from the Jewish schools in the city of Zgierz, we have the honor of informing you, Mr. Commandant of the accounting, and to immediately request of you the appropriate permission. The children wish to gather in the garden of Sirkes brothers on Dombrowski Street, and from there they will march to the civic forest on the Konstantyn highway. Jewish students of the local public school and the members of the Maccabee sporting organization will participate in the excursion.

Then the Jewish communal organization received from the appropriate permit from the police, under the number 3378/20, dated May 5th, which I have with me.

On the evening of May 6th, when the participants in the excursion marched back through the streets Konstantyner, Berek Joselewicz, Old Market and Dluga, to the headquarters of the “Hashomer” organization, the mounted police caught up to the marching school children and insulted the participants… (The further report is missing – editor).

“Lodzer Tagblat”

Regarding Sport

(Lodz) – (Zgierz). The aforementioned football match took place this past Sabbath in Zgierz in front of a large number of fans, who watched the very interesting game with great curiosity. The opening appearance of the “Herzliya” Jewish national sport club brought a fine victory. This is a good sign for the future. “Herzliya” is a young team, possessing several good players in its ranks. “Herzliya” will also take part in the master matches of the C class, which will take place shortly. Together with other Jewish clubs – this will defend Jewish sport.

Y. L.

Number 148 3.7.1929

The results of the elections for the Zionist congress in Zgierz:

List number 1 – 16 votes, Number 2 – 8 votes, number 3 – 182 votes, number 5 – 92 votes.

Photocopy page 176: Mourning notice from the communal council (in Hebrew and Polish) regarding the murder of Fishel Feldon on June 1, 1925.
The text of the notice is as follows
(Note: line breaks are not exact, due to word order differences in English and Hebrew):

The Hebrew Community Council of Zgierz
expresses from the depths of its heart
the heavy mourning
over what happened in our town, that suddenly
a complete family from amongst our people was killed and slaughtered, in a
very cruel fashion, that had not occurred in such a manner from the time of the founding
of our town
that the lives of five people should be cut off and exterminated
for no fault or sin of their own.
Alas! How great is this terrible tragedy!
Oh Land, Oh Land! Do not hide the blood that was spilled in this place
until the blood of those murdered
to the sorrow of our hearts and pain of our souls is avenged.
On Tuesday, the following were murdered. They were brought to their eternal rest
on Wednesday the 25th of Sivan, 5685.
Efraim Fishel the son of Yosef Feldon, 70 years old.
His wife Esther Malka Feldon, 68 years old.
Their daughter Perel Yehudit, a widow, 36 years old.
Their son Yerucham Feldon, 20 years old.
Avraham, 10 years old.

Zgierz 29 Sivan, 5685


“Lodzer Tagblat”

Exhibition of Young Jewish Artists in Zgierz

The gifted Jewish artist Marek Szwarc, who himself is a Zgierzer, took interest in several Jewish young people from Zgierz who demonstrated signs of talent, and began to educate them.

His efforts bore favorable fruits. The young people developed well in their vocation, and on October 13, an exhibition of the works of the young artists will take place in Zgierz.

At the opening, the organizer of the exhibition, the artist Marek Szwarc will present an introduction “Art of the Jews”.

One can rest assured that the Jewish people of Zgierz, who have produced such significant Jewish artists as professor Glicensztejn and the late David Frischman, will know how to appropriately treat the young artists, who will make their first steps into the wide world, and one can expect much of them.

“Lodzer Tagblat”
Number 293, 18.12.1929 (précis)

On 15.12.1929, in the Lutnia Cinema, Yitzchak Grynbaum held a presentation on the subject of “The Situation in the Land of Israel, and What Will Be”.

At that opportunity, a committee was formed with the purpose of inscribing the late Zionist activist Tovia Lipszycz and the elder Zionist of Zgierz Isuchar Szwarc in the “Golden Book” [9].

“Neier Folksblat”

The Elections to the Sejm and the Senate

On the Sabbath of 8.11.1930, a large rally of the National-Economic Block took place in Zgierz. Thousands of Jewish residents of Zgierz took part. The representatives from Lodz L Czecziak, Shmuel Isuchar Kern and Rabbi Wajnberg delivered speeches.

“New Folksblat”
24.7.1933 (précis)

Results of the Elections of the 18th Zionist Congress in Zgierz and Leczyca.


Working Land of Israel – 392 ballots; Revisionists (Jabotinski) – 250; Mizrachi – 194; General Zionists 85; Et Livnot (Time to Build) – 3.

“New Folksblat”
2.6.1936 (précis)

Results of the Elections to the Zgierz City Council

P.P.S – 11 mandates; Endekes – 10; B.B.V.R (Sanacia) –5; Jews – 3 (Zionists – 2, Aguda – 1).

“New Folksblat”
Number 58 9.3.1937 (précis)

Occupation-Strike in the Kerchief Factory (Brancher Firm)

The strike broke out regarding the hiring of a Jewish worker. In the factory, 65 people are employed, including 13 Jews. The non-Jewish workers are striking with the complaint that in the Jewish factories, there should only be 10% Jewish employees, the same percentage of Jews in the country. The owner of the firm claims that he has the right to hire anyone he wants for work, provided that he does not fire another worker in his place.

A worker of the Endeks leads the strike. (from Pracza).

“Neier Folksblat”
Number 65, 17.3.1937 (précis)

A strike broke out in the factory of H. Ejger in Zgierz (Pilsudskiego 6), because the firm engaged 3 Jewish employees.

Official Communiqué from the Chief Elections Office

The editor of the “Zgierz Blat” is requested to announce:

Since false rumors were spread in our city claiming that the candidate lists that were entered were invalidated, I declare that the rumors have no basis and are not compatible with the truth.

Six candidate lists were registered with the Chief Elections Office of the Jewish community.

The number of eligible voters registered in the election list is 676.

Three people are not eligible to vote. This was publicized as seven people.

Preparations for the elections, slated for June 1st, are in progress.

A 101-year-old voter

In the voter lists of the communal elections, there is a voter who is already 101 years old. This is the elder Reb Moshe Mordechai Miller, who is in fine spirits.

From the Folks University

The civic Folks-University, which is under the leadership of the lawyer Mrs. Krupkowa, has reached a very high cultural level thanks to the aforementioned person. The readings, which take place every Sunday, are very interesting, and have a scientific character. It is only unfortunate that nobody of the local Jewish working masses are there.


The Artisans in Zgierz

Jewish voters!

The time has come when we ourselves have the possibility of determining the proprietors of our city. The moment has come when our vote must be clearly and distinctly heard by the representatives of the local magistrate. We must once and for all formulate clearly and distinctly our demands that we are awaiting, that our representatives in the city council must boldly defend, disregarding any opposition.

We set forth various platforms:

The councilman who represents the opinions of the Jewish artisans' club should represent all of the shades of the members who find themselves in the artisans' club.

We call ourselves the Jewish artisans' club, and therefore our representative must defend all that is Jewish regarding all Jewish nationalist and cultural issues. They must go along with all those who defend Jews.

The representative of the Jewish artisans' club must, in parallel with the aforementioned, strongly defend the demands that a conscious Jewish worker, and a artisan, such as a small businessman, will be concerned about.

Here is the program in brief. In order to achieve these aims, our representative must demand:

  1. Democratizing the city council by changing the current voting system to general, equal, direct, secret and proportional voting for all citizens, without differentiating between nationalities, for anyone over 18 years of age.
  2. Strengthening the competency of the civic self-authority by turning over all questions regarding the city economy to its authority, and making it independent of the administration.
  3. Giving over of the local police to the authority of the civic self-authority.
  4. Defending the rights of the national minorities and the national rights of the Jewish people.

    With the aim of securing the rights of the Jewish population of the city, our councilors must demand:

  5. a) Creating more Jewish public schools with Yiddish as the language of education, as appropriate to the Jewish environment. Conducting free sports, education and trade courses for the youth of both sexes until the age of 18 years. Obligatory visits from school doctors – the sick school children should be healed at the expense of the city. Free nourishment for the school children, children's kitchens, children's warm homes, children's gardens, children's colonies, and field schools, creating the possibility of capable students to attend higher schools. Public libraries and reading rooms, etc.
    b) The schools must maintain all school means, and establish a Jewish school council.
    c) Taking on Jewish workers to all civic work, and similarly allowing Jews to hold all civic positions and offices.
    d) Ensuring that the Jewish population (including the Jewish workers and employees) has the right to rest on the Sabbath and on Jewish holidays.

  6. Establishing an eight-hour workday for the workers of the local communal organization. Thereby, they can ensure that Jewish workers can be employed.
  7. Civic mediation offices must be created for workers, from the budget of the magistrate.
  8. Concerning that all unemployed people be provided with work in local organizations, so that the workers need not be sent off to far off places for work.
  9. Creating civic children's homes, as well as old age homes, homes for the handicapped and hospitals.
  10. Improving the sanitary situation in the city and improving the workers' neighborhoods.
  11. Regulating and organizing the supply division.
  12. Seeing that cheap workers' kitchens are established. Cheap products and cooperatives. Seeing that the means are properly divided up among those who do not wish to, or cannot become open beggars.
  13. The levies of the city should be changed so as to ensure that the greatest portion is paid by the classes possessing of means. Bread and objects of prime necessity should not include payments for the benefit of the city.
  14. The city council should take upon itself the concern that the residents with the neediest living means be provided with heating fuel; and that all products be fairly divided among the entire population. Complete support of the economic and cultural institutions of the workers.

In order to ensure that the unemployed have an adequate income, they are requested to arrange, under the control of the professional unions local, comprehensive open work – primarily in the neighborhoods of the workers and the poor.

The committee of the Jewish artisans club

Zgierz, January 1917


Photocopy page 183: The regulations of the "Yagdil Torah" organization (in Russian), which was authorized by the governor in 1912. The heads of the Yagdil Torah Yeshiva were Rabbi Mendel Noach Koren and Rabbi Chanoch Ozorkower. (See page 165).

Note: I was unable to translate the Russian page.

The United Front of All Religious Jews to The Current Communal Elections

After a two hundred year hiatus since organized communal life functioned, headed by the Council of the Four Lands, Polish Jewry is taking steps to elect its representatives to the communal councils, by whose hand the entire lot of Polish Jewry is determined.

June 1st is therefore a very serious day, when all of the Jews will go to the ballot boxes to elect their communal representatives.

Very serious? Yes! A great historic day, when the elected communal councils will have a great influence on the entire shape and development of Polish Jewry. When have we had a properly elected community? Neither we nor our grandfathers remember this, and therefore every small error -–which is very easy to commit – can cause a bad outcome of the elections, and can cause, Heaven forbid, a weeping for generations, a perversion that cannot be corrected.

Therefore, it pains the heart to see the degree of casualness and lightness with which a portion of our religious brethren relate to the communal elections. They treat the entire matter as a “bench game” [10], and see a place to take revenge on their “enemies”. Moreover, we are concerned with the provocation the liberal elements, who wish that the hatred among Orthodox Jews will flare up, and so that the religious Jewish front will be broken up.

This will not be successful for them. We believe in a healthy Jewish understanding, that finally even the revenge-blinded religious Jews will be able to shake themselves free of their worries and exploiters; and that we will finally unmask the “liberal” politicians who thanks to them, and them alone, the Jewish camp is splintered, for such is expedient for them. This is exactly the same manner as it was expedient for the Russian Czars, when they realized that their despotic regime was in a bad state, to find the means to incite one element of the population against another. They aroused the basest instincts. Thus was it possible, at least for a short period, to maintain their rotten government.

We therefore expect that all of the Jews of this city will understand the malicious intentions of those who destroy the religion, who rejoice at the thought of a schism among the religious Jews; and join in the election committee of the religious Jews, who represent the large majority of Jews, and the eminent householder of the city from all strata and circles.

Zgierz is a Jewish city and must remain a Jewish city!

Therefore, the advise is: a united front from all religious Jews! All together to the communal elections.

Ben Amram

We Declare

That the lists number 3 and number 6 are connected lists. Every voter can vote for either list. It is easier to vote for list number 6. With respect: The Union of “Shlomei Emunat Yisrael” of Zgierz.

Candidate List Number 3:

Shlomo Sirkes, Aharon Hirsch Kompel, Chaim Boaz, Fishel Roses, Avraham Boaz, Eli Tenenbaum, Yisrael Mordechai Frashker, Yitzchak Meir Kohn.


Greeting from the “Hitachdut” in Zgierz to the Opening of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem:

May this light be a tower of light whose rays will penetrate the darkness of the world and sow the light of love and peace among humanity. The “Hitachdut” Zionist workers faction, Zgierz chapter.

(“People and Land” , Number 14 (40) 3.4.25)

Photocopy page 185: A decree of the Committee for Assistance of the Jewish refugees of Germany, who were expelled by the Nazis to Zbaszyn in Poland. The committee was established in Zgierz in December 1938, as it was in the other cities of Poland.

Among those expelled to Zbaszyn, there were also Jews from Zgierz who in their time had immigrated to Germany. They, like all of the expelled Jews, arrived in Zbaszyn naked and barefoot. The Zgierz committee, composed of representatives of all sides, did everything to relieve the need of the unfortunate refugees.

The text of the photocopy is as follows:

Assistance Committee for Jewish refugees from Germany in Zgierz

To the Jewish People of Zgierz!

The refugees who have been expelled from Germany have been in Zgierz for several weeks. Those unfortunate people were suddenly and unexpectedly torn from their homes and distanced from their fathers, mothers, and children. They are now here in a tragic situation.

The Jewish community answered the first call of the Zgierz Assistance Committee in an insufficient manner.

The assistance activities for the refugees who are found in various places in the land require immense sums, reaching 25,000 Zloty daily.

Thousands of our brothers, who are in both spiritual [11] and physical need, are found amongst us and are in need of our help. A large percentage of our funds must be given over to the central Assistance Committee for Jewish Refugees from Germany in Poland that is located in Warsaw.

The situation of thousands of people, who are completely forlorn, is so tragic that if we do not expend all of our energy to help them, they are threatened with need and hunger.

Therefore, we turn from the Jewish community of Zgierz for a second time with the ardent appeal: Give at least as much as your communal dues.

The action requires significant sums of money!
Nobody can exempt themselves from giving help!
Do not forget the homeless!

The Assistance Committee

Zgierz, December 23, 1938.


1. Seemingly not a date but an archive number. Back

2. I assume this refers to the tram. Back

3. A reference to the daily page of Talmud study, known as Daf Yomi. The pages of the Talmud have been divided up into a cycle of approximately 7.5 years, where the study of 1 page a day will result in a complete study of the Talmud during the cycle. Back

4. There are three types of jobs listed here: Guferkes, Shtoperkes, and Shpulerkes. I only translated the latter two. Guferkes might mean thread makers, but I am not sure. Back

5. This word “Fortrag” is not the usual word for funeral, which is “levaya”. It means carried of or carried away. Back

6. Word not clear – perhaps it is 'tour exercises', although the meaning would be questionable. Back

7. Translated from Polish by Mirek Zaremski, a colleague of mine. Back

8. Endek was the name of anti-Semitic political party, and Pepesowczes is the P.P.S. Back

9. A honorary book maintained by the Jewish National Fund to register significant donations. Back

10. Probably meaning “like a game of musical chairs”. Back

11. Literally 'morale'. Back

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