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II Citizens (1790-1942)

R' Avraham Yehuda Leib Shfarber and his wife Etti. An intelligent man who rented a large farm, employed farm workers but was unsuccessful and lost a fortune. He purchased a saloon and became a Bartender in the village of Oleshkov. Here too he was busy more with his Torah studies then in his business, he treated many guests for free and got involved in community activities in Zablotow. In his old age he moved into his large house in Zablotow which was located in the city market, and had a restaurant for none Jews and worked as a Bartender alongside his wife and five daughters. They had two sons who were educated in the Jewish tradition. He belonged to Kosov's Chasidim, prayed in their synagogue, went daily to the Mikvah and was the first one in last one out of the Beit Midrash. Although not a wealthy man he always supported charities and those who approached him.

His Daughter, Chaiche, married R' Natan a grandson of the Rabbi of Kuti who was a sincere God fearing and orthodox Jew. He feared being drafted to the army so he carried his wife's family name. She was a very capable woman who ran their store, however they had no children so they divorced after ten years of marriage as required by Jewish law, remarried and each had their own children.

His second daughter, Leah, was very modest and pious married R' Moshe Gross. They lived at his parents house for a while, then opened a store and eventually moved to Kolomyja. There he became successful in the lumber trade. They had a small house. Their son, Naftali, emigrated to the United States, excelled in literature and became a famous Yiddish writer and translated The Bible to Yiddish (he also published a few poetry books and contributed to a few periodical). The rest of his sons and his only daughter were educated in Torah and general knowledge.

His son, R' David Shfarber was fluent in German and Polish. He had excellent handwriting and a tremendous memory. He was a certified teacher . At the age of 19 he was drafted into the army despite being married at the time and the father of a baby girl. He served in Prague and was promoted. At the end of the compulsory three years he was persuaded to stay in the army and become an officer, but he refused and returned home to his family. Relations with his wife, Dreiza, were cool from the beginning, livelihood was scarce, so after a few years they divorced. Their daughter Esther, was a grown women at that time, educated and pretty.

He remarried Pessi, a young, educated, determined virgin, daughter of R' Zev Rosenboim. They had two girls and a boy. He had a hard time supporting his family, so he wandered all the way to Montreal in Canada, where he had a rich relative who assisted him. When he settled, after a few years he brought the family to Montreal, he became rich but did not forget his family and friends in Zablotow sending them large sums of money from time to time and also donated handsomely to the Rabbis of Zablotow and Kosov.

R' David was well respected in his community, famous for his generous heart and sat on many committees, was chairman of the UJA, a Justice of the Peace, and few charity organizations. Considering himself a veteran Zionist he dreamt of visiting Eretz-Israel one day. He fulfilled his dream in 1926 when he was 80 years old and sick. He crossed the entire country giving donations every-where; not a single institute in Yerushalayim or in Tel-Aviv that he did not visit and support. He stayed for two months spending most of the time with the poor. He yearned to settle in Eretz-Israel but his wife and children did not want to hear of it, kept asking him by a way of daily letters and Telegrams, to return home, settle his business and then move to Eretz-Israel - which he did not live to do. On his way back to Montreal he went through Zablotow and the Rabbi of Kosov.

One son and a daughter became specialist Doctors, another son (Marcus Shfarber) was a famous lawyer and a Member of Parliament where he was a great political speaker.

R' Natan, the second son of R' Avraham Yehuda Leib, loved reading, writing and languages. As a young boy he showed an inclination towards the arts, wood carving and painting. After completing Gemara and Bible studies he continued to work with an expert room-painter (It was a common custom in those days). He excelled and this turned to be his livelihood. He got married and with the help of his brother David moved to Canada and succeeded there too in his profession. He continued in his traditional Jewish ways, and supported his family, on occasion, but never left Canada.

A third daughter, Branche, married Moshe from the town of Petashnizin. After losing his money in trade he emigrated to the United States where he lived comfortably as a trader.

The youngest daughter, Freima, married R' David Aryeh Hager, a grandson of the famous R' Levi Yitzchak from Berdichev.

He became an orphan at a young age, and his relative the righteous Rabbi Yakov Shimshon Hager from Kosov, took him into his home and considered him his son. He was brought up together with the Rabbi's only son, R' Moshele, and they became inseparable. R' Yakov Shimshon married him off with Gitle, the eldest daughter of his good friend and a rich man, R' Moshe Shfarber who owned a large farm and was considered one of the wealthiest. R' Moshe rented a large farm in Ilinitz for the young couple, where they were very successful and R' David Aryeh managed the farm and the books. However, Gitle was barren, they divorced and he left her on the farm.

He married Friema as mentioned above, and after the death of R' Avraham Yehuda Leib he inherited the house and the restaurant. During the First World War the whole family moved to Vienna, where he died shortly after. Their children including their only son, Avraham Zeide emigrated to the United States, and later brought their mother over, too. One daughter was married to R' Natan Keish, who was one of the founders of "Poalei Zion" in Stanislav.

R' Avraham Yakov Fuchs. A humble old Jewish bartender. Feibish Fuchs, his son, was a small-built, small-time merchant who enjoyed learning. Every Shabbos afternoon he joined R' Aaron Keish to hear Torah from the 'source'. His sons, Menachem and Yitzchak Fuchs went house to house as private teachers.

His son-in-law Yakov Fishkis was an egg dealer. His son-in-law Fishel owned a one-horse carriage in which he shuttled passengers to Kolomyja for a quarter of the price of the train. He was also the intermediary between a local storekeeper and his supplier from Kolomyja. Another son died young but he had two boys, Eliezer and Aaron (Orche) Fuchs. They both owned a carriage and continued shuttling merchandise to and from Kolomyja. Aaron later immigrated to the United States and it is rumored he left Judaism and became a gangster.

R' Avraham (Avremel) Toy. A tall man, a landowner, had a large house and a barn next to the train station. He had a few children who were educated in Cheder and farming. R' Leib Toy, his son, married Chaike, the daughter of R' Tzvi (Rubin) and they both left Zablotow and emigrated to the United States.

R' Avraham (the son of Menche) was a Gemara and bible Teacher. He was a sickly man and died young. His brother Fishel was an economist working for a landowner. A second brother, Netta, inherited their mother's small house and had a small pottery shop. He used to display his wares on the sidewalk in-front of the shop, where passersby often tripped over them, causing commotion and fights. Netta's son-in-law, R' Avraham Laker was his heir. He was from Putila, became a Chasid of the Demycze's Rabbi and brought up his children with a proper Jewish education.

R' Avraham Chelm had a house across from the synagogue with a carpentry workshop, and a shed for his son's horse and carriage.

R' Avraham Leib Chamdrool, a simple Jew had a house across from R' Yehoshua Miller and later moved across the Jail. He was a small time pottery dealer and augmented his income as a beggar. He also used to help himself to meals at community festive dinners. He trained his children in pottery and a bit of Jewish education. His Brother-in-law (or other relation), R' Yisrael Kovale, lived with them.

R' Avraham Karmes was a merchant and had a small house. He provided his children with a proper Jewish education.

R' Avraham Hager, an honest man produced Honey at his home. Nisan and Hainich Hager, his sons, were educated to live as proper God worshipping Jews.

R' Alter (Leibel) Greif was a scholar, worked as a bartender and inherited a large house in Demycze. Every Shabbos he gave a lecture in the old Beit Hamidrash on the weekly portion of the Torah. He was a wonderful interpreter and 30-40 people attended the lecture which started at three PM and lasted two hours. He never missed a lecture despite the long walk from Demycze. His student loved him and gave him great honor. R' Yitzchak Greif, his eldest son, had a large house and a brick factory out of town. R' Yakov Greif, his son-in-law, was a well respected scholar and owned a large warehouse for lumber and roofing material. R' Chaim Greif, his second son, was a merchant and owned a house. R' David Greif, his third son, was a great scholar, continues his Jewish studies, became an expert in Jewish Law and accepted the position of a Rabbi somewhere in Galicia.

R' Alter Perel's, a great scholar was first a merchant then later when he lost his money became a very successful teacher. Tzvi Perel's, his son, inherited his father's tradition.

R' Alter (Yehuda Moshe) Teicher was an honest and quiet Jew whose occupation was bartending and an artist. Used to give a lecture on Shabbos to the young boys and also during the week whenever someone asked him. He lived to an old age. R' Eeliezer, his only son, married a woman from Mold-Banila, moved there and later on moved to Chernovtsy.

R' Eliezer (son of Ranche) Rosenthal was a tremendous scholar, belonged to Kosov's Chasidim, was a merchant, then later a teacher.

R' Eliezer Shtal. R' Alter Shlomo Yitzchak, his son-in-law, was an old scholar and the Chazan for 'Kol Nidre' and 'Neila'( the first and last prayers on The Day of Atonement) at the Kosov's Synagogue.

Izidor Orenshtein, Principal of "The Baron Hersch School" and a well respected teacher.

R' Anshel Ruven Rubin, one of the veterans and important house owners, well respected man, he participated in many charities. He had a large general merchandise store where his wife, Chayke, also worked. She was a modest good hearted woman who gave a lot to charity. Their children, too continued in their parents way of charity and contributing to the community.

R' Anshel Ruven (Rubin) Family (Eldest Son)

R' Leibel Rubin, their eldest son, was a scholar who dedicated his life to learning. His wife and children provided a livelihood from their store. He was a sick man who suffered greatly and died young.

Shmuel (see below) & Meir Rubin, their sons, studied Torah.

R' Anshel Ruven (Rubin) Family (2nd Son)

R' Tzvi Rubin, the second son, an honest Chasid inherited the house. He prayed in Kosov's synagogue.

R' Aaron Rubin, his only son, was his heir. He died young and his wife, Freimche, a very smart and capable woman took over his business.

R' Anshel Ruven (Rubin) Family (Daughter Karsel)

Etti, his daughter married R' Moshe Yehuda Karsel who was a great scholar with a sharp mind, well versed in all the Jewish Law books. He was a descendant of the righteous R' Yehuda Oierbach, the author of "Mechokek Yehuda" printed in Lwow in 1892. He belonged to the Kosov's Chasidim, prayed in their synagogue, was a Chazan there and involved in internal politics. Towards the end of his life he used to teach young boys at his home, among them myself, Yudel Tolinger and more. It was a large, airy and very well-lit house. He taught Gemara, and Agada and it was a great pleasure listening to his stories. Like all scholars, his wife Etti provided their livelihood. She was a modest woman, who dealt in Lime and Cement with her daughters.

R' Anshel Ruven (Rubin) Family (Daughter Karsel: Eldest Son)

R' Avraham Kersel, their eldest son was a scholar, but was very sick and died at the age of 24 after swimming in the river during the cold winter. He left a young wife with two children: Freida and Yechiel Mechel Kersel who were raised by their aunt Rachel and her husband R' Getzel Weiss (see 15.4 below) while she emigrated to Eretz Yisrael and settled in Zefat where she remarried and passed away there. Yechiel Mechel Kersel Died of Typhus in 1916 in Zablotow, survived by his wife, Feiga, and six children. She brought them up by herself and from her house came the first pioneers from Zablotow to Eretz Yisrael. Esther emigrated in 1922 and settled in Emek-Yizrael. Getzel, Rachel and Avraham followed and Feiga herself followed her children and died here May 5th 1942 (33 Ba'omer, 18 of Eyar). All their descendants are living in Israel and are well rooted in the community and industry.

R' Anshel Ruven (Rubin) Family (Daughter Karsel: 2nd Son)

R' Feibish Karsel, the second son, was a great scholar and a follower of the Kosov's Chasidim. He moved to Kosov with his family where he had a store and enjoyed great success in business, became a distinguished member of the town, but did not stop learning and raised his children up in this tradition. Efrayim Karsel, his son, settled in Chernovtsy and was a permanent writer of the local Jewish Press there. Moshe Karsel, the second son, settled in Kosov and became a famous scholar and a wealthy man. The whole family perished in the holocaust of 1942.

R' Anshel Ruven (Rubin) Family (Daughter Karsel: Daughter)

Their daughter, Chana, married R' Avraham Haber, a Chasid of the Kosov dynasty. They inherited her father's Lime and Cement dealership and lived comfortably. R' Avraham died fairly young. All their descendants who remained in the Diaspora perished in the Holocaust.

R' Kopel Haber, their eldest son, dealt in Lumber after his marriage, but was unsuccessful and emigrated to the United States where he was active in the Organization of Former Residents of Zablotow in New-York and other community activities. He was a community tax collector, later served as a Rabbi and a lecturer in one of the synagogues in New-York. He too, like his father, died fairly young.

R' Natan Haber, the second son, was very well versed in general knowledge. He married Tova, the daughter of the great scholar R' David Tzvi Shochet, and they moved to Mikulitchin in the Karpatian mountains where they had a general goods store and dealt in lumber. Later they opened a large and successful restaurant. One son studied Engineering at the Lwow College. he second son became the Secretary and Bookkeeper of the Village Committee despite the fact that the Chairman and all the others on the committee where Anti-Semite Ukrainians. Two sons, Zelig and Fishel Haber, emigrated to Eretz Yisrael where Zelig was later killed during the War of Independence of 1948. They also had one daughter.

R' Anshel Haber, the third son, moved to Vienna during the First World War where he opened a store and was successful. He studied Torah and educated his children accordingly. Ten years ago (1939) the whole family emigrated to Eretz Yisrael where he continued learning Torah while his children supported him until he died in 1946 in Tel-Aviv.

R' Baruch Haber, the fourth son, like his brother lived in Mikulitchin where he was a lumber dealer. He had children who were educated in Torah and general knowledge.

Chayke, their only daughter, married a relative, R' Menachem (Mendel) Haber. During the First World War they emigrated to Vienna, where he opened a store and was successful. After the War they returned to Stanislav where R' Mendel succeeded in a few dealerships and had a large house. They had a few children. Moshe Yehuda is living in Tel-Aviv, Israel.

R' Anshel Ruven (Rubin) Family (Daughter Karsel: 2nd Daughter)

Gitel, their second daughter, married R' Yehoshua Friedel who was a tall man, an expert in languages. They lived at her parents' house and had a small grocery store where she worked. At the beginning the store provided sufficient income but after a few years the expenses grew, and in accordance with the custom that an unsuccessful man becomes a teacher, R' Yehoshua started teaching Gemara, Torah and Jewish script. Despite being a tall and a strong man, he fell ill and died fairly young. They had a son and a daughter. Gitle remarried (despite having a scar on her right cheek from spilt boiling water) to a landowner in a village next to Storozinec in Bukovina District. He like her and her diligence. She ran an inn with many guests, and participated in charities all her life. Leibel, her son (from R' Yehoshua Freidel) married the daughter of R' Chaim Maher and moved to the United Sates.

R' Anshel Ruven (Rubin) Family (Daughter Karsel: 3rd Daughter)

Tzvia, the third daughter, married R' Yehoshua Haber (a relative of his brother-in-law R' Menachem Haber). Their livelihood was made by their steel store in the city market. They had a few children. Tzvia moved to Israel to be with her daughter Chayke (see below), but later returned to Zablotow where she died. Chayke, their only daughter, married N. Reiber from Nepolokovtsy and moved to the United States. They became Zionists, emigrated to Israel, settled in Gan-Yavne where they had an orchard, grew vegetables and had a chicken farm.

R' Anshel Ruven (Rubin) Family (Daughter Karsel: Eldest Son)

Rivka, the youngest daughter, married a successful businessman from Kolomyja and moved there.

R' Anshel Ruven (Rubin) Family (2nd daughter)

Rachel, the second daughter of R' Anshel Rubin, married R' Getzel Weiss, who was well respected and donated to charity. She was very much like him. They were very successful with their wool and silk store. Although barren, they supported their close family and adopted a few young orphans from their family, whom they considered their own. They were all properly educated in school and R' Getsel made sure they all received their dowry and all other requirements. They raised them until they married and continued to support them even after. Some of these orphans are: Shmuel, her nephew (son of her brother Leibel Rubin. See 15.1 above) who was five at the time. Yechiel Mechel , a grand-son of her sister Etti and R' Moshe Yehuda Karsel (see 15.3 above) who was of approximately the same age. Freida, his sister. Feiga, her husband's niece from his brother R' Avraham Weiss. R' Getsel admired R' Yankele and his son R' Mendel from Zablotow. He Prayed in their synagogue all his life and served as the first Gabay. He donated a Torah scroll to the synagogue in honor of his wife and himself.

R' Meir Karsel (a brother of R' Moshe Yehuda. See 15.3 Above), a simple honest man, was a leather dealer. His wife dealt in oil. Avraham Karsel, his son, Moved to Naduvrna where he was a general trader. R' Chaim, the second son, lived with his parents and had a share in the leather business. They lived not far from three synagogues and he used to run into all three every day to participate in a prayer in each one, even in the cold winters. His main synagogue was the Kosov, where he had possession of the Weekly Maftir. R'' Yehuda was a scholar who occasionally had articles in the Magid and left Zablotow as a youngster. He may have emigrated to the United States. R' Mechel who died very young was a genius. Meir, Yitzchak and Yehoshua were all killed by the Germans.

R' Isaac Boimel. A respected man, learned, a Chasid of R' Mendele from Demycze and used to pray at the Viznica's synagogue. Had a large house at the center of town. Used to lend money to the people from town and farmers in the area. His son rented a farm in Voytsekhovitse, was a Chasid like his father. Son-in-law R' Moshe Yupiter, learned, a Chasid of the Rabbi of Demycze, and used to read weekly from the Torah on Shabbos in the Viznica's Synagogue. Was a money changer for Jews and Gentiles. R' David, an educated, and a vigorous learner. Although he did not receive a formal trade education, he established a store for steel products in his grandfather's house and became very successful in a very short time. He had a great advantage whereby buyers found him to be very honest and reliable. Was a Chazan in Viznica synagogue and a very accepted member of the community. Tzvi (Hershke) Yupiter, a land dealer and for a short time also had a brick factory and traded in firewood.

R' Avraham Voltzer, a wealthy man, had a large stone house in front of the market with a large wine and whiskey cellar. Was a partner in Profanation (see 19 below) as a bartender and inn-keeper. Carriages of guest and passers-by were always parked in his large yard, especially during market days. Neta Voltzer. Sons-in-law R' Yakov Tau and Kalman Shapira.

R' Efrayim Menashe Shocher, a tall man with a long white beard across his chest. A scholar, very knowledgeable in bookkeeping and served as trustee of the Profintion for most of his life.

Profanation – is the privilege to be a sole distributor of wine, whiskies and Beer, which was handed by the local land-owner ("Paritz") who kept those privileges for generations. The Polish government invoked those privileges in 1878 when the commissioner in Lwow for three years at a time rented them out after a public tender. Only wealthy people won them since it required a special building to sell the drinks, rooms for bookkeeping, warehouses, blending and distillation rooms, managers, clerks, secretaries, bartenders, guards, watchmen to prevent outside merchandise from entering, and many servants.

Trustee in those days meant an honest man, smart and knowledgeable in reading writing and bookkeeping.

Efrayim Shocher had all of these qualifications. He was the manager, the bookkeeper, the secretary, the seller and the buyer. He had all the people required. The lessees and renters had no knowledge about the commercial aspects of the business till they received their share when the end of yearbooks was prepared. Profit was large since they were allowed to set prices as they wished. R' Efrayim remained the Trustee although Lessees where changed from time to time. He was one of the "generals" of the rabbi of Viznica and the secretary of the "R' Meir Ba'al Ha'ness" Charity Funds collected in the vicinity including in Viznica. He, his sons and grandson lived in Demycze, all prayed regularly in synagogues in Demycze. He had sons and daughters, all educated in the Torah way.

R' Nachman Shocher.

R' Moshe Shocher

R' Rephael Shocher

R' Chaim Shocher

R' Efrayim Fond, was a great scholar very knowledgeable in the bible, book and paper goods seller. Since this trade did not provide sufficiently, he was also a teacher and taught eight young boys all the Jewish subjects and Hebrew grammar. His lectures lasted all day and each of his students was proficient in all these subjects. His sons too were properly educated in Torah and general knowledge. R' Yitzchak Fond, a smart and knowledgeable man, and very respectable leather merchant. Immigrated to the United States where he lived comfortably. R' Moshe Fond, a smart and knowledgeable man, moved to Kolomyja where he made his livelihood with his brothers-in-law in the brick industry. R' Yeshaya Fond immigrated to Canada where he died at a very young age.

R' Eelkana Kogler, A pious Jew, a Viznica Chasid with a large general merchandise store, was one of the more important citizens of town who donated generously to charities. Educated his sons in Torah and general knowledge too. Did not live long and died at mid-life.

R' Aryeh Leib Rosenboim, a respectable and knowledgeable man, had a house with a wall and dealt in general merchandise. Impoverished lately and forced to sell his house, he became a broker.

His beautiful daughter married R' Avraham'che Oyerbach.

R' Aryeh Leib Melamed, owned a small house in an alley and traded in wheat. His wife sold flour and eggs from the house. Gave their children a Torah education. Eliezer Melamed, worked with his father in the business. After the death of his parents he moved with his wife Beila, daughter of R' Shlomo Salpeter, and their family to the United States where he made a living in commerce.

Mr. Izidor Reizel, Finished his studies in Lwow University, returned to Zablotow as the property manager for the Government Courts. The Judges treated him with respect. He excelled in his community activities, was well respected and behaved as expected from a religious man. Was once elected by the District Governor to be the Jewish Community Leader.

R' Asher Zilberman, came to Zablotow with a group from Zorov in Russia where he was a bookkeeper and accountant for a Whiskey distillery, with R' Yisrael Friedman. Purchased a large house in Demycze, opened a grocery store, donated to charities and had no children.

R' Tzion, the son of R' Chaim Toy, graduated from the Hebrew academy of Rabbi Dr. Yung in Krakow. Studied Jewish and general subjects at his home, was active in community matters especially Zionist oriented, and was one of the first to work with the younger generation to bring them up with the love of Torah, the Jewish-People and the Land of Yisrael. Was a merchant all his life and for a while was considered to be a rich man. Did not emigrate to Eretz Yisrael and was killed with the others in 1942.

R David Kalir, an educated man, a bookkeeper and employee of the "Rosenbaum Bank". A respectable, honest man involved in public activities for the community and Zionist causes. Educated his children in Torah on one side and general knowledge on the other.

R' Hersh Nusberg, an honest merchant educated his children in Torah and general knowledge and was among the contributors to the community.

R' David Toy, son of Yoseph and Chana, an honest man who had a large house with a tavern. His son-in-law R' Shmuel Sharf from Kolomyja, inherited his house and tavern.

R' Zev Shatenfeld, R' Simcha Shochet's son-in-law, a respected and honest person who had a grocery store attached to his house. He educated his children in Torah and general knowledge. Later sold the house and moved to Kolomyja.

R' Zaide Altman, Son of R' Mandel, was educated in Cheder and continued studying Torah and Gemara. Following his marriage he moved to Gankovtsy where he became a general merchant. Educated his children in the honest and proper way.

R' Zalman Mintzer, lived for many years in Popiyelniki, where he was a farmer and a general merchant, accumulated some property and gave to charities. Moved to Zablotow following the murder of his father by local farmers due to his improper activities (such as; loan sharking) and many court trials, where he continued for a while in merchandising but lost everything and became a beggar and lived off handouts till his death.

R' Zanvill Grunvorg, a Kosov Chasid, and a land dealer. Raised his children in the proper way.

R' Gedalya Shafer, a learned merchant. Inherited R' Alter Leibel's position as a public teacher on Shabbos in the old synagogue. R' Alter Shafer was a merchant. His wife, daughter of Mooki Feivels had no children and died young.

R' David Zinger, son of R' Chaim Zimel Zinger, moved to Germany following his marriage. His children were educated in general knowledge and immigrated to Israel.

R' Hendel Shechter, R' Leibel Rubin's son–in-law, a scholar God-fearing Jew who barely survived from his grocery store. Was a Viznica Chasid and became a successful slaughterer in the town of Shatz in Bukovina. His son-in-law R' Berl was also a slaughterer in Cheresh in Bukovina.

R' Davis Tau, son of R' Shmuel, was a wealthy man, a merchant and a moneylender. Was probably the first who used the Pruth River to deliver wood. Till then they used rafts to bring the wood from the Karpathian Mountains. He purchased the wood destined to Rumania from the merchants, got them from the river onto his large yard where his craftsmen built two roomed wooden houses. He sold these houses at good profits, by payments plan and some Jews even purchased them.

R' Eliezer Adlershtein, a respected citizen who prayed at the Kosov synagogue. Had the sole salt dealership from the government factory in Kosov and Delyatin. Emigrated to Eretz Yisrael in his old age with his wife and lived in Zefat.

R' Chaim Zev Blushtein, A scholar who sat and learned Torah day and night. His wife Kani was a good-hearted person known for her good deeds. At the beginning R' Chaim was a "trustee" (see 19 above) at the Semakovtsy Whiskey distilleries and a bookkeeper and accountant at his brother-in-law's business, R' A.V. Meltzer. Later he moved to Zablotow to his house in Demycze. His capable wife opened a grocery store, which provided them with their income. They educated their children in Torah and general knowledge.

R' Moshe Blushtein, the eldest, a scholar, was a merchant then emigrated to the United States and made his livelihood in commerce.

R' Shlomo Blushtein a scholar who had a store in his father-in-law's house R' A. L. Shfarber. Participated in daily learning despite his business troubles.

R' Yitzchak Isaac Blushtein his eldest, was a brilliant scholar and one of the pioneers of Zionism in Zablotow. Later lived in Kolomyja where he lived in poor conditions.

R' Moshe Bley was his son-in-law. He was a great scholar in Torah and general studies including science and research. Was a teacher for some boys in town.

Tzvi Bley lives in Israel.

R' Avraham Bloch, R' Chaim's first son-in-law, was a Chasid of the Kosov's Rabbi. He had a large business dealing in forest, lumber, houses and land in the vicinity of Delyatin. Has a general merchandise store, which brought him a hefty income. Was known for his charity and hospitality.

His sons, R' Shabtel, R' Yehoshua and others were successful as lumber dealers and owned a few sawmills.

R' Avraham Yitschak Shocher, the second son-in-law was a great scholar, and well respected in Kolomyja. For a long time he was the chief bookkeeper for the "Acsis" which was the company with the monopoly of collecting duties on Meat and slaughter. A group of wealthy men purchased the monopoly from the authorities for a few years and they found R' Avraham Yitzchak to be their most trusted and capable man to ran their business. After leaving that post he dealt in lumber and together with others he purchased a large forest in Bukovina. It was a very successful venture in which he continued for the rest of his life. His Wife Miriam, concentrated in charities, supported the needy, the infirm etc. His sons were educated in Torah and general education, most of them became Doctors and Lawyers.

Dr. Shmarya Shocher his son

Dr. Chana Shocher his daughter is practicing in Jerusalem.

Engineer M. Berler his grandson is employed by the Worker's Union and resides in Jerusalem.

R' Chaim Walfram, a scholar who owned a General Store where his wife and daughters worked. It was the largest store in town with Jewish and Gentile patrons from town and the surroundings. R' Chaim behaved as a Chasid and belonged to the Chortkov's Chasidim. Gave generously to charities. Rabbi Mendele Walfram was one of his sons.

R' Chaim Zimel Singer, a well respected man, a scholar, form the important members of the Kosov community, used to read the Torah, was a wonderful Chazan during the High Holidays, and was Mayor and chairman of the community for a while. His large home housed a tavern, which was usually full with men drinking whisky, wine and beer. In his cellar he had the most sought after Kosher for Passover wines.

R' Yehuda Singer a scholar, 'afflicted" with a little general knowledge Prayed in Kosov synagogue and excelled as a Chazan there during the High Holidays with his soft and pleasant voice. This was despite living in Tulukov where he rented a tavern and owned some land. Was amongst the largest merchants and exporters. R' Yoseph Halpren, his son-in-law was R' Moshe Sheiner Halpern's son, first lived in Vienna then in Tel-Aviv. Died in mid-life.

R' Chail Ber Ebenshtein, a scholar in Torah, an excellent Tanach teacher.

R' Chaim Roysner, R' Yeshayahu Shechter's son-in-law, was an important merchant.

R' Chaim Shetner from Kuti, knowledgeable in general science, was a merchant in Zablotow together with his father-in-law R' Moshe Sheiner (see 41.1.1 above). Immigrated with his wife Esther to Berlin where he was successful in commerce. Was a Chasid, opened a synagogue in his own house, and was known for his hospitality and charity all his life. Educated his children in Torah and general knowledge. Was among those killed by the Nazis.

R' Chaim Hirsh Perchase Greif, a merchant, a Viznica Chasid. Had a large house, but no children.

R' Chaim Locker, owned a large house, dealt in leather and wool clothing from the local farmers. Was well respected and belonged to the Kosov's Chasidim. Educated his sons in Torah and general knowledge.

R' Chaim Deitch (Family name or a nickname), owned a large house in the center of town (which was sold to R' M. Sheiner after his death) and was a wheat dealer. Educated his sons in Torah and general knowledge. R' Alter his son, inherited the house and the business.

R' Yehuda Bloch, son of R' Menachem Bloch, a Kosov Chasid who had an unsuccessful business of soap and candles. Remarried to a woman from Delyatin, moved there but was still unsuccessful the rest of his life.

R" Yehuda Treter, worked for a long time in R' Chaim Walfram's (see 40 above) store. After his marriage with Tzipora he opened his own successful store in his father-in-law's house. Was accepted in the community and educated his sons in Torah and general knowledge. His wife Tzipora was a capable woman who helped in the store.

R' Yoseph Shafer, a homeowner and merchant, was caught in a felony. After his repentance he became honest and charitable. Educated his sons to be honest merchants.

R' Yakov Gleikshtern (Yankel Bomes) owned a house in Demycze next to the Jail, was a Kosov Chasid, prayed there and was a Chazan and a known singer in the synagogue. Was a successful wheat dealer and educated his sons in Torah and general knowledge. R' David Gleikshtern graduated from Teachers College and was a teacher in Baron Hirsh School in Kolomyja. Following his marriage to Eta, daughter of R' Meshulam Simcha Linder, he inherited a large house in Kolomyja, left his teaching position to open a large successful store of wool and silk fabrics. Educated his son and daughter who were great students, in Torah and general education. The Nazis killed the whole family in 1942.

R' Yitzchak Fond, son of Manche, was a relative and a student of R' Efrayim Fond and absorbed his teachings. Married a farmer's daughter, moved to the farm and became a successful farmer and land dealer.

R' Yisrael, son of Shlomo, an honest scholar and a Chasid who made his livelihood as the only one in town sawing leather for shoemakers. Was known for his honesty.

R' Yitzchak, son of R' Hirsh Leib Zeinreich, was a scholar, and a son-in-law of R' Tzvi the son of Yakov Toy. Moved to Vienna during First World War and became a successful merchant. Was an honest man and educated his sons in Torah and general knowledge.

R' David Keish was educated by R' Efrayim Fond. His stepson was a scholar and among the most enthusiastic Chasidim of Kosov, participating in daily lectures. Following his marriage they moved to Kolomyja where he opened a store. Educated his son in Torah. Immigrated to the United States and brought his parents over.

R' Yitzchak Isaac HaCohen Meltzer, an honest simple man from the "generals" of Rabbi Chaim from Kosov. His wife, Tova Shprintze was modest and righteous. R' Yitzchak owned a large property and a mill in Chlebiczim next to Zablotow, and rented land and forests. Both were famous for their generosity, hospitality and charity to the poor. In their house they had rooms and a kitchen exclusively for hospitality. Their children continued to be at home table after their marriages as long as they lived in Chlebiczim.

R' David Meltzer, a scholar and a Chasid rented a farm. His wife Beila, was a daughter of the Rabbi of Kuty. Following his father's death he moved to Torichi and later to Zablotow. In his old age he immigrated to Israel where he became the Chairman of Kosov's Kolel (Jewish school for married men). He held this position for 15 years till his death (rumored to be caused by hunger and his wife too) during the First World War. They were buried in Zefat.

R' Yoseph, a Scholar and a Chasid of Chortkov, moved to Kolomyja following his marriage and opened a leather wholesale store with his father-in-law and became an important member of the community. Lived in Israel 12 years.

Eidel his daughter and her husband R' SH. Sheiber emigrated to Israel together with her father R' Yoseph. All their children excelled in their work and contributed to the land and people of Israel.

Dr. Chaim Sheiber, a former head of a department in Beilinson Hospital in Petach-Tikva, who held important medical positions during the First World War and the War of Independence.

Binyamin Sheiber, a merchant. His wife was a granddaughter of the chief Rabbi of Lwow, R' Moishe.

Berl Sheiber a member of Kibbutz Eilon.

R' Shalom HaCohen Meltzer, a scholar and generous man. Left Zablotow following his marriage and settled in Rohatyn where he became famous for his generosity, were a member of City Council and an important member of the community.

He built the first Jewish school and established a charity fund to help support the needy. He was among the founders (together with R' Feivel Shreyer from Borohotshani and Dr. A. Zaltz from Tarnow) of "Ahavat Zion". This was the first society in Galicia dedicated to the settlement of Eretz Yisrael, which established the village of Machanayim in Israel.

When Theodor Hertzl became an active Zionist, so did R' Shalom. He was a very active Zionist in Galicia, was a delegate to the Second Zionist Congress and at his own expense, traveled around Galicia persuading people to join Zionism. He established "Carmel" Society in Lwow selling Eretz-Israel's Wines. Died young, before the age of forty and was not himself successful to emigrate to Eretz Yisrael.

Dr. Natan Meltzer, one of the top organizers of the "Federation" in Galicia and a dedicated politician of the Worker's Union in Israel.

Rachel, living in Tel-Aviv.

R' Yoseph Meltzer. Following his father's death he moved to Kuty to his father-in-law, R' Zecharya Shtein, and later to Zabie. He was successful in lumber.

His daughter and a few grandchildren are in Israel participating in building the land.

R' Shmaryahu Meltzer was a scholar known for his wealth and modesty. Owned two properties in Chortkov District and was known all around Chortkov and Tarnopol districts for his charity and good deeds. The entire family and its fortune were destroyed during the holocaust.

R' Chaim Meltzer, a scholar managed his wealthy brother's business books and bookkeeping. His son and grandson are living in Israel

Creindel Meltzer married R' Yoseph Shatner who was a Scholar fluent in several languages. During R' Yitzchak Isaac Meltzer's life he rented a farm in Zablotow and owned a whisky distillery. Following R' Yitzchak's death he moved back to his home town Kuty where he opened a wool and silk fabric wholesale store and became famous for his honest business dealings. Their house was always open to the needy and the poor, made famous especially by his modest wife Creindel. He was Chairman of the Kuty community and died in Austria during the First World War. All his sons and grandsons are loyal to their nation, religion and land.

R' Yakov.

A grandson, Berl Locker, was the founder of "Poalei Zion" in Galicia and the publisher of its newspaper. Now he is the chairman of the Jewish Agency and one of the leaders of the Worker's Union. Known also as an author and publisher.

A few grandsons are living in Israel:

Dr. Yitzchak Shatner. A specialist and important researcher in Geography and Cartography.

Dr. CH. Shatner. A Medical Doctor specialist.

Miriam Meltzer married R' Shimshon Choen, a scholar from Korolevka. Following R' Yitzchak Isaac's death he moved back to Korolevka to become a wheat dealer. He and his wife were known for their charity and educated their children in Torah and general knowledge. His daughter and grandsons are living in Israel building the land. Dr. A. Lebel, a grandson lives in Gan-Yavne with his daughter.

Rivka Meltzer married R' Menachem Yitzchak Rosenshtroich from Bukovina. They excelled in Charity and benevolence, their home in Lots was always open to the needy.

Tova and her sons are living in Israel.

Engineer A. Kler, a grandson, owns the "Argaman" factory.

R' Yehoshua Preminger, owned a large house, was rich and well respected in town and was a Viznica Chasid. Used to lend money to local farmers.

R' Zalman Preminger owned a successful farming store.

R' Yosel Preminger was rich, owned a Fabric Store and was known for his wisdom

R' Yoseph Koren, his son-in-law, was one of the first Learned Zionist in town between the two World Wars. He owned a hotel and a tavern but was always busy with community work and Jewish culture. He had a magnificent Jewish library. He and his whole family were killed in the Holocaust.

R' Yehoshua Miller, a modest man, knew how to learn Torah, prayed in Kosov's synagogue, read the Torah sometimes and was a Chazan. Inherited his father-in-law's house including a boarding house, a place for carriages and a tavern where his wife and daughters always worked.

R' Yoseph Ruven Shechter, a scholar, had a house and used to lend money to local farmers. Faltered in his business and was caught in a felony.

Reuven Shechter, a scholar. Left Zablotow settled in Yablonov where he was a Gemara teacher.

R' Zeinvil Shechter was a rabbi in a village in the Karpathian Mountains.

R' Yeshaya Shechter had a grocery store then later was a teacher.

R' Shimon Shechter. Already as a young boy was known for his wisdom and good memory, became a teacher but did not practice and hardly made a living. Between the two World Wars was a Gemara teacher. Was honest and modest, never had money and was a perfect example of good behavior.

R' Yoseph Gold had a house in Demycze and owned a sesame seed oil factory. Used to Pray at the Kosov synagogue where he was Chazan on Shabbos.

R' Yoseph Shpinner, owned a house and a large lumber warehouse including roof shingles, and boards. Was one of the more successful in that business. He and his wife donated to charities all their lives and supported the needy. Elyahu Shpinner joined his father in the business and later inherited it. Anshel and Lena Shpinner were killed in the Holocaust in 1942 & 43.

R' Yoseph Balan owner of the Town's Bathhouse was a Kosov Chasid. His brother, Zev Balan was top in this field. They both were honest city attendants and well respected.

R' Yoseph Keish HaLevi, a scholar was an attendant at the Kosov synagogue for a long time. When this did not provide sufficient earnings he weaved fringed garments (Tzitzit) and had many customers from the synagogue.

R' Yoseph Tilinger, a successful grain merchant.

R' Shmuel Tilinger, his eldest, was a great scholar, God fearing Chasid, extremely knowledgeable in the Torah and Rabbinical dynasties. Between the Wars was a Gabay at R' Chaim Hager's synagogue.

R' Mordechai Tilinger was a merchant who moved to Kolomyja following his marriage.

R' Yitzchak (Etche) Tilinger was educated on Torah and general knowledge. Became a lumber dealer and owned land. Was an excellent Chazan on the High Holidays at R' Chaim Hager's synagogue where he sang from his own melodies. Was very smart and well versed in German literature.

R' Yitzchak Tillinger, R' Yoseph's brother, was a very respected man a general merchant and a Gabay in the main synagogue for many years.

Figure 4
R' Yissachar Toy

Yehuda Tillinger, his only son, was educated in various Cheders, excelled in his studies , was very smart, had a sharp mind and good memory, but was light headed. Following his marriage he concentrated on general studied and languages. Later he left Zablotow, settled in Vienna where he attended Rabbinical School and befriended R' Tzvi Peretz Chayot, Michael Berkowitz, Y. L. Landau, Dov Wachshtein and others. He successfully continued his studies in more colleges, however, to the dismay of his family, converted to become a priest who preached blasphemy. He authored a booklet full of venomous insults and slander at the Jewish Nation, sighting 'clear proof' to Rholing's statements about Jewish hands being soiled with Christian blood for Passover and other vicious criticism of the Jews. A few years later, this black sheep was discovered by R' Yissachar Toy from Zablotow and by the author Gershon Badder, working as a Rabbi and a preacher at a religious synagogue in New York. It was not clear whether he had repented or used the position as a cover, but G. Badder publicly unveiled his mask by publishing his true identity in the local Jewish and Yiddish paper. Tilinger left his post and disappeared forever. He brought great shame to his family especially his mother who mourned this traitor son (His father died suddenly, maybe out of sorrow).

R' Feivel Angler was R' Yoseph Tilinger's son-in-law. He exported grain all the way to Germany. Was a wealthy man who educated his sons in Torah and general education.

R' Yeshaya Shechter, a grocer, was Zelig Adlershtein's partner in government's salt marketing. Despite the long walk to the old synagogue, he used to walk there daily in order to pray in a Minyan (Ten people). In his old age he emigrated to Eretz Yisrael and died in Zefat. 65.1 His sons were Yoseph, Meir, Tzvi and Zev.

R' Yehuda Tzvi Rosenboim, owned a house and had a business in agriculture. His wife was a daughter of R' Avraham Yitzchak Garfunkel (see below).

R' Mordechai Rosenboim worked with his father. His son emigrated to Eretz Yisrael from Germany.

R' Gershon Rosenboim was a scholar and an honest merchant.

Menachem lives in Israel with his wife Devora, daughter of R' Mordechai Keish. During the Second World War was among the brave soldiers who fought Hitler Y"S. He was captured by the German and was held in captivity for a few years. Now living in Kfar Ziv, Tel-Mond.

R' Avraham Yitzchak Garfunkel was an honest Chasid who together with his wife Chaiche, owned a large store selling steel products.

R' Yeshaya Bartler, a Scholar a student of R' Yecheskel Itzik from Kolomyja. Together with some partners he owned "Profanation" (see above). Was a distinguished man in town, prayed in Kosov synagogue. R' Moshe Bartler a scholar, lumber merchant. Emigrated to Eretz Yisrael in 1948 with his wife and one son, who survived the war. Chana, R' Moshe's daughter emigrated to Eretz Yisrael and became a member of Kibbutz Ashdot-Yakov.

R' Yeshaya Adlershtein, a well respected scholar who rented an agricultural farm and was a partner with R' Eliezer Bartler (a brother of Yeshaya Bartler, see 68 above) in Forestry. They had business connections with Agafsowitch from Tulukow. They had a large forest in Bukovina. His son, R' Eliyahu Adlershtein, rented the large mill in Zablotow. R' Natan Adlershtein was a car dealer in Tel-Aviv.

R' Meir Elazar Sheinhorn, owned a large house in the center of town, educated his sons in Torah and a little general knowledge in accordance with the times.

His son, R' Moshe Sheinhorn, who had a sharp mind excelled in his studies including 'foreign' studies. Was a practicing Lawyer who provided handsomely for his large family. Was probably the first in town to point the citizens towards political education and general knowledge. He often called for public meetings, most of them in the Central Synagogue; talked publicly about political subjects and attracted listeners. His understanding relations with the youth caused them to venture into new avenues and studies. He practiced what he preached and especially for community institutions. Established the first ever-Jewish school in Zablotow (no Jewish educational institute existed prior to this one). He persuaded the Baron Hirsh School in Paris and Lwow to open a branch in Zablotow for boys and girls. This action caused a clash with the authorities in Sniatin, when the District Minister, Batcherkas Koifman, followed by the majority of the shortsighted citizens objected and tried to prevent the opening of the school. R' Moshe prevailed, and a large and splendid school did open its gates to hundreds of children in a number of grades, who received an education including Torah, Hebrew and local languages. He saved so many children from being ignorant and illiterate. Most of his life he served as the lone chairman of the community, despite his opponents, and was for a while the official registrar of births and deaths in the community, thus providing himself with some income.

Was an admirer of and respected by Rabbis Yankel and Dudke, he prayed in their synagogue, and acted as their adviser. Educated his sons and daughter in Torah and general education, they all excelled in their studies, their public activities, and as successful merchants in their respective towns.

R' Kalman Sheinhorn, R' Moshe's eldest son, knew perfect Hebrew and German despite the fact that no school or Jewish teacher existed in Zablotow between 1840 and 1880 (where Jewish children could learn Hebrew or languages). Was among the best students of Torah and Gemara.

He married the daughter of a rich man from Viznica, moved there and became a successful lumber dealer who had business connections with Russian merchants, and sent lumber rafts from the Karpathian Mountains along the Chermosh River to Russia. He owned vast forests and lumber mills around Miyawa. His products became famous all around Galicia, Bukovina and Russia.

Excelled in honest business dealings. His house was open to the poor and to the needy. His sons were educated in Torah and general knowledge. In his old age he moved to Chernovtsy, capital of Bukovina District where he became famous for his natural talent, as an honest broker and arbitrator in the most difficult conflicts.

R' Shimshom Sheinhorn, Moshe's second son, was fluent in Gemara and local languages. Immigrated to the United States following his marriage.

R' Tzvi Peretz Sheinhorn was among the more educated people in town. Married the daughter of a rich man from Bukovina, opened a successful commercial store in Beramta. Educated his sons in Torah and general knowledge. Did not live long, died in mid life in his village.

R' Yehuda Rubin son of R' Aaron Rubin, was R' Moshe's son-in-law. He was educated in Cheders and also received general education. He was a partner in a linen factory in Stanislavov and made a good living.

R' Zendel was a scholar who received most of his education from his father. Even at a young age he excelled in his studies and distinguished himself from the other boys. For many years he worked in his father's office.

Following his marriage to his father's main political opponent's daughter (R' Tzvi Rata), they immigrated to the United States where, together with his younger brother R' Yakov, he opened the "Sheinhorn Brothers Bank". The brothers were known for their honesty in business and became very successful. Like his father, he was active in community work. Together with R' Yissachar Toy they established the important organization Former Residence of Zablotow in the United States in order to assist their fellow brethren in the United States and in Eretz Yisrael. He was the permanent secretary of the organization.

R' Yakov died young. Emigrated to the United States with his brother Moshe (See above)

Chana (Chanchel) was a good-looking, cleaver girl. Was brought up by her father in the knowledge of Torah and the local languages. Married an educated man but moved back to her father's house following his death. Helped her father in his business and her mother skillfully run the household.

Pessi, the second daughter, educated like her sister, married a scholar R' Neta, from Davideni in Bukovina. He was the respected village secretary despite the fact that the chairman and the rest of the councilors were all anti-Semitic Rumanians. Excelled in all his public and community activities.

R' Meir Rata, a respected man, had a large house in the center of town, was fluent in local languages which made him famous. Had a tobacco business selling Government approved chewing and smoking tobacco. Was also the sole dealer of Lottery tickets in Zablotow and the surrounding towns. Very few Jews had the honor-obtaining license to sell lottery tickets, only those well known and perfectly honest managed to get it. Was well respected among Jews and Gentile alike. Was elected as head of the citizens, a position he held most of his life and was accepted by most citizens for his achievements. Belonged to Kosov Chasidim, followed R' Yankele and used to participate in their gatherings.

His son, R' Tzvi Rata, a scholar, had a house next to his father and was in the tobacco business with him. Was involved in the community, prayed in Kosov synagogue and was a Chazan there during the High Holidays and well liked by the congregates. Was considered a Kosov Chasid who did not shy from confronting their opponents. For a long time he was a very active member of the community. His sons were honest and followed his lead in community work, and education.

R' Isaac Rata, a well respected scholar, moved to Sniatin and obtained a license to deal in tobacco and sell lottery tickets in Sniatin and the vicinity. Had excellent Characteristics and served as a member of the community board for a while.

His son-in-law R' Isaac Eizenkraft was a scholar who belonged to the Kosov synagogue, operated a farming business and used to rent boats to cross the Pruth river.

R' Alter Eizenkraft was a scholar and operated a farming business.

R' Yoseph Eizenkraft, owned a popular restaurant. Killed himself during the first "Action" of 1942.

Tzvi, his son, saved his wife and child from the holocaust and managed to get to Israel.

His second son-in-law R' Litman Reiter, had a house next to R' Meir's, was a scholar, a Bible teacher, then later a tradesman. One of the important people in the Kosov synagogue. The whole family Immigrated to the United States where he was successful.

R' Gedalya Rata a musician, married the daughter of a well-respected Kosov citizen and moved there. Was a Chasid of Kosov.

R' Menachem Bergman (Ridniker), an old but strongly built, wide shouldered man who owned a tavern and a hostel which had many guests coming and going daily. Carriages moved constantly in and out of the gates. The yard in front of the house served as an entrance to the market for men, women, merchants, dealers, buyer and farmers. The fish market was held in his house on Thursdays and Fridays.

His eldest son R' Eliyahu Bergman was an important member of the Kosov Chasidim. Had a few sons and daughters.

R' Lebche Bergman owned a large store in his house in Demycze. Was a Kosov Chasid.

R' Yerachmiel Bergman, a pious Viznica Chasid.

R' Mordechai Bergman was a studious man and a Rabbi somewhere in Bukovina. In his old age he emigrated to Eretz Yisrael and probably died in Jerusalem. A few of his grandchildren live in Israel.

R' Mordechai Leib Bergman was one of the best students in Gemara. Married the daughter of a rich Putak citizen and was very successful in his commercial business and leasing forests. After a while he purchased a large piece of property and forest in Bukovina. Lived a good life and learned Torah.

His son-in-law was R' Israel Shtein the son of the famous R' Zecharya Shtein from Kuty. Was friendly with The Rabbi from Chortkov and an important member of his entourage. Donated freely to his family and to others who approached him.

R' Moshele Shtein who inherited his wealth as well as his personality, lived in Stanislavov. Was killed together with his son Itchele during the last war.

R' Yoel Eizenkraft was R' Menachem's son-in-law who inherited his house and business. Was an honest and modest man, a Kosov Chasid.

Moshe Eizenkraft a scholar who married into a rich family in Bukovina and became a famous forestry and lumber dealer. Later moved to Chernovtsy.

R' Moshe Yakov Fishel an old, quiet man who walked daily to the synagogue despite the long distance from his house. Dedicated a large airy room in his house for daily learning with eight other friends from 8:00AM till 9:00 PM. R' Zanvill Fishel owned properties and was a merchant. An honest man who belonged to the Kosov Chasidim.

R' Mendel Altman had a house not far from the tobacco factory which provided his livelihood. Was a Kosov Chasid. R' Meir Rubin, his son-in-law was an honest man who owned a famous bakery.

R' Menachem Maher, an important member of the community. He sat and learned while his wife Reizel, sold wheat and eggs from their house. He was head of the rabbinate in Petashnizin where he answered Halachic questions and arbitrated in fiscal conflicts. Was well respected especially among those praying in the old synagogue where he was a Chazan during the High Holidays. Educated his sons in Torah and general knowledge.

His eldest son R' Shlomo Maher, an author, was a Rabbi in Vrelea, Romania.

R' Yoseph Maher owned an oil field and lived in Nadbora.

Yechiel Mechel Meir Maher published a book in Hebrew and was a famous Banker in Kuty. Educated his son and daughter in general knowledge. Died young in Kuty.

R' Chaim a scholar who exported eggs.

R' Zev Maher, author of "Stories and Paintings", a bookkeeper who owned a house in Kuti.

R' Meir was a student of R Efrayim Fond from whom he absorbed the knowledge of Torah and Gemara in addition to his father teachings of Halacha. Had a perfect knowledge of Hebrew. Following his marriage he tried a few commercial businesses but was unsuccessful and became a Hebrew teacher (taught a few boys for free). Was probably the first in town to educate a whole generation of Zionists, was fluent in Hebrew. A few years later immigrated to the United States where he was active in the community, teaming up with other former residents of Zablotow.

R' Mordechai Shfarber, an honest and modest man sat and learned all his life. Had a house on the road to Kolomyja and a store in his brother's house' R' A. L. Shfarber, attended by his wife Rosa and his sons. Was a sick man and died young survived by his wife and four children.

Tzvi Shfarber was educated in Cheder by his mother. Knew Torah, Hebrew and Yiddish and assisted her in the store. Following his marriage he moved into his father-in-law's business in Kuty, where he later inherited the house and the General store.

R' Chaim Shfarber was educated by his mother in Cheders, later inherited her house and store. Educated his sons in Torah.

Dina, one of his daughters, married Moshe Toy, miraculously survived the holocaust of 1942-43and lived in Poland from 1946-47. The Nazis killed all the rest of the family.

R' Moshe Shnaryahu Shfarber had a house and business but lost them and lived off charitable donations. Later, together with God's help, became a successful matchmaker. R' Natan Shfarber was unsuccessful as a Yiddish and German teacher.R'' Asher Pasternak, his son-in-law was an honest man, first as a merchant and later as a teacher. Inherited land and a house in Bukovina where he became successful.

R' Menachem Bloch, a pious scholar. At his young age he manufactured candles and soap. Later became a private teacher and taught a few boys. R' Avraham Bloch was an exporter. In his house he had a factory that manufactured pig hair and feather brushes. Educated his sons in Torah and general knowledge. R' Zeide Bloch inherited the business. R' Berish Bloch was a merchant. He lives in Haifa, Israel R' Alexander Shtempler, R' Avraham's son-in-law, was a Torah scholar and a Chazan. He was a banker in Mielchi.

R' Mordechai Tzvi Fogel, a tenacious student of Torah. A young teacher whose talents enabled him to purchase a house and properties. He became a successful land dealer and in sold wood for heating. Later he became a moneylender. His son Zenvill Fogel and the others were very smart. Shlomo and Avraham Fogel were very active in Zablotow's Zionist Movement. Lazil Shtein, his son-in-law, was a scholar who owned a house and a store.

Fisher brothers, R' Mordechai and R' Asher Anshel were important egg exporters to Germany. Both owned houses and R' Mordechai had a wholesale wheat and egg store in his.

R' Menachem Tseichner was a poor and unfortunate man whose wife and father-in-law dominated his life. He had a fish store.

R' Meir Charab, the son of R' Avraham the plasterer had a very sharp mind for Gemara.

R' Meshulam Epshtein, a descendant of a dynasty of Rabbis, behaved like one both at home and in the Kosov synagogue where he was an important member

R' Moshe Epshtein had a store in his father's house. Educated his sons in Torah and general knowledge.

R' Menache Epshtein a scholar who had a soft and pleasant voice and prayed in the Kosov synagogue and educated his children in Torah

One of his sons-in-law was R' Shmaya Leviner, a successful forestry and lumber dealer lived in Viznica and later moved to Chernovtsy.

R' Zeide Epshtein was son-in-law of R' N. Dreamer of Nadbora.

R' Aryeh Leibish Eisner, R' Meshulam's first son-in-law, a distinguished scholar very knowledgeable in Halacha who had a very sharp and good memory. Was loved by all especially the Kosov Chasidim who enjoyed listening to his fabulous stories, fables and jokes. Most of the time he lent money to local farmers, and lately also sold wood for heating. Was constantly involved in lawsuits, conflicts and arguments with his clients. Despite knowing just Hebrew he became familiar with the court system and the local Law, especially in damages and monetary matters. Even Judges treated him with respect. He once lost his case, approached the judge and politely explained to him the letter of the law. The judge agreed and overturned his verdict. His interpretation was published and became the Law of the land. His sons were educated in Torah. In his mid life he faltered and cast a black shadow over himself and his soul. A foreign fire burnt in him. He died young as predicted by our sages: "Why do scholars die young?. Because they ridicule themselves".

Israel Eisner did not follow in his father's footsteps, not in Torah nor in knowledge. Later he left Zablotow to the United States.

His other sons were unsuccessful and uneducated.

A second son-in-law was R' Nachum Orenshtein who was a scholar and follower of Kosov Chasidim but did not live long in Zablotow. He divorced his young wife, moved back to Chernovtsy where he became a respectable and successful forestry dealer.

R' Moshe Guthartz, had a house and was an important merchant. R' Eliyahu Guthartz was an important merchant. R' Neta Guthartz was a scholar who sold wigs to the Gentiles. Educated his sons in Torah, general knowledge and Jewish identity. Supported Zionism and sent his son Yakov to Eretz Yisrael. He supported him and sent him money to buy a house and land, but Yakov did not succeed which frustrated his father whom died at a young age and did not fulfil his dream to immigrate to Eretz Yisrael. R' Yakov Guthartz emigrated to Eretz Yisrael and was one of the first pioneers of Hertzelya. (his son Amos and family still reside in Hertzelya -1998)

R' Michael, named Korales was a teacher in the old Beit-Midrash on Shabbos. He was an egg wholesaler.

R' Moshe Zanvil's Toy, one of the wealthiest men in town who had business relations with large property owners.

R' Yakov Toy, his eldest son, a wealthy scholar who owned a linen, wool and silk fabric store and a large house in the city market.

R' Tzvi Toy, a merchant who was in agriculture, had a Tavern in Rudniki and used to rent out boats to cross the Pruth river. Later purchased R' A. Oyerbach's house and became an important citizen in town and belonged to the Kosov synagogue.

R' Chaim Toy had a house and a lending-bank. Was a regular at the Kosov synagogue where he also read the Torah. Following R' Chaim Zemel's death he became the head of the Community.

R' Meshulam and Ben-Zion Toy where educated at Dr. Yung's Hebrew Academy.

R' Moshe Toy a scholar and an important merchant in town.

R' Avraham (Bony) Toy was one of the founders of the Chalutz (Pioneer) Youth Movement of Zablotow. He emigrated to Eretz Yisrael but his illness forced him to return to Zablotow where he concentrated on educating the youth in Zionism and love of Israel. He suffocated to death in a train car in 1942.

Son-in-law of R' Yakov was R' Tzvi Shreyer who was a respectable leather merchant and important citizen of Bohorodshani. Emigrated to Eretz Yisrael in his later years. His sons were Merchants.

R' Zev Toy a scholar of the Kosov Chasidim. Owned a house and a store for various fabrics, but most of his time was spent learning Torah. Was the first to enter and last to leave the Kosov synagogue. Was considered one of the "Ten Bums" of town (A nickname given to the most serious and devoted). `Practice blowing the Shofar during the whole month of Elul (proceeding the High Holidays). His wailing prayer at the onset of the blowing of the Shofar on Rosh-Ha Shona (New Year day) was heart breaking. His Shofar blowing was loud and trembling. But about making a living? He would rather have it done by others. His very capable, smart and diligent wife, Sassy, "brought home the bread". She was the grocer, the house manager and the teacher of her sons. She had two sons from a previous marriage:

Alexander Rosenboim became an important and successful merchant in Zalishtshiki.

Baruch Rosenboim, a steel merchant in Kolomyja.

She died young survived by her second husband, R' Zev Toy, and three young orphans. After her death the house lost its shine and dwindled till the death of R' Zev. His brother Pesach raised one daughter.

R' Pesach Toy, R' Moshe's third son, was raised by his brother R' Yakov following the passing of both his parents. Was a good hearted man and a scholar. Inherited his father's fortune and married a rich man's daughter from Stanislavov. He moved there, opened a store and a successful wholesale flour warehouse. Was a Chortkov Chasid. During the War of 1914 he, with his family and other refugees escaped to Vienna. Here he was free from his business so he turned to the spiritual and found the cause of the disaster and the end of this world. He found in the book of "Daniel" clues and secrets that the cruel Russians and their righteous corroborators – The Kaiser Franz Joseph and his partner William who emerged as heroes from that terrible war, will bring long lasting redemption to this world. The Jews too will benefit and will return to their homeland. Based on these dreams, fantasies and hallucinations he published a German booklet (probably with the assistance of others) filled with clues and prophecies which he sent to the Court, Ministers, Army Generals and all the worldly, great people of that era. He received thanks, great responses and reviews from them and collected these into a book, which cost him a fortune. He sent it to many of his friends to show how well accepted he had become in the world. If he was mistaken, he was not the first and only one; many before him misled the world with their hallucinations. As a whole he was an honest man, donated large sums to charities and was close to Zionism.

Sara, his only daughter was a very smart woman. She married Dr. Alexander Riterman, a Lawyer who was an enthusiastic Zionist, and for a while, the Mayor and head of the Jewish community of Stanislavov. They dedicated themselves to Zionism and through their persuasion a large house surrounded by ten Dunam (one Acre) of land in the middle of town was purchased for a Jewish day school and for teaching and practicing agriculture. A few dozens boys and girls completed their education here and emigrated to Eretz Yisrael. Sara established the "Rachela" company where Jewish girls were taught Hebrew and handicrafts as preparation for immigration to Eretz Yisrael. She participated in each institution. She visited here in Israel ten years ago, returned abroad with the hope of returning here but was among those killed in 1942.

Her only son, Reuven is a Lawyer in Israel.

R' Moshe Tau, son of R' Anshel. A scholar who inherited a house and some land leased to a Gentile. He was a clerk too and a private lawyer but with a limited income. His brother, Neta, inherited some land too. He lived in Il'intse and had commercial ties with the locals.

R' Moshe Yoseph Dreamer was a pious Jew, a scholar who owned a large house and a store. Educated his sons R' Chaim and Meir Zeassi in Torah and general knowledge.

R' Moshe Shechter (nick-named Polki) was an old Jew, Gabay in Viznica synagogue, and owned a house in Demycze. R' Mordechai Keish was his son-in-law.

R' Moshe Rosenboim, a well respected member of the community, owned a large house in the market square where he ran a hostel and a restaurant for a while then a wine and whiskey store (for the Profanation) with a storage room in the cellar. Leased an agricultural farm.

R' Avraham Rosenboim (Avche) was an innkeeper most of his life. R' Yoseph Spinner was his son-in-law.

R' Eliyahu Rosenboim was a scholar and participated in his father's business, and inherited the house and the business following his father's death. Educated his children in Torah and general education.

R' Yisrael Meir Rosenboim, a scholar, a Chasid and a merchant. Later became a successful manufacturer of Salami in his house.

His son Alexander was for a long time a successful jeweler in Germany and now lives in Tel-Aviv.

His wife Minche, his sons Yoseph and Avraham were killed.

R' Tzvi (Hershel) Rosenboim a scholar, was employed by a financial institution which he and some of his family had established in town. He excelled as manager, bookkeeper and accountant, and later moved to Kolomyja where he became a merchant. Educated his three sons and three daughters in Torah and general knowledge, completed their college studies with honors, became Doctors and emigrated to Eretz Yisrael. Later moved to Lwow, were an active Zionist and a member of the "Mizrachi". Emigrated to Eretz Yisrael and was in a business with his son Moshe, had Chasidic characteristic, a follower of and a permanent worshiper in synagogue of the Rabbi from Sadagura, R' Avraham Yakov Freidman. Died in Tel-Aviv in 1946. His wife lives with her son Dr. Eliyahu.

His eldest son, Dr. Eliyahu Rosenboim was R' Aaron Kahn's son-in-law, was an author in Kolomyja, and is now the superintendent in the Department of the Education of the City of Tel-Aviv.

His second son, Dr. Moshe Rosenboim is a manager of the famous factory.

The third son is a medical doctor specialist.

R' David (Berche) Rosenboim was a respected scholar, owner of a large house on the road to Kolomyja. His home housed a tavern and the local courthouse and land-registry office (before the authorities built buildings for that and for a jail).

R' Tzvi (Hershel) Rosenboim, a scholar who moved to Kuty following his marriage and became a banker and was an important citizen, and a member of the Community Board etc.

The fourth son was R' David Rosenboim, a scholar with agricultural business and a partnership in Profanation. Had a house next to the train station.

Sara married R' Ovadya Greif, a pious Jew, an enthusiastic follower of the Viznica's Rabbi and a follower of R, Mendele from Demycze. Had a large house and an inn and a restaurant for merchants arriving from far. Educated his sons in Torah and Chasidism. R' Zeide Greif was first a shop owner, later a clerk and bartender at the Profanation. R' Yakov Greif, a scholar, moved to Viznica to his father-in-law's house. R' Tzvi (hersh) Katz, a scholar, was his son-in-law. Was a diligent leather merchant in Kolomyja. Later in his life he moved to Vienna and died there. His son lives in Tel-Aviv.

R' Menachem (Mendel Tchanchick), a pious Jew, a Chazan on holidays in various small communities. Educated his children in Torah and the worship of God. His wife, Meryassi, was a modest trader standing at her booth in the market selling toys and household goods.

R' Mordechai (Motel) Beizer, was R' Zalman Gerstenhaber's son-in-law who was mostly busy studying Torah. R' Mordechai was a scholar, and a respected merchant. His daughter and her husband R' Tzvi Toy lived in Tel-Aviv.

R' Meir Hanish, a scholar and very knowledgeable. Was R' Zalman Gerstenhaber's son-in-law from Il'intse. For a while was working in R' Tzvi Toy Yakob's on the river ferry. Later became a merchant in town and active in community work.

R' Mordechai nicknamed Zeide Vitchi's (namely; the son of the widow Vitchi, who had a large house in the market square). He was a scholar and intellectual. He gazed and got hurt; He was hooked by Missionaries and fled to London, England where he was an active member in their missionary work. His family, especially his mother, tried desperately to save him but was unsuccessful. Suddenly he shocked his mother when he re-appeared in town, repented and returned to Judaism. The joy of his family which accompanied his return was short lived when he got sick and died suddenly a few months later. The elders and women said that he died so soon after his return from London because he fled from his instigators but they had his photo with which they cast a spell on him, then poisoned and burnt the photo. This caused his death in Zablotow. His demise became an example for parents warning their children not to follow in his footsteps. However, those who denied these follies explained that all his family died of Tuberculosis and Pneumonia, and the filthy London air worsened his condition and hastened his death.

R' Moshe Alter, from a Russian family who came with Rabbi Yisrael Freidman from Rucsin. He lived for a while in Dzhurov and had a whiskey distillery. Later he moved to Zablotow where he purchased a large house in Demycze. He was well respected and had vast income from his business in Dzhurov. Educated his children in Torah and general knowledge. Yecheskel Alter moved to Bukovina where he was employed as a manager and bookkeeper of a whiskey distillery. Yehuda Leib Alter. His only daughter married R' Shalom Fuchs.

R' Moshe Greif (Hersh) who was a moneylender to the local farmers. Educated his two sons in Cheder and taught them reading and writing. R' Yoseph Greif moved to his father-in-law's house in Kolomyja after his marriage, and became a major merchant of grain and flour. R' Efrayim moved to his father-in-law's house in Kosov after his marriage, and became a major merchant of grain and fruit.

R' Moshe Sheiner, owned a house in the center of town (formally R' Chaim Deitch's house), had commercial ties outside the country, dealing in tools, shovels, shears, steel, leather, wool and silk fabrics. Prayed in the Kosov synagogue. Educated his children in Cheders and general knowledge. His son Yoseph Halpern moved to Germany and became wealthy. A few years ago immigrated to Israel, purchased a large house and died in Tel-Aviv in 1946.

R' Moshe Toy, son of Yoseph owned a large house in the center of town, was a merchant and bartender. Prayed in the old synagogue. Educated his sons in Cheders and prepared them for real life. His brother-in-law, was R' Aaron Yosis, a scholar who owned a large house next to his. His son, Chaim Tzvi was for a while an excellent economist for a large property owner in the vicinity.

R' Moshe son of the elder R' Shmuel Yakov, both pious serious Jews, strict in their keeping of the Jewish Laws. Owned a large house in town next to the Polish School. Both were supervisors on agricultural farms. One summer day in 1881 clouds covered the sky, lightning and thunders broke out with heavy rains. Suddenly there was a tremendous noise as if the city had exploded. Then it was discovered that a lightning had struck R' Moshe's house, killing him there. Nobody else from his family, nor his elderly father was injured. His funeral was attended by most of the citizens.

R' Moshe Leib Mimlis moved to Zablotow from Brady on the border with Russia, with two government licenses: One for running a tobacco (Chewing and smoking) store, the only such license in the town and the surrounding villages (approximately thirty in district). The second was for selling lottery tickets for lotteries from Vienna, Berlin and Lwow. Although he was an elderly man he put in a full day's work every day, and was quick in his trade. Behaved as a Kosher Jew and spent each free minute learning Torah (usually the book "Akedat Yitzchak"). Following the tragic death of his son (See below) his fortune did not shine either. A few years later he was accused of embezzlement related to his licenses, was found guilty and sentenced for one year. Whether he was jailed or ran away he disappeared forever and was never seen again in Zablotow. We can pity this men, "Righteous man are scrutinized with a fine comb". The Anti-Semite judges considered a shadow as a mountain. Those who say that he erred are mistaken.

R' Shlomo Iche Mimlis came with his father and had two licenses of his own: One for operating a tavern and a pub in the train station (he was the first Jew to have this). The second was to be the sole purchasing and selling agent for the tobacco factory in town. It was the only factory in Bukovina and Eastern Galicia, it occupied a very large area and provided jobs for hundreds of workers. He wheeled the daily production out of the factory on his carriages even on Shabbos and Holidays. He was an educated assimilated Jew who did not care for Jewish Laws. He educated his children in general knowledge in colleges and public schools, a few of them strayed away to foreign cultures, and it is rumored that two left the Jewish faith. His financial condition was good, but that was not enough. His large house was next to the train station. One night, when he returned home with the daily earning (a small one that day) in his pockets, a young Polish man ambushed him, hit him on the head with a steel bar and killed him. The killer was caught, put on trial and sentenced to 20 years in jail. Most of the citizens accompanied him on his last journey.

R' Noach Altman had a large house with a store near the tobacco factory, where he provided the needs of the factory workers. He was a scholar and a Kosher Jew, who walked daily to the synagogue despite the long distance. R' Moshe Altman was educated in Torah, inherited his father's house and business.

R' Noach Gerstenhaber, son of R' Zalman Gerstenhaber, an honest merchant.

R' Nechemya Shfarber, an old scholar who continued his studies daily following his work.

R' Baruch Shfarber, the eldest son was a great scholar. Following his unsuccessful bid as a merchant he became a slaughterer, moved to the large village of Zabieh in the Karpathian Mountains where he served as a slaughterer, Rabbi and a Chazan. Like his father he was a follower of the Kosov Rabbi.

R' Feivel Shfarber, a scholar, a Kosov's Chasid, a Chazan with a pleasant voice. Following his unsuccessful bid as a merchant he became a slaughterer, too and was well respected in town.

R' David Mechel Shfarber was a scholar, bookkeeper and an accountant for various banks. Moved to Vienna during the war.

His son was considered an assistant of Dr. Sigmund Freud and author of a few articles in Psychoanalysis.

R' Baruch's second son was R' David Shfarber was very well versed in Jewish Law, and book researcher. Was elected as Rabbi in Preshov in Hungary. Visited Eretz Yisrael together with R' Chaim the Rabbi of Kosov in 1938, returned home longing to immigrate to Eretz Yisrael but was killed by the Nazis.

R' Shabtel Shfarber, was a scholar who possessed a great knowledge in the new Hebrew literature. For a while was a partner in a store with his brother-in-law R' Aaron Rubin. Later immigrated to the United States with his wife and five daughters where he made his livelihood as a Hebrew teacher.

R' Shaul Shfarber, a scholar, well respected with a large house in Demycze with a store and a tavern. Was a follower of the Kosov Rabbi. His granddaughter lives in Tel-Aviv, Israel.

R' Neta Zeinrich one of the elders of the town and very well respected, an unofficial teacher of the Community Committee, who sat and learned day and night. His modest wife sold flour and eggs from their house and had a comfortable income. R' Tzvi Aryeh (Hirsh Leib) Zeinrich, a scholar, a Viznica Chasid and a follower of R' Mendele from Demycze. Had a leather store where he made a comfortable income. Educated his sons in Torah and general knowledge. They made their way in various vocations. Berish Zeinrich and his family live in Tel-Aviv, Israel R' Netanel Freidman was R' Neta Zeinrich's son-in-law. He was a scholar, a Viznica Chasid. Had a large house next to the Great Synagogue where his wife sold flour and eggs. R' Tzvi (Hershel) Menchel, another son-in-law, a Chasidic scholar, merchant of forestry, leased an agricultural farm and kept moving around to live next to his business. Was unsuccessful and lost his money. R' Moshe was an important merchant but later lost everything and just wandered around.

R' Natan Heikel had a small house in the market square, sold pots and wooden pans in partnership with his brother R' Avraham. They lived like Yissachar and Zevulun whereby R' Avraham sat and learned Torah and R' Neta shared his profits with his brother. Educated their children in Torah. R' Avraham was sick and died in midlife.

R' Natan Keren, a scholar, R' Yakov Toy's son-in-law who had a large lumber warehouse and a large house. Excelled in his work in the community and Zionism. Motel Keren was educated in Torah and was a student in the Hebrew Academy in Stanislavov. The whole family was killed in 1942.

R' Natan Chavtan (Bander), was the only one who manufactured barrels required for eggs export. Was a simple and honest man.

R' Natan son of R' Shlomo Zalman Keish, born in Obertyn. Following his marriage to Freida, the daughter of R' Gershon Shfarber he moved to Zablotow, inherited his father-in-law's house and opened a leather goods store.

The Keish Family was a descendant of the tribe of Cohanim. It is rumored that they had a family tree dating back hundreds years ago, but it was burnt.

R' Natan sold mainly to the local Gentile farmers, his Jewish shoemakers customers adored him, trusted him and respected him. During the slow summers he spent more time learning Torah at home. He was hospitable especially during Shabbos and Holidays. He built the first synagogue for the Hager Dynasty in Kosov and served four generations of the Hager dynasty, financing it on his own. The glorious airy and roomy building stood on the way to Kolomyja and had room for 100 men and 100 women in the gallery. Most of the congregation respected him and on Shabbos came over to his house to have a drink of wine, whiskey, beer, eat cakes and "kugel" and sing Shabbos melodies.

His wife, Frieda had her own linen and salt store to finance her charitable donations. She died in 1886 at the age of approx. 70.

R' Natan was born approximately in 1815 and died in 1888 in Zablotow.

R' Aaron Keish, the eldest, was brought up in Torah and was God fearing Jew. He spent most of his time learning and others provided for his livelihood. Following his marriage to Esther Devora, the entire family was supported for a few years by his father-in-law, R' Yitzchak Isaac Meltzer. After R' Yitzchak's death she opened a grocery store in R' Natan's house providing them with a limited livelihood.

Their first son, R' Naftali was an honest man, a scholar who moved to a village in Bukovina with his wife Bracha where he made a living in various businesses. He returned to Zablotow to inherit his father's house and business. Educated his sons in Torah and general knowledge.

David Keish immigrated as a young boy to the United States where he became a successful businessman.

R' Tzvi (Hershel) Keish , a scholar, worked with his father and lived with his wife Tova at his father's home. He died very young after a short illness and his young wife followed too.

R' Natan Keish with his wife Esther inherited his father's large house at the market square, the family property, the agriculture business with Gentile land-renters and was very successful. The entire family was killed in 1942. His son Naftali and his daughter were educated in Torah.

The second son is myself.

The third, R' Gershon Keish moved to Peshtnizin with his wife Beila, where he was a successful lumber dealer and farmer. Educated his sons in Torah and general knowledge, they graduated from various schools and colleges and found their way to various vocations. He died in New York in 1937 at the age of approx. 70.

R' David a scholar who moved to the United States following his father's death in 1896. He established himself there and his entire families are living comfortably.

Gitel married R' Yehoshua Shrenzel from Skala on the Russian border. They lived for a few years at R' Aaron's house while he learned Torah with his friends R' Eliezer son of Ranche, R' Shmuel Tilinger and a few other boys (myself among them). He did not get paid for this saying: "Since I live for free so will you". After a few years he moved to Skala, inherited his father's house (a merchant of coral jewelry), educated his sons and daughters in Torah and general knowledge and they became famous in the area.

R' Yisrael Leib Freifelder, his son-in-law was famous for his good qualities, an enthusiastic Zionist, head of the community, deputy head of the citizens and an important politician involved in community work and Zionism. He visited our country and with his wife was on his way to settle in Eretz Yisrael when he was captured by the Nazis and killed.

Naomi (Zisel) and her husband R' Chaim Fidrer live in Tel-Aviv, Israel

Sara Ita married R' Binyamin Dov Gold who was a farmer in the area of the town, Otynya. Sara Ita excelled in charity and supported all who approached her for help. They had five boys.

R' Isaac and R' Chaim died during the first war.

R' Natan, R' Yehoshua and R' Zev immigrated to the United States and made a comfortable living.

Elka married R' Yitzchak Yehoshua Freilich who was a pious follower of the Kosov Rabbi (where he was born), a watch-maker and a jeweler living in the small house he purchased in Zablotow. Elka was a capable woman who assisted him in his business and donated generously to charity. During bad times she went house to house collecting money for the needy and for charities. Educated their sons and only daughter in Torah and the fear of God.

Mordechai Dov Keis, a pious Jew, a watchmaker, moved to Vienna during the first war with his wife and sons where he continued his jewelry business. Emigrated with his family to Eretz Yisrael in 1933 continuing in the same business. His son Mechel and his daughter Devora are living on an agricultural farm.

Tova, daughter of R' Yitzchak, married R' Yisrael Flintshtein was killed by the Nazis in Antwerp, Belgium. Tova and her sons emigrated to Eretz Yisrael where they entered Yeshiva.

R' Aaron David, a scholar studied in The Krakow Yeshiva, married the daughter of Rabbi R' Avraham Yehoshua Heshel from Kopashintsy and is now a diamond dealer.

Naftali studies in a Yeshiva in Bnei-Brak, Israel, is a diamond polisher and lives with his mother in Tel-Aviv.

Leah is working in a dental clinic in Jerusalem, Israel.

R' Natan, a bachelor, died of Typhus.

Tova, Daughter of R' Aaron, married R' Yisrael Shtedler son of R' Eliezer from Arelitz, was brought up on Torah and Chasidism. Following his marriage he and his brother R' Moshe leased large farms near Tulukow and in Sarata. Later they purchased a house and wood storage in Sadagura. The Nazis killed Tova.

Natan and Yehoshua immigrated to South America and became the rich owner of a furniture factory.

Chana and her husband David Shterenberg are living in Tel-Aviv, Israel.

Second son of R' Natan and Frieda Keish was R' David Keish who was a scholar and excelled as a musician and a Chazan in the synagogue of Kosov. Following his marriage to Devora, daughter of R' Yehoshua Shtein one of the wealthiest men of Bukovina he opened a successful wholesale and retail wool and silk store. They lost a son and a daughter at a young age. R' David died close to the age of 40 in 1880, while Devora who was a capable woman continued successfully to run his business. She donated most of the furnishing for the synagogue in Kosov as a memorial to her late husband R' David.

Ita married R' Zanvil Kahane son of R' Chaim in Sziget, Hungary. He was a scholar and an offspring of a dynasty of famous Rabbis.

The Kahane family from Hungary was famous for their charity and developing commercial dealings in forestry and lumber.

R' Chaim Kahane's father-in-law was Rabbi Yehuda Moderin, who authored a Halachic book and was a friend of the Rabbi Hillel Lichtenshtein. Both were students of the brilliant and pious Rabbi Moshe Soffer who authored the famous "Chatam Soffer". Rabbi Yehuda Moderin attended his grandson R' Zanvil's wedding in Zablotow. All the citizens honored him. He gave a long lecture during the groom's dinner, which was attended by many who listened to each and every word he said and talked about it for a long time afterwards.

R' Zanvil was his mother-in-law's a partner, as well as with others in various commercial ventures. He was a Kosov Chasid and well accepted in town. They had a daughter and a son named after his grandfather, Yehuda Moderin. However, man's success vanishes like a dream.

His wife died after a short illness, followed by her mother's Devora, death., and business faltered rapidly. One of his partners entangled him in some bad business dealings with a Gentile, resulting in a trial and he was found guilty costing him a fortune to get out of it. He was forced to close the store causing him further losses until he fled with his two children to the United States where he was unable to reestablish himself and died shortly after, followed by his daughter.

Yehuda Kahane his son established a small bank with some partners and made a living.

R' Feivel Rata, a Pious Jew. Chasid from the followers of the Viznica Rabbi and Rabbi Mendele from Demycze. Was familiar with Jewish Law, a knowledgeable mathematician and practiced old-fashioned bookkeeping. Most of his life he was a "trustee" of the town's Profanation, first under the authority of R' Efrayim Menashe Shicher. Following R' Efrayim's death he became the Trustee and the bookkeeper. His son R' Yakov Rata, a scholar, was a bartender most of his life at the Profanation facility. His son emigrated to Eretz Yisrael from Germany. He purchased a house in Sheinkin in Tel-Aviv where he lives with his family. Esther married R' Shimon Hirsh. After their divorce she remarried a hotel owner and restaurateur in Stanislavov.

R' Fishel Rata son of R' Tzvi, one of the important men in town inherited his father's house and business of government licenses to deal in tobacco and lotteries. He was active in community work and in Zionism. R' Yitzchak Isaac, his brother moved to Sniatin following his marriage He too possessed government licenses for Tobacco and lotteries, and excelled in Community work in town.

R' Pertz Sisman, a scholar who owned a large house and warehouse of lumber and roof shingles. Moved with his family to Vienna during the first war where he purchased a forest and a profitable lumber mill. Educated his sons to general knowledge. Died in Vienna. One of his sons was son-in-law of R' Tzvi Toy, son of Yacov Toy.

R' Tzvi son of Anshel Toy, a scholar who owned a house in the market square with a large linen and silk store. Mirche, his wife was a very capable woman who assisted her husband in his business, spent her time working for charities. Educated their children in Torah and general knowledge.

R' Tzvi Grager (a Family name or a nickname), a well respected man dealing in grain. R' Yoseph was his heir and inherited his business.

R' Kalman Shapira, R' Avraham Valtzer's son-in-law, a scholar, grain dealer usually in bulk export. Educated his sons in Torah and general knowledge. After a few years he left Zablotow and returned to Shatz, his birthplace, and to the forestry and lumber business. The family became well known for their honesty, trust and successful merchants. Moved with his family to Chernovtsy in his old age.

R' Ruven Shechetr (Golde Rose's), owned a house with a General Goods Store in Demycze. R' Zalman was educated in Cheder and knew Gemara. Following his marriage he moved to Storozinec where he had a partnership with his brother-in-law, R' Peretz, in kerosene and candles.

R' Shabtay Shteinberg, (Ethel's) owned a house. He and his wife were merchants of flour and grain. His sons, R' Eliezer, R' Avraham, R' Mechel and R' Tzvi were educated in Cheder and became grain dealers.

R' Shimon Drukman, born in Bukovina, had a house in Demycze, was a Chasid and an honest merchant. Educated his children to honesty and was well respected. One of his sons is in Israel.

R' Shlomo Zalman Dolberg, a respectable scholar, who had a large house at the market square. He was a leather dealer. His son, R' Yakov was a scholar. Immigrated to the United States. His second son, R' Mordechai was a watchmaker and jeweler and later immigrated to the United States as well. His sons-in-law were well versed in Torah. One of them, R' Eliezer Ranche's (Rosenthal) was well known in Zablotow.

R' Shmuel Grunworg, a respected scholar, an enthusiastic follower of the Rabbi from Kosov and walked daily form his house out of town to the synagogue. Was an important merchant of grain and properties.

R' Shlomo Shusheim, a scholar familiar with book research. Lectured regularly on Shabbos about Jewish Legends to a large crowd who loved and cherished him He educated a whole generation in the love of Jewish Ethics and morality and to Zionism. Later he moved to Stanislavov where he continued the same activities and joined the Mizrachi Organization. Educated his children in Torah and general knowledge. One of his sons is A.L. Shusheim, a well-known author and publisher who, for a while, published a Yiddish paper in Stanislavov and became famous for laying the foundations for the "Poale Zion" movement. Now he is one of the editors of "the working Eretz Yisrael" paper in Argentina.

R' Shmuel Landau, a scholar. His wife, Krinche, was the daughter of the rich Chasid R' Itche Bartler from Kolomyja. In Zablotow he, with some partners leased the Profanation and was the bookkeeper and accountant. He and his wife were active in charities. He prayed at the Kosov synagogue. Following the death of R' Shmuel, at a young age, his wife remarried to R' Shnaryahu Meltzer who owned some properties. One of her grandsons arrived in Israel after going through the Holocaust in Europe and Cyprus.

R' Shimon Lindbaum, a scholar who owned a leather and shoe store, but later moved to Stanislavov to become a merchant. After the First World War his widow, his sons and his daughter returned to Zablotow to continue the leather business.

R' Shimon Altman was well versed in the words of our sages, followed the honest route. Owned a house not far from the tobacco factory where he made his living selling to the workers.

R' Shlomo Mechel Rosenshtock, a Chasid well versed in Jewish legends and Chasidic tales. Owned a house next to his brother-in-law R' Simcha Shochet who supported him. Was sick and died at a young age. Educated his children R' Mordechai Yisrael and R' David in Torah and the fear of God.

R' Shlomo Manches, was well versed in our righteous stories and an assistant to God in matchmaking. (was always in attendance when R' Aaron Keish lectured on Shabbos)

R' Shmaryahu Salpeter son of R' Shlomo the Gabay, was a Zionist scholar who knew how to sing.

R' Shaul Toyber was a scholar and fearful of God. Owned a small house on an alleyway and sold miscellaneous goods with his father, R' Aaron Yonah (brother of Rabbi Zalman Toyber) who was one of ten learned men of the synagogue of Kosov, first to enter and last to leave. Together with most of the Chasidim of Kosov he admired the Rabbis R' Yankele and his son R' Mendele.

R' Shmuel Toy was a respected man in town who daily learned a page of Gemara at the old synagogue where he prayed every day. Owned a white brick house and a general store where he traded with the farmers. Was a Kosher Jew keeping simple Jewish laws as well as more difficult ones. In his old age he emigrated with his wife Beila to Eretz Yisrael where they perished.

R' Davis Toy was a lumber merchant. Had a large house in the Market Square.

R' Tzvi Toy was a scholar who married a scholarly lady from Stanislavov. His business was banking. His wife, Fayke, excelled in her good qualities. Following his death she returned to her family in Stanislavov where she dedicated her life mainly to social issues and became well known for her good deeds. Their son David lives in Hertzlya, Israel.

Their son-in-law was R' Yechiel Mechel Ernst from a good family in Kosov who was a scholar, a Chasid and brought his sons up in Torah and general knowledge. Inherited his father-in-law's house and business

R' Anshel Ernest was an great scholar, R' David Klir's son-in-law who was a well-known merchant and an enthusiastic Chasid of the Rabbi of Otynya. Was a Gemara teacher for a while then immigrated to the United States. Later returned to Zablotow and died there. Educated his children in Torah and general knowledge.

Fishel is a Medical Doctor learned in New York.

R' Shmuel Toy son of Yoseph was a scholar who owned a house on the border between Demycze and Zablotow. Was considered among the richest and most respected men in town whose main business was agricultural product trading with the biggest property owners. On occasion he also acted as a broker in land deals. His son R' Moshe Hersh was a scholar who worked with his father. Later he left town and moved to Sziget to his father-in-law's house and lumber business. Natan was educated in general knowledge, moved to Vienna where he became a commercial trader. Wilhelm (Velvel) was educated in general knowledge, became a fire and life insurance agent. His sons-in-law R' Shmuel, R' Uri, and R' Moshe Greif were honest merchants. The forth son-in-law, R' Avraham Shrapshtein was the honest owner of a sawmill in Bukovina.

R' Shlomo Eizenberg a scholar married Gitel the daughter of R' Tzvi Rubin. His business was a grocery and general goods store serving the farmers. His son R' Abba and the other children were educated in Torah and business. His son-in-law R' Alexander Toy, son of Yakov Yoseph, was a Gabay at the Kosov synagogue. His son R' Tzvi Toy-Freid the first Holocaust survivor who reached our country, now lives in France.

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