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Rzeszow Yizkor Book overview

An overview of the Hebrew section of the Rzeszow Yizkor book.

Translated by Jerrold Landau

Notes from the translator

This overview translation of the Hebrew section of the Rzeszow Yizkor book contains the following features:

  1. Headings and subheadings of all sections.
  2. Photo captions only where the Hebrew caption adds detail. In the Hebrew section of the book, the photo captions are already translated for the most part, so where the translation is direct, it will not be noted in this overview. However, often the Hebrew translation adds lists of names and other such information. In such cases, the caption is translated.
  3. A cross reference into the English section for articles that appear both in the Hebrew and English section. A cross reference into the Yiddish section for articles that appear both in the Hebrew and Yiddish section. There may be omissions in either cross reference.
  4. When I judged that an item in the English version of the Hebrew table of contents could have been worded better, I took the liberty of using my own version in this overview.
  5. Map legends.
Page numbers are indicated in square brackets[], and are the only item on a line. Translator’s footnotes are indicated by square brackets [] in the text. My own notes inserted in the translation are indicated by curly brackets{}.

The city is known as Rzeszow in Polish. In Jewish circles it is often known as Reisha or Zhezhev. I have generally used the name Rzeszow in this translation.

There was no consistency of the English versions of names in this book. The English versions of names often appear in different forms in different parts of the book. For example, the table of contents may have the name spelled differently than it is spelled in a photo caption of the same article. I used my best judgement, but any corrections would be appreciated.

TABLE OF CONTENTS - First Section – Hebrew
{A complete translation of the Hebrew table of contents appears in the English section.}

Second Section – Yiddish
{A complete translation of the Yiddish table of contents appears in the English section.}

List of Photographs
{footnote at bottom of column reads "documents, certificates and title pages of books do not appear in this list".}

Aleph. History of the Jews of Rzeszow
Drawing of the city in 1762 23
Rzeszow in 1856 21
The city square in 1895 24
Lubomirski's castle 28
Business on market day 33
Jewish peddlers on Mateyko St. 34
In the synagogue in 1917 44
A section of the cemetery 45
Remnants of graves from the old cemetery 46
The chicken market 51
Fruit and vegetable stands 52
Mickiewicz Street 54
Business on market day 57
Editorial board of Volkszeitung newspaper 60
Hashachar convention, 1908 62
Dr. Henry Yitzchak Wachtel 66
The interior of the old synagogue 67
Tzvi Simcha Leder 68
Rzeszow in 1890 70
Beit. Faith and Tradition in Rzeszow
Abba Apfelbaum 71
Rabbi Moshe Kamelhar 72
The holy ark of the old synagogue 76
Rabbi Aaron Lewin 82
The gravestone of Rabbi Nathan Lewin 84
Rabbi Dr. Yitzchak Lewin 86
Rabbi Dr. Joshua Thon and Rabbi Aaron Lewin 87
"Rabbi Aaron Lewin, Reb Eliezer Lev" 89
The family of Rabbi Aaron Lewin 90
Rabbi Dr. Yechezkel Lewin 91
The synagogue in the 17th century 94
Rabbi Yekutiel Aryeh Kamelhar 95
Rabbi Issachar Berish Halpern 100
The Yeshiva of Rabbi Yosef Reich 102
On the route to the synagogue 106
Rabbi Avraham Chaim Horowitz of Plantsh 114
The Rabbi Reb Tzvi Eliemelech 116
M. Sh. Geshuri 118
Meir Diener 123
Dov Menachem Konwisser 123
Cantor D. M. Konwisser and his choir 124
A drawing of the synagogues of Rzeszow 126
The plan of the synagogue 126
The interior of the old synagogue 127
The old synagogue 127
Gimel. In the Haskala Press
The government school for girls 129
Grade 4 in the school in 1890 130
Daled. Before and Between the World Wars
Members of "Hashachar" in 1922 139
Leon Weisenfeld 140
The teacher "Fink"" and her students 142
A group of general Zionists 143
The committee of "Histadrut Hatzionit" in 1932 144
The executive of "Poale Zion" 1913 148
The committee of the League of Workers for Eretz Yisrael 149
Bernard Fish 150
Hashachar in 1927 151
Hechalutz in Rzeszow 152
David the son of Avraham Tuchfeld 153
A group of "Hanoar Hatzioni" in 1929 154
Workers of "Bnei Zion" 155
The charter members of "Akiva" 156
Naftali Hakhel 157
Young Mizrachi in 1922 159
Mizrachi activists in 1932 162
Young Mizrachi in 1922 163
The executive of "Agudath Yisrael" youth 164
Avraham Mussinger 165
The Revisionist movement in 1928 166
Revisionist conference in Rzeszow 167
Zeev Jabotinski in Rzeszow 168
Dr. Joshua Alexander Rosner 169
Pepa Lisak Tuchfeld 170
Maccabia University students organization, 1932 171
Kibbutznik Meir Yaari 172
Hashomer Hatzair in 1926 173
Hashomer Hatzair in 1928 174
A group of older youth 1929 175
Meeting on the banks of the Wislok River, 1929 176
Lotke Shlisselberg (Kleid) 178
Yehoshua Strassberg 181
Hanoar Hatzioni 181
A group of "Hanoar Hatzioni" in 1930 182
Klara Ma'ayan (Munzberg) 183
Hanoar Hatzioni with the parents' committee 184
A group of "Hanoar Hatzioni" 185
Teachers and students at the Hebrew Gymnasia (High School) 186
A class with their teacher at the Hebrew school 187
A class with their teachers at the Hebrew Gymnasia 187
A procession of students at the Hebrew school 187
Teachers and students at the Hebrew school, 1922 188
Bar Kochba, 1932 189
Bar Kochba 190
Bar Kochba 191
A group of boxers in 1935 192
Esther Weisenfeld 193
Children of the orphanage on a summer holiday 194
Beit Haam 195
Chalutzim digging the foundations of Beit Haam 196
The Jewish Hospital of Rzeszow 197
Slowczki St. 198
Rzeszow 200
He. Memories and Experiences
Two pumps in the Potters' Street 203
Baldachowka Street 204
Berik Joselewicz Street 207
Young Zion (Yardenia) in 1912 210
Hashomer Hatzair in 1916 211
Yad Charutzim workers' union 214
Children of the orphanage 215
Zionists during the First World War 219
The leadership of "Hashomer Hatzair" in 1918 221
Jewish officers on Passover leave, 1916 223
Teacher M. Davidson with the first students of the Hebrew school 225
Ben Zion Fett 229
A meeting of Rzeszow emigres in Tel Aviv 231
Moshe Ungerfeld 232
Irving Low 234
The railway station 236
A memorial gathering in 1965 239
The committee of "Ivria" in 1925 240
Nachum Sternheim 241
The city square and town hall 242
Vav. Maskilim and Writers
Moshe David Geshwind 243
Dr. Ovadia Barshal 246
Moshe Alter 248
Chaim Wald 249
Moshe Weisenfeld 252
Leon and Esther Weisenfeld 253
A performance of "Tzeristene Neshomes" (Sad Souls) in 1919 255
Berish Weinstein 256
Simcha Seiden 261
Nachum Sternheim and his wife 262
Zayin. Characters and Personalities
Yaakov Alter 264
Professor Meir Balaban and his wife Gisela (nee Alter) 264
A meeting in Tel Aviv in 1954 266
Dr. Felix Hoffman 267
Dr. Aaron (Arthur) Wang 269
Asher Silver 269
Levi Chaim 270
Dr. Tzvi Kanarek 270
Naftali Tuchfeld 271
Anna Kahane 272
Irving Low 273
Shlomo Munzberg 274
Rabbi Dr. Tzvi Koretz 275
Yaakov Elimelech Knecht 276
Malka Knecht 276
Yitzchak Oestreicher 278
At a party in honor of Tzvi Simcha Leder 279
Reuven Eckstein 280
Yitzchak son of Mordechai Mintz 281
Moshe David Ashriel 284
Yehoshua Ashriel 284
Joscha Shapira, Baruch Wachspress, Avraham Tuchfeld 285
Yisrael Kamelhar 289
A drawing by Menachem Ron 291
Dr. Asher Alexander Heller 295
Chet. The Holocaust
Slaughter in the Forests of Glogow 298
A group of those deported from Rzeszow on their final way 299
Entrance to the mass grave 300
Grete Heller 301
Mala Krischer Munzberg 307
The entrance to the ghetto 308
The slaughter of the Jews in the forests of Glogow 309
The communal grave in the forests of Glogow 310
Lotka Goldberg 312
Certificate of transfer to forced labor 313
In front of mass grave 314
People who were deported from the Rzeszow ghetto 315
The house of Eliezer Lev, which housed the last remnants of Rzeszow Jews 318
The entrance to the bunker at the side of Shiper's house 319
Death march 321
The murderers, their assistants and their victims in the forests of Glogow  324
In the Hall of Holocaust Remembrance, to the right is Klara Ma'ayan 325
Dr. Michael Schneeweiss 326
The old cemetery - concentration place for deportation 328
Dina Strassberg (Einhorn) 335
Ita, Chava and Chana Eckstein 336
Gola Mira 340
Sanctification of G-d's name - by the artist Menachem Ron 341
Franciszek Kotula 342
The destroyed synagogue 345
At prayer in the Rzeszow ghetto 346
Remembrance plaque for those killed in the forests of Glogow 349
Jan Forczek 350
Forced labor 351
Map of Rzeszow 353-360
Manes Fromer 368
Avraham Altman 369
Avraham Teitelbaum 370
Mordechai the son of Elchanan Lifschutz 371
Dedication of a Torah scroll in the synagogue 372
Yitzchak Oestreicher, Rachel Alter, Irving Low 373
Unveiling of a memorial plaque in the Hall of Remembrance 374
Party at the home of Dr. Moshe Yaari 374
PART 2 {Yiddish section}
Aleph. On the History of the Jews in Rzeszow
Front of the city's synagogue 375
Dr. Avraham Chomet 377
The old town hall 389
At the 50th anniversary of the old age home 395
Michael Berman 400
A section of Roizen St. 401
The courthouse building 409
Members of "Bnei Tzion" organization 411
Appointment of president 413
Bnei Tzion organization 415
Ochranka children's home 417
Beit Lechem public kitchen 419
Rzeszow town hall with a sign: Judenrein 422
A section of the new cemetery (1939) 423
Gravestones in the destroyed cemetery 425
Beit. Before and Between the Two World Wars
Interior of the old synagogue 427
Tzvi Simcha Leder 428
At a fair in Rzeszow 430
Interior of the synagogue with the Bima [1] 431
Jews in the marketplace 433
Association of dental technicians 437
Rabbis from Rzeszow in America 440
Leon Weisenfeld 449
Moshe Weisenfeld 451
Inhabitants of the marketplace 463
Lwowska Street 465
Poale Zion members 471
Dramatic group of the "Children's Home" 473
Administration of the "Children's Home" 474
Actors of the "Stage" drama club 475
The tailor "Shulechel" 478
Dr. Aaron Rosenbaum 481
The Rzeszow Yeshiva of Maller, Naftali Hakhel 485
Gimel. Figures
Directors of Rzeszow Organization in Israel 492
Directors and children of the "Orphanage" 495
Moshe Weisenfeld 496
The forest of the martyrs, Rzeszow grove 499
President Yitzchak Ben Tzvi, Irving Low [2] 501
American Vice President Humphrey, I. Low 502
Reception in honor of I. Low 503
Rabbi Yaakov Fink 504
Berish Weinstein 505
Daled. The Destruction
Communal grave in the forest of Glogow 525
Kazimiersz Street 537
Directors of Rzeszow Club of America 542
Rseszow Landsmanschaft of Montreal, Canada 543
The Wolishe synagogue before the destruction 544
The destroyed East section of the synagogue 544
Pages of remembrance and perpetuation 545-620

A Note by the Publication Committee
{English translation is on page 7 of English section.}

Editor's Forward
{English translation is on pages 8-10 of English section.}

EICHA [3] by Shlomo Tal

"Oh that my head would be full of water
and my eyes a wellspring of tears,
I would weep day and night
Over the victims of my people"
(Jeremiah 8, 23)
{An poetic elegy commemorating the destruction of Rzeszow}

Rzeszow by Berish Weinstein
{memories of Rzeszow, written in Yiddish}

Map of Rzeszow In the heart of eastern Galicia
{A map of the area of Rzeszow, from Tarnow in the west to Przemysl and Sambor in the East, from Tarnobrzeg in the north to Dulka, Zagorz, and Lesko in the south. All captions are in English and Hebrew. The English version gives the Polish spelling of the names.}

I. History of the Jews of Rzeszow by Dr. Nathan Michael Gelber
{An extensive history of the city by the eminent Galician historian, Gelber.}
1. Development of the Town

2. The Community until 1772

3. Occupations and Livelihood of the Jews

4. The Community

5. The Rabbis of the City
{This is the only chapter of the Gelber section that is translated in the English section. The translation appears on pages 35-37 of the English.}

6. The Cemetery

7. The Period of Austrian Rule, from 1772-1848
{photograph page 54} Northern section of Mickiewicz Street - Photo by A. Kacyzna

8. Rzeszow 1849-1919
{photograph page 62} Convention of yeshiva Student Organization "Hashachar", Rzeszow, Intermediate days of Passover 5668 (1908).

9. Rzeszow 1919-1939

Goldsmiths in Rzeszow by Dr. Moshe Yaari-Wald
{footnote at bottom of page reads - this section was transcribed from the story of F. Kotula}

Pages of History by Dr. Henry Wachtel
{There is a 20 page historical treatise by Dr. Wachtel in the English section, pages 13-34. This short 2 page Hebrew article apparently consists of selections from the English treatise.}

Jewish Rzeszow by Tzvi Simcha Leder
{There is an English article by Herman Leder on pages 38-41. It does not appear to be a direct translation, but it covers much of the same material as this Hebrew article. There is a much longer article by Leder in the Yiddish section pages 428-448.}

II. Faith and Tradition in Rzeszow The Rabbis of Rzeszow by Abba Apfelbaum

The City and its Rabbis by Rabbi Moshe Kamelhar of Jerusalem 1. The Early Community

2. The Rabbis of the Community

3. The Rabbi Gaon Reb Shmuel Halevi and his sons

4. The Gaon Reb Aryeh Leib, son-in-law of the "Chacham Tzvi", and his sons

The Gaon Yaakov Yolles, author of "Melo Haroim" Bibliography


{The title page of the Book "Iyun Yaakov"}

My Grandfather, Rabbi Nathan Lewin by Rabbi Dr. Yitzchak Lewin of New York

Character Traits of Rabbi Nathan Lewin by Shlomo Tal of Jerusalem

The Rabbi Reb Aaron Lewin by Rabbi Dr. Yitzchak Lewin of New York
{The Head of the Rabbinic court of Rzeszow, and a representative of the Polish Sejm [4])

The First Election to the Sejm

"Agudas Yisrael" The Rabbinate of Rzeszow

Election to the Sejm in Warsaw in the Year 5691 (1931) During the Holocaust

My Father, Rabbi Dr. Yechezkel Lewin by Yitzchak (Kurt) Lewin of New York

Rabbi Nathan Lewin and his Court by Rabbi Moshe Kamelhar

My Father, Rabbi Yekutiel Aryeh Kamelhar by Rabbi Moshe Kamelhar

Rabbi Nachum Reuven Felsker by Rabbi Issachar Berish Halpern of New York Rabbi Berish Steinberg by Rabbi Moshe Halevi Steinberg of Kiryat Yam

Rabbi Yosef Reich by Shlomo Tal

Hassidism in Rzeszow
Rzeszow in Hassidic Circles by M. Sh. Geshuri
1. Early Hassidism in Galicia and Rzeszow

2. Hassidic Prayer Houses

3. Rzeszow in the Controversy between Tzanz and Sadigora [5]
I. The Background of the Controversy

II. Rzeszow Joins the Controversy

III. Rabbinic Questions and Responsa between Tzanz and its Rabbis
{Letters from the leader of the Tzanzer Hassidim to the Rabbinic leaders of Rzeszow}

4. Hassidic Tzadikim in Rzeszow and the Vicinity [6]
I. Rabbi Eliezer Weisblum (Rabbi Eliezer Reisher)
{This page includes a copy of the title pages of "Mishe Lamelech" by Rabbi Eliezer Reisher, and notes that the introduction is by Issachar Berish Halpern.}

II. Rabbi Yehuda Ungar, the Rabbi of Sokolow

III. Rabbi Avraham Chaim Horowitz, the Rabbi of Plantch
IV. Rabbi Tzvi Eliemelech Shapira, the Tzadik of Bluzhov

Hassidic Courts by Rabbi Moshe Kamelhar

The Rabbi of Bluzhov and his Dynasty by Shlomo Tal

Yeshivot in Rzeszow by M. Sh. Geshuri of Jerusalem [7]

Synagogue Sextons (Shamashim) by Rabbi Moshe Kamelhar

Synagogue Music and Cantors in Rzeszow by M. Sh. Geshuri


[122] [123] [124]
Prayer Leaders for the High Holydays
{photo on bottom of page 124} Cantor Dov Menachem Konwisser and his choir (July 1931). First Row from right: Shechter, Herzl the son of the cantor Second row from right: Moshe Spergel, the Cantor, Sturm, Chaim Grinfeld. Third Row: -- -- -- Kolar Kfar Has, --, Eckstein

Synagogue in Rzeszow by Eng. David Davidovitch of Tel Aviv
{drawing on bottom of page 125} A synagogue, the womens' auxiliary, the house of study, and a small synagogue in Rzeszow according the drawing of George Lukomski (The Jewish Museum of New York).

{synagogue plans in right column} Grota (a typical synagogue plan in Germany, Bohemia, and Poland). At top, the plan of the old synagogue. At bottom, the plan and cross section of the new synagogue.

C. In the Haskala Press [8]
{photo page 129} The Public Girls school on Grunwald St.

{photo page 130} Teacher Drerzynski and the grade four class of the public school in 1890.

D. Before and Between the Two World Wars Rzeszow in the Past by Leon Weisenfeld of Cleveland, U.S.A.
{There is a lengthy essay in the English section "The One Time Reisha" by Leon Weisenfeld (pages 42-56). This Hebrew article is much shorter, and appears to be a summary of the English. The Yiddish section has the long version, pages 449-465.}

{newspaper heading bottom of page 133} Yiddishe Folks Tzeitung (Yiddish People's Newspaper)

From Regime to Regime by Dr. Moshe Yaari-Wald
{The article "During the Interregnum" on pages 57-59 of the English section is a translation of this article.}
{newspaper bottom of page 135} Two front pages of Komunikat, Jewish newspaper of Rzeszow, one page in Yiddish, and one in Polish.

The Chaos of 1918 by Rabbi Moshe Kamelhar The Pogrom in Rzeszow by Naftali Hakhel

The Sejm (Parliament) Committee, and the Ministers from Rzeszow by Dr. Yechezkel Lewin
{photo bottom of page 139} Members of "Hashachar" in 1922, in the center is Rabbi Dr. Yechezkel Lewin

The Morgenthau commission in Central Galicia by Yosef Storch

Organizations and Factions "Hashachar" in Rzeszow by Dr. N. M. Gelber

"Shulamit" by Dvora Avramovitz
{photo on page 142} Teacher Fink of "Shulamit". First row from right: Freda Mangel, Rozka Silber, Hela Tantz, Chaya Thurm. Second row from right: Balka Laufban, Ada Kirkes. Third row from right: Bot, Sara Kurtzman, Chava Karp, Teacher Fink, Giza Shifer, Alster, Esther Amkraut.

General Zionists in Rzeszow by Dr. Moshe Yaari-Wald
{photo page 143} From right, Yaakov Alter, Dr. Tzvi Kanarek, Dr. Tzvi Koretz, Sitting from right: Pesia Ingber, Rachel Alter, Marila Eisenberg.

by Shlomo Alweis
{photo page 144} The local committee of the "Histadrut Hatzionit" in 1932. First row sitting from right: Zigelbaum, P. Hirshhoren, A. Blasbalg. Second row sitting from right: Dr. A. Wang, K. Koretz, Dr. P. Hoffman, A. Kahane, Dr. Shildkraut. Third row standing from right: A. Rinda, Moshe Reiber, Licht, Simcha Seiden, Dr. H. Kanarek, Yaakov Alter, A. Rosner-Keller, A. Duker, --, Wachspress. Fourth row standing from right: Dornfest, Bucholtz, M. Wilkenfeld, Professor Weiss, Moshe Reich, Hershtal.

The First of Poale Zion
{photo bottom of 145} The executive committee of Poale Zion in Rzeszow (1922). Sitting: third from right Chairman Bernard Fish, Fourth, Esther Weisenfeld, vice Chairman.

History of Poale Zion in Rzeszow by Michael Walzer-Fass of Hod Hasharon (Hadar Ramataim)
{This article appears in Yiddish on pages 466-471 of the Yiddish section.}
{photo page 148} Executive Committee of Poale Zion (1913) Standing from right: Y. Grinbaum, Jachemowitz, Tz. Fett, Y. Berger, M. Harning, Y. Nussbaum, D. Shapira. Sitting from right: Nachum Sternheim, A. Hirshhoren, M. Duker, B. Fish, Ch. Graber, From right: B. Soroka, Z. Haar.
{photo page 149} Active members of the League for Eretz Yisrael in 1932. First row: Ozech, Sarah Thurm, Bernard Fish, Eva Kirsch (Wang), Moshe Goldbender. Second row: Alec Hershlag, Giza Klarnet, Shechter.

"Hashachar" "Haivria" and "Hechalutz" by Alter Tishbi (Sitz) "Haivria"
{photo page 151} Members of Hashachar in 1927. First row sitting from right: Mordechai Hilinger, Karpf , --. Second row sitting from right: Chaim Kanon, Trink, Kamelhar, Salpeter, Mordechai Eisen,. Third row standing, from right: Leibish Beck, Engelberg, Friedman, Landman, Alter Sitz (Tishbi)


Organizations and Societies in Rzeszow by David son of Avraham Tuchfeld


{photo page 154} A group of "Hanoar Hatzioni" 1929. Bottom from right: Zeev Sandhaus, Mendel Knecht, Storch. Upper row from right: David Tuchfeld, Tuchfeld, Nathan Bodner, Yitzchak Batist.


{photo page 155} Active members of "Benei Zion" (1929). Sitting from right: Leib Gross, Finka Fromer, Moshe Soroka, Yitzchak Weiss, Moshe Reiber, Hela Hauser, Avraham Blasbalg. Standing from right: Noach Firer, Naftali Zigelbaum, Leib Kalter, Esther Amkraut, Salek Zucker, Nachum Rozenwasser, Yaakov Friedman.

Religious Parties by Naftali Hakhel of Tel Aviv
{The photo is of Irving Low by mistake. The errata at the end of the book points out that the photo should have been of Naftali Hakhel, and provides a photo of Naftali Hakhel.} Political Life in the 1920s The Zionist Organization "Mizrachi" organization and "Young Mizrachi"

Agudas Yisrael and Agudas Yisrael Youth. Founding of the Mizrachi by Rabbi Moshe Kamelhar

{photo page 159} "Young Mizrachi" (1922). Sitting first row from right: Hersh Babad, Ginsberg, Naftali Tuchfeld, Kalman Hertz, Chaim Moses, Hersh Moshe Eisen, Shimon Dim, Yoel Babad, Yechezkel Lewin, Ashkenazi. Second row from right: Margalit, Chaim, Apfen, Yisrael Eder, Yisrael Karp, Yechezkel Kirsch, Reich, L. Rabhon, Wunder, Buch, --, Moshe Mantel, Moshe Miller, Moshe Resnick, Itzi Silber.

On the History of "Mizrachi" in Rzeszow by M. S. Geshuri

[161] [162]
{photo page 162} Active members of "Hamizrachi" (1932). Standing from Right. Plotzer, Belzberg, Weinman, Silber, Plotzer, Rosenbaum, Berglas. Sitting from right: Zigelbaum, Adler, Tuchfeld, Hertz, Baruch Shlissel, Sternschuss, Abend. Lower row, from right: Berger, Fluger, Yosef Lev. [164]
"Agudas Yisrael" by Shlomo Tal
{top photo page 164} The executive of "Agudas Yisrael' Youth. From Right: Yechezkel Rosenbaum, Shlomo Tal (Teitelbaum), Shmuel Resnick, Moshe Eckstein.

The Revisionist Movement (its beginning and development) by Avraham Mussinger of Tel Aviv

{photo page 166} Original members of the Revisionist Movement in Rzeszow in 1928. Sitting from right: Wallach, Cohen, Chaim Spitz, Avraham Mussinger, Munek Frei. Standing from right: --, Shmuel Rosner, M. Weinman, Eliezer Friedman, --, Moshe Singer.

The Betar Chapter Moves to its New Location in Bladochovka (1932)
Expansion of the Activities of the Revisionist Zionist Confederation in Rzeszow
The Chapter's Band
Physical Education and Military Hachshara

Visits of Leaders of the Revisionist Movement to Rzeszow

Professional Hachshara and the Betar Hachshara Group
Members of Betar and the Revisionist Zionists Make Aliya
Betar and the Irgun Tzvai Leumi [10]

{photo page 168} Zeev Jabotinski in Rzeszow. Sitting from the left: Dr. Einfeld, Dr. Shildkraut, Zeev Jabotinski, Eliahu Vant, Simcha Seiden, Yafa Eichenstein, Tova Eichenstein.

Organization of Jewish Academics in Rzeszow: by the Lawyer Yehoshua Alexander Rosner (Keller) of Tel Aviv

Youth in Rzeszow in the 1930s by Pepa Wachspress-Lisak Tuchfeld of Tel Aviv.
{photo page 171} University Students' "Maccabia" Organization (1932). Sitting from right: Dr. Yaari, Yehoshua Rosner Keller, Moshe Wachspress, Pepa Tuchfeld, Dr. Hoffman, Rinda. Standing in second row, from right: Yitzchak Weiss, Tzila Adler, Wang, Bella Horowitz,, Wachspress, Golinger, Licht, Shiper, David Pflanzer, David Tuchfeld, Henig, Dornfest, Mila Grauer, Hirshhoren. Standing third row from right: Nadel, David Tuchfeld, Yaakov Presser, Nissan Bodner, Tzvi Wichselbaum, Bronek Prukotzimer, Shlomo Bot, Yoash Solles, Ch. Silberman.

The Birth of "Hashomer Hatzair" by Meir Yaari of Tel Aviv

"Hashomer Hatzair" in Rzeszow from 1924 by Avraham Mussinger
{photo page 174} "Hashomer Hatzair" group in 1928. Sitting from right: Yitzchak Shifman, Freda Berger, --, --, Tzvi Wichselbaum. Second row from right: Berta Gotlieb, -, Shimon Bilevi, Shlifka, --, --, Tzila Kurtzman. Standing from right: --, --, Yosef Wachspress, Mundek Auerbach, Menachem Wang.

The "Hashomer Hatzair" Chapter in Rzeszow which Shaped me by Sara Altman of Nir David

"Hashomer Hatzair" Members Make Aliya by Eva Kirsch of Ein Hamifratz
Rseszow Emigres in "Hashomer Hatzair" Kibbutzim by Tuvia Yaari

In Memory of the "Hechalutz" Chapter by Lotka Kleid (Shlisselberg)of Tel Aviv

Years of Mishap by Marcus Dornfest

Jewish Members of the Communist Party in Rzeszow by Dr. Moshe Yaari

The "Noar Tzioni" by Yehoshua Strassberg of Kibbutz Tel Yitzchak

{photo page 182} Hanoar Hatzioni group in 1930. From right: Shlomo Wang, Yehoshua Strassberg, Lonek Grauer, Vavek Sandhaus, Yehuda Hershlag, Max Lindman, Moniek Batist.

Between the Years 1924-1939 by Klara Ma'ayan (Munzberg) of Tel Aviv
{photo bottom of page 183} "Hanoar Hatzioni" Group. Sitting from right, first row: Sonia Tenenbaum Martzel Blank, Klara Munzberg (Ma'ayan), Malka Plasenfeld, Mala Alter (Reich), Max Grauer,. Sitting from right: Esther Aubestfeld, Henka Alter, Nashka Zucker (Dringel), Chaika Thurm (Solles), Hela Rosenbaum, Mendek Stranger, Sonia Berger (Rabinovitch), Chava Fenig, Ala Bodner. Sitting third row: Hinda Miller, Lonek Grauer (Shachar) Loshka Zucker, L. Aubestfeld, Bari. Sitting fourth row from right: Pinek Sternschuss, Benek Harel, Suker Breit, Henek Knecht, Fortreflich, Mala Taubenfeld, Friedrich.

{photo page 184} "Hanoar Hatzioni" with Parents' Committee: Gav, Nadel, Sigmund Grauer, Shlomo Munzberg, Emir.

The Hebrew School by Professor Yitzchak Weiss of Jerusalem

Once There Was a School by Sabina Schneeweiss of Ramat Gan
{a three stanza poem}

The Nucleus of the Hebrew School by Dr. Mauricy Ungar
{photo page 188} The Strurmlaufer sisters, who are the teachers, with their students in the Hebrew School in 1922.

Sport in Rzeszow by the Lawyer Alexander Yehoshua Rosner Keller of Tel Aviv
{photo page 189} "Bar Kochva" in 1932. Standing from right: M. Fett, M. Shtechler, Einhorn, M. Bodner, Yehoshua Alexander Keller Rosner, Z. Sandhaus, Chairman Dr. Shapira, Hirsch, M. Froilich, Schwartz, A. Ungar, Sh. Hirsch, Freidrich, Fergeslich,. Kneeling: Sh. Graber, Ch. Sheler.

Bar-Kochba Football Team. First row, standing from right: P. Solles, Wachtel, M. Green, Hirsch, P. Wintergreen, Yehoshua Rosner Keller, V. Sandhaus, M. Loeb, N. Sak, Rinda, Sh. Hirsch, Eisenfeld. Second Row: N. Plotzer (a lawyer in Israel), Lichtblau, M. Schwartz, Fergeslich, Nagar. Sitting: Ch. Kramer, Sh. Graber, Ch. Sheler.

The "Bar Kochba" Sport Association" by Avraham Ungar of Givat Brand
{This article appears in Yiddish on page 475 of the Yiddish section.}

"Bar-Kochba" Boxers in 1935. Standing from left: Weinbach (chairman), Karp (coach), Kneeling from left: the son of Weinbach. W. Grauer, -- , Eckstein, D. Stechler, Kalb, M. Grauer, D. Brost, Lifschutz.
The Society for the Preservation of Health by Dr. Mauricy Ungar

Workers' Childrens' House in Rzeszow by Louis Estherman of U. S. A.

{photo page 194} Orphanage Children on Summer Holiday: In the upper right is Esther Weisenfeld, the wife of Dr. Elsner.

The "Beit Haam" and Hospital in Rzeszow by Michael Walzer Fass of Hod Hasharon

M. Goldberg's Printing Press by Lotka Goldberg of Tel Aviv
{photo page 198} On the right is Slowczki Street, in the center Rainwa Olympia, and on the left is a bakery.

The Demography of Rzeszow Jewry in 1939 by Manes Fromer
{This article is translated into English on pages 71-72 of the English section.}

{photos page 200} Top right: Town square. To left: Town Hall. Center: "Beit Haam" Lower left: Sokol Street. Lower Left: Krakow Street.

E. Memories and Experiences
A Portrait of Rzeszow at the Beginning of the 20th century by Dr. Moshe Yaari-Wald of Tel Aviv
{A long historical article, extending to page 223.}
The Population

Living Conditions

The Makeup of the Community with Respect to Tradition and Jewish Culture

The Surrounding Area

Academic Organizations
Religious Education
Youth Movements

{photo page 210} Jordania Young Zion Student Organization in 1912. First row from right, seated: Chaim Lasar, Puretz, Avraham Tantz, Kalman Birtman, Avraham Taller. Second row seated from right: Kova Glasberg, Shimon Karpf, Aharon Rosenbaum, Shlomo Horowitz, Druker, Tzvi Koretz, Kova Alter, Moshe Wald (Yaari), Benek Kahane, Shaufel. Third row standing from right: Frederick Elfenbein, Bradech, Grinspan, Meir Wald (Yaari) Kuperman, - -, --, --, --, --, A. Druker, Fishman, Yosef Druker, Hauser. Fourth row standing from right: Lieberman, Elbaum, Kaplaner, Koretz, Schneeweiss, --, -- , --, Koretz.

"Hashomer Hatzair"
{photo page 211} Hashomer Hatzair in 1916. Seated from right: Frederick Elfenbein, Leon Kuperman, Meir Wald (Yaari), Bradech,. Standing from right Lieberman, Froilich, Puretz, Braun, Schneeweiss.


Cultural and Communal Life

{photo page 214} "Yad Charutzim" Craftsmen's Organization. First row from right: Akst, Goldreich, Nussbaum, --, Proper. Second row from right. Seler, Elbaum, Goldstein, Israel, Yisrael Ducker, Shmuel Oberlander, Max Diamant, Nadel. Third row from right: Feller, Avraham Rubin, Goldman, Emir, Rosenbaum, -- Singer, Steinwasser, Aaron Kalifan. Economy and Livelihood

Social and Charitable Activity

Happenings, Way of Life, and Customs Chanuka Banquet of 7th of Adar Purim Shushan Purim Sabbath Preceding Passover

Passover Lag Baomer Hike Shavuot High Holydays Sukkot and Simchat Torah

Days of Mourning and Sadness The Sabbath Fruit for the Sabbath "Pi Tamid" Organization Personalities Nachum Sternheim

Reb Wolfe Licht Naftali Glucksmann Levi (Leon) Chaim
{photo page 219} Active Zionists during the First World War. Sitting from right: Yisrael Ducker, Bernard Fish, --, Levi Chaim, Chaim Wald. Standing from right: Dr. Kleinhaus, -- Yosef Storch, Yaakov Alter, Pinchas Elenbogen, Moshe Shifer, Leon Horner, Nachum Sternheim.

Reb Chaskel Kraut
The Great House of Study
The Great Synagogue
Prayer Groups

{photo page 221} The leadership of "Hashomer Hatzair" group in 1918. Seated from right: Hela Horowitz, Moshe Wald (Yaari), Efraim Elfenbein, Wang. Standing from right: Feist, Elbaum, Hauser, Michael Schneeweiss.
Thou Shalt Not Make Any Graven Image
The Atmosphere of Faith and Cleaving to G-d

The Year 1914

{photo page 223} Jewish Officers on Passover Leave, 1916. Seated from right: Ben Zion Fett, Puretz, Dr. Reich, Dr. Zvall, Bernard Fish, Eliahu Wang. Standing from right: Dr. Kleinhaus, Bernfeld, Goldman, --, Levi Chaim, Shimon Tenenbaum, Wang.

A Bundle of Memories by Dr. Shlomo Horowitz of Haifa

{photo page 225} The Teacher Meshulam Davidson with Pupils at the first Hebrew School of Rzeszow. First row, standing from right: Taller, Leibl Cohen, Shlomo Horowitz, Nathan Apfelbaum, Shaufel, --, Taller, Dringel. Seated from right: Binyamin Grinspan, Kova Glasberg, Mondek Cineman, the teacher Meshulam Davidson, Elbaum, Berek Grinspan, Avraham Taller, Schneeweiss. Third row seated: Elbaum, Lunek Kahane, Gleicher, -- Dringel.

The Heritage from my Rzeszow Home by Meir Yaari of Kibbutz Merchavia Childhood in Rzeszow by Anda Amir Pinkerfeld

The Jews of Rzeszow and Censuses by Ben Zion Fett [231]
{photo page 231} Former Rzeszow townfolk meet in Tel Aviv. From right Gita Koretz, Yitzchak Oestreicher, Ben Zion Fett, Tzvi Simcha Leder, Meshulam Davidson

Rzeszow at the end of the First World War by M. Ungerfeld of Tel Aviv

My Youth in Rzeszow by Irving Low of New York (New Jersey)

One in a Thousand by Uzzi ben Moshe and Ronni Wechsler of Jerusalem

[236] [237] [238]
Rzeszow during the First World War 1914-1919 by Sh. Anski
(A selection from the book: "The Destruction of the Jews in Poland, Galicia, and Bukovina.)

Rzeszow by Professor Sh. Y. Penueli of Holon
{photo page 239} Memorial Meeting in 1965. From right: Dr. Moshe Yaari Wald, Sh. Y. Penueli (the speaker), Yitzchak Oestreicher, Moshe Wechsler, Dr. Manes Fromer, the lawyer Yehoshua Rosner.

{photo page 240} "Ivriya" Committee in 1925. First row from right: Alter Sitz Tishbi, Chaya Shreiber (Shanuni), Yehudit Tzizel, Manek Salpeter. Second row from right: Anshel Lieber, Gittel Beck, Blumenfeld, Lonek Hershtal, Chaya Goldberger, Yehoshua Frei, Regina Luriner. Third row from right, standing: Sh. Y. Penueli, Moshe Frankel.

{illustration on page 241} Title page from a book entitled "Chamisha Asar Bishvat", with music and words by Nachum Sternheim. [11]

VI. Maskilim and Writers
Selections from the Book "A Country and it's Sages" (Medina Vechachameha) by Gershom Bader

[244] [245] About Abba Apfelbaum - Writer and Communal Leader by Refael Rosenzweig

Founder of the School "Teudat Yisrael" by Dr. Ovadia Barshal of Tel Aviv

Historian and Scholar by Dr. Moshe Alter
{footnote at bottom indicates that this article is from "Baderech", number 22 (38) page 8, 14 Iyar 5693 , 8.6.1933.}
Dr. Moshe Alter (born in Rzeszow 1894, killed in the Holocaust)
{footnote at bottom indicates that this article is from the Encyclopedia of Religious Zionism, volume 1, edited by Yitzchak Refael, Mossad Harav Kook 1958, page 142.}

Naftali Ashriel (Glucksmann) by Chanina Mizrachi
{from "Hod Hachinuch, 6 Elul 5709 - 1949}
My Father Chaim Wald by Dr. Moshe Yaari Wald

My Brother Moshe by Leon Weisenfeld
{This article appears in Yiddish on page 496 of the Yiddish section.}

Leon and Esther Weisenfeld by Michael Walzer -- Fass
{English translation is on page 121-123 of the English section.}


{Posters in Yiddish and Polish announcing the play "Tzeristene Neshomes" (Broken Souls) by L. Weisenfeld.}

{photo on page 255} The cast of "Tzeristene Neshomes" in 1919. First row, sitting from right: Elion, Esther Weisenfeld, Wadler. Second row from right: Yezi Elion, Mrs. Rosenbaum, the playwright Leon Weisenfeld, Mrs. Harel, Yosef Storch. Sitting from right: Lusberg, Lusberg's sister, Avraham Koretz, Retig, Tuchman, Aaron Presser.

Berish Weinstein by Professor Dov Sedan of Jerusalem
From the introduction to the book "Rzeszow" pages 23-24.

Berish Weinstein by Moshe Starkman
(the roots of his poetry)

Berish Weinstein and his Rzeszow by Nathan Yonatan of Kibbutz Sarid

Dr. Henry Yiztchak Wachtel by A. P. of Ein Hachoresh
Dr. Binyamin Schlager by Simcha Seiden

Dr. Tzvi Simcha Leder by Leon Weisenfeld
{English translation is on page 128 of the English section.}
Some Words about Professor Shmuel Yeshayahu Penueli by G. Kressel of Holon

Simcha Seiden by Tzvi Simcha Leder of Washington
{English translation is on page 126 of English section, entitled "Herman Leder".}
Ben Zion Fett by Yitzchak Oestreicher of Tel Aviv

The Violin of Nachum Sternheim by Manes Fromer

VII. Personalities and Characters
Rzeszow Personalities by Dr. Moshe Yaari Wald
Yaakov Alter

Meshulam Davidson

{photo page 266} Memorial gathering of Rzeszow townsfolk, Tel Aviv 1954. The speaker is Meshulam Davidson.

Dr. Felix Hoppen

Dr. Aaron Arthur Wang

Asher Yehuda Silber

Levi (Leon) Chaim
Dr. Henryk Tzvi Kanarek

Meshulam Davidson by Tuvia Yaari of Kibbutz Merchavia
Naftali Tuchfeld - Born Rzeszow 5651 (1891). Died Tel Aviv 27 Tishrei 5714 (1953)
From Encyclopedia of Religious Zionism, part 2, page 413.

Anna Kahane by Leon Weisenfeld
{This article appears in Yiddish on page 495 of the Yiddish section.}
Elimelech Katz by M. Sh. Geshuri - Born Rzeszow 5650 (1890. Died Nissan 5683 (1923) in New York.

Irving Low by David ben Yosef of Tel Aviv
{Two articles about Irving Low appear in the English section, although they are not written by the same author. They do not appear to be direct translations, but they cover more or less the same material. These articles appear on page 129-133 of the English section. There is a Yiddish article about Irving Low on pages 500- 501 of the Yiddish section, by Leon Weisenfeld, the author of one of the English articles.}

My Father Shlomo Munzberg by Klara Ma'ayan Munzberg

Rabbi Dr. Tzvi Koretz by Simcha Seiden
{An article about Rabbi Dr. Tzvi Hersch Koretz appears in the English section on pages 123-124. It is by Herman Leder, and does not appear to be a direct translation of the Hebrew, although it covers the same material.}

Yaakov Elimelech Knecht and his Wife Malka by Yitzchak Oestreicher of Tel Aviv

Yosef Sheinblum by Zeev Zohar
Moshe Wang by Avraham Wang of Kibbutz Ein Hamifratz

Yitzchak Oestreicher by Leon Weisenfeld of the U. S. A.

{photo page 279} At a gathering in honour of Tzvi Simcha Leder in 1955. From right: Ben Zion Fett, Simcha Leder, Yitzchak Oestreicher, the lawyer Alexender Rosner Keller (who is the speaker).

The Family of Motish Eckstein by Shlomo Tal
{photo page 280} Reuven Eckstein
The Mintz Family by Shlomo Tal

Jewish Judges by Moshe Reich of Haifa

Personalities by Naftali Hakhel

The Uniqueness of Moshe David Ashriel by Tzvi Livneh (Lieberman)

Eliahu Ashriel (Glucksmann) by E. P.
Yehoshua Ashriel (Glucksmann) by E. P.

Personalities and Occasions by Rabbi Moshe Kamelhar

Reb Menachem Mendel Reich by Rabbi Moshe Reich of Jerusalem
My Brother Yisrael by Rabbi Moshe Kamelhar

The Dear Ones of Rzeszow by Yitzchak Isaac Nebenzahl of Ramat Gan

{An illustration by Menachem Ron, introducing the Holocaust section. The illustration is of a tortured man peering through a barbed wire fence. The quote, which appears in English and Hebrew, is from Jeremiah 10, 25, and equivalent with the "Shfoch Chamatcha" (Pour out thy wrath) section of the latter portion of the Passover Seder.}

VIII. The Holocaust
In the Face of the Holocaust by Meir Yaari of Merchavia

Remember! By Klara Ma'ayan
{This article has been translated into English by Jerrold Landau, and is available on the Jewishgen website.}

The Destruction of the Rzeszow Community by Dr. Asher Alexander Heller of Tel Aviv
{This article is translated into English on pages 294-306 of the English section. This article appears in Yiddish on pages 515-536 of the Yiddish section.}

The End of the Rzeszow Community by Mala Krischer Munzberg of Ramat Aviv
{This article is translated into English on pages 95-97 of the English section.}

Maidanek Oh G-d by Berish Weinstein
{A poem, dedicated in memory of Malka, autographed by Berish Weinstein, and translated into Hebrew by Tzvi Shtok. The original Yiddish version is on page 512 of the Yiddish section. There is another poem by Berish Weinstein on page 73 of the English section, entitled "Millenia Hence", which was translated into English by Yaakov Sloan. That poem appears in the Yiddish section on page 376, but not in the Hebrew section.}

I Shall Not Die, But Shall Live by Lotka Goldberg of Tel Aviv [12]
In memory of my mother, of blessed memory.
{The English translation is on pages 98-110 of the English section.}

During the Nazi Occupation by Klara Ma'ayan Munzberg of Tel Aviv
{This article has been translated into English by Jerrold Landau, and appears on the jewishgen website}

I Escaped Death by Dr. Michael Scheeweiss of Tel Aviv
{This article is translated into English on pages 111-116 of the English section.}

Attempts at Resistance in Rzeszow by Dov Zucker

The Last Jews of Rzeszow by M. Hofstetter
{This article, describing the situation in the Jewish workcamp "Judlager Reichshof" near Rzeszow, was translated into English by Jerrold Landau, and appears on the jewishgen website.}

Memories of the Occupation by Lola Weiss Immerglick

Rzeszow Women in Auschwitz by Dina Strassberg Einhorn of Kibbutz Tel Yitzchak

Chava Wuszka Jolles, a Girl Who fought by Menachem Levenstein
{photo page 336} Seated: Ita, the wife of Motish Eckstein. On the right: Chava (Wuszka) Jolles On the left Chana the daughter of Reuven Eckstein.

Rzeszow in 1946 by Marcus Dornfest

A daughter of Rzeszow in Revolt by M. Weinstein Lasar of Tel Aviv
(A chapter of memories from Auschwitz}

Gola (Golda) Mira, an Anti-Nazi Fighter

The Fate of Rzeszow Jewry 1939-1944 by Franciszek Kotula, director of the Civic Museum of Rzeszow

B. Synagogues and Cemeteries

C. A Bundle of Memories

D. The Catacombs of Rzeszow (How Jews vanished a day before the liquidation of the ghetto)
{The English translation is on pages 117-118 of the English section.}

Polish Evidence on the Extermination of the Jews of Rzeszow by Jan Forczek

Memories by Professor Juliusz Kyaz of Krakow-Rzeszow
{pages 352-360 consist of detailed city maps of areas of Rzeszow. The inscriptions on the maps are in Polish, with some Hebrew translations. The map legends are only in Hebrew, and will be translated here. They appear in 4 tables at the top going from right to left. The numbering on these tables is not always consecutive.}

Rightmost table
1. Roska Vish Primary School
2. Army storehouses
3. Rail bridge
4. Pedestrian bridge
5. Central train station
6. Plant for the drying of bones
7. Study hall of the Rabbi of Riwiticz
8. Study hall of the Rabbi of Kolaczyck
9. Mononia bicycle factory
10. Szyk paper factory
11. Roska Vish prayer hall
12. Government seminary
9a. Jewish children's home
35a. Riminov Chassidic prayer hall
36a. Adler candle factory
37a. Ika bank
Table second from right
13. New Government Gymnasia
14. Bronredin monastery
15. Tantz candy factory
16. Eckstein's flour mill
17. Communal infirmary
18. Old cemetery
19. Home of Rabbi Aaron Lewin of Blessed Memory
20. Public health office
21. Place where Tashlich was said [13]
22. Barracks of the cavalry unit of the army
23. Captain's school
24. Bridge across the Wislok
25. Public slaughterhouse
26. Civic power station
27. Civic animal market
28. Two synagogues and a study hall
29. The old Christian cemetery
30. The civic brick kiln
61. B order of the ghetto prior to the liquidation
Table third from right
31. Civic firehall
32. Miczkowicz garden and statue
33. Fish market
34. New cemetery
35. General hospital
36. Jewish hospital
37. Tshortkov Chassidic prayer hall
38. Central post office
39. Town hall
40. Kosczoczki square and statue
41. Statue of Leis Kula
42. Lifschutz soap factory
43. Old Gymnasia for boys
44. Director of the district (Starostwo)
45. "Bar Kochba" sports field
46. Income tax office
47. Police station
48. Licht - Leser nail factory
62. Staroniva payments office
Leftmost table
49. Jewish Toinbihol (?)
50. Barracks of the flagbearer's army unit
51. Area courthouse and prison
52. Zweig's foundry
53. Civic gardens
54. Shiper's sawmill
55. Paratrooper's barracks
56. Heilbaum's sausage factory
57. Jewish school and public hall
58. Communal bathhouse
59. Girl's Gymnasia
60. Parser furniture factory
39a. Haluft-Mashina house
40a. Esterka house
45a Elbaum candy factory
46a. Goldberg family printing press

A Walk Through the Streets of Rzeszow by Avraham Mussinger

Small Towns and Villages in the Rzeszow District by Dr. Moshe Yaari Wald
{English translation is on pages 68-70 of the English section.}

The Liberation by Moshe Reich of Haifa
A Visit to Rzeszow in 1962 by Chaya Shlisselberg Tamari of Tel Aviv

A Summing Up of Five Hundred Years of Life by Manes Fromer of Holon

IX. Obituaries by Sarah Altman Avraham Altman

Avraham Teitelbaum

Mordechai the son of Elchanan Lifschutz
Simcha the son of Mordechai Lifschutz

Eighteen Years of the "Organization of Rzeszow and the District" in Israel by Yitzchak Oestreicher, the chairman of the Rzeszow organization of Israel
{English translation is on pages 134-136 of the English section.}
{photo page 372} A torah scroll was dedicated to a synagogue in memory of the martyrs of Rzeszow on the night of Lag Baomer 5712 12.5.1952 [15]. Standing from right: Naftali Tuchfeld, Yitzchak Oestreicher, Meshulam Davidson, Efraim Wachtel (child), Chaim Kraut, Shpitz, Avraham Silberman, Teitelbaum. Second row, fourth from right: Yaakov Rabhon.

{photo page 373} From right: Yitzchak Oestreicher, Rachel Alter, Irving Low.

{top photo page 374} Gathering at the unveiling of a remembrance plaque dedicated to the martyrs of Rzeszow in the Holocaust Hall in Jerusalem, 27 Nissan 5719 (5.5.1959), in the presence of Tzvi Simcha Leder (standing fourth from right). [14]
{lower photo page 374} A party at Dr. Moshe Yaari's home in honor of Mr. Irving Low of West New York, U.S.A. From left: Gita Koretz, Lotka Goldberg, Klara Ma'ayan Munzberg, Dr. Moshe Yaari Wald, Michael Waltzer, Yitzchak Oestreicher, Aliza Yaari, Irving Low, Evyatar Yaari, Rabbi Moshe Kamelhar, Avraham Mussinger.

{The Yiddish section follows immediately on paged 375-544. This overview does not include the Yiddish section at this time; however, the Hebrew overview does contain cross references of the Yiddish articles where applicable.}

Translator's Footnotes

1. The podium from which the Torah is read in a synagogue. (Back)

2. Yitzchak Ben Tzvi was the second president of Israel (Back)

3. Eicha is the Hebrew name for the Book of Lamentations of the Bible, which is read in the synagogue on the fast of Tisha Beov, which commemorates the destruction of the two Temples, plus many other tragedies that befell the Jewish people over the centuries. The term Eicha is often used as a title or refrain for elegies that form part of the Tisha Beov service. The verse which follows is part of the haftara (prophetic reading) that is read in the synagogue morning of Tisha Beov, and the style of the elegy is very similar to the elegies of the Tisha Beov morning service. (Back)

4. Sejm is the Polish Parliament. (Back)

5. Tzanz (named after the city of Nowy Sacz), and Sadigora are two Hassidic groups. (Back)

6. Tzadik (plural Tzadikim), literaly 'righteous ones', is a term often used for Hassidic leaders. (Back)

7. Yeshiva (plural Yeshivot) is a school of higher Jewish religious learning. (Back)

8. Haskala is the enlightenment, which represents the move of Eastern European Jewry away from strict religious observance, and toward the modern world, and to some degree assimilation. (Back)

9. Zeev (Vladimir) Jabotinsky was the founder of the Revisionist Zionist movement. (Back)

10. Irgun Zvai Leumi, often known by its acronym Etzel was one of the Jewish militias in pre 1948 Palestine. (Back)

11. Chamisha Asar Bishvat is the same as Tu Bishvat, which is a minor Jewish Holiday marking the beginning of the blossoming of trees. Tu is an acronym for Chamisha Asar, meaning 15. The holiday falls on the 15th of the Hebrew month of Shvat (January or February). (Back)

12. The title is taken from a verse in the book of Psalms: I shall not die, but shall live, and tell of the deeds of G-d. This verse is part of the Hallel service recited in the synagogue on the major festivals. The title of the article on page 326, is, with a change of tense, also taken from an adjacent chapter of the book of Psalms, also part of Hallel. The title is "I saved myself from death", and the quote from Psalms is "For You saved me from death". These chapters in Psalms describe a close brush with death, and the subsequent praise of G-d by the Psalmist after the salvation. (Back)

13. Tashlich is a prayer recited by the banks of a river on the afternoon of the first day of Rosh Hashana, or the second day if the first day falls on the Sabbath. (Back)

14. 27 of Nissan, 5 days after the conclusion of Passover, is Holocaust Remembrance Day in the Jewish calendar. (Back)

15. Lag Baomer is a minor Jewish holiday occurring on the 18th of Iyar. (Back)

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