by Leibel Rychtman
Translated by Anita Frishman Gabbay
[Chapters about the Radomer refugees, after their Liberation from the concentration camps, and their first steps towards a new beginning].
The small town of Vainingen was 26 kilometers from Stuttgart, on the river Enz, whose earth swallowed thousands of victims of the Nazi-Regime--many of them Jews from Radom.
On August 1944, when the Red Army approached Lublin, the Germans evacuated the last of the concentration camp inmates and herded them to Germany. The Death March from Radom to Germany is described in the section Destruction of Radom. Of the 2,187 Jewish souls only 320 survived this hopeless journey. And even a smaller amount-from other camps.
Besides Jews, there were inmates from 16 nations of Europe in these camps. Amongst them diplomats, writers and academics.
When the First French Army of General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny, [who later became a Marshal, died in Indochina[a]], on April 7, 1945 liberated the camp of Vainingen, the soldiers were shocked at the sight which unfolded before their eyes. An intense rescue operation began. The sick French, Belgium, Dutch, Danish, Norwegian and other survivors were sent to sanatoriums and hospitals in Speyer, Baden-Baden and Wiesbaden. The healthier ones, after several days, were sent home.
About 70 very sick Jews (mostly Radomers) were sent to the Vainingen hospital. 250 Jews and a hundred Russians and Poles were taken to the town Neuenberg, next to Bruksal in Baden, from where the German population was expelled.
Joszek Frenkel [the son of Piotr Frenkel] was the representative between the liberated Jews and the French liberators, who did everything to bring us back to life.
The first Jews from the free world which we had the good fortune to meet, were the French rabbinate-leaders, Captain Rabbi Nachan, Coronel Rabbi Yacov Kaplan, [now head-Rabbi in France], Captain Rabbi Cohen, and the French military-doctors who originated from Radom. They all sought to bring us some comfort.
I arrived at Neuenberg with the first group, we stood on the street thinking about our new home. Suddenly a car stops and a military- woman in uniform steps out. She approaches us and nervously asks if there are any Radomer Jews amongst us.
--We are mostly from Radom - I answer.
Overwhelmed, she replies:
--I am Dr. Solke Diamond, Israel Diamond's daughter and [Shalom Diamond and Israel Frenkel's granddaughter]. When I heard that they brought refugees from Vaihingen here, I wanted to find the Radomer survivors, perhaps someone from my family survived?…
--Yes… Dovid Frenkel's son and Piotr Frenkel's son. Itzik and Josek… they will soon arrive with the second truck.
She is overcome with joy and emotion. And as we speak, the second truck arrives and we point out the two Frenkels, she runs towards them and bursts into tears.
Something in our hearts begins to stir, like a moment in spring: perhaps we will also be blessed with such joy?---
Although all the medical personnel, provisions and good conditions were available, not all were able to rehabilitate and some clung to life, those who passed away in Neuenberg were: Nechamia Milstein (leather manufacturer), Milman (from Lubliner 3), Yacov Kopel Tenenbaum (son of Moishe Tenenbaum of Voel). They were buried in the Jewish cemetery in Neuenberg.
Those in charge of the sanitoriums and health centers were Captain Dr. Derame and his helper, Lieutenant Dr. Sadzhe.
After 7 weeks we departed from our helpers and liberators with heartfelt good-byes and gratitude: screaming enthusiastically…
--Vive La France!…
In the American Zone
Thanks to the efforts of the Rabbi Helselkorn and the Senior American Officer in the Heidelberg Military Government-Hatler, on June 7, 1945, we were transferred to Bensheim, in the American Zone. The Russians were sent to a different camp and the Poles remained with us.
In contrast to the camp at Neuenberg, the camp at Bensheim was without military security and without restrictions. The leadership was under the delegation of UNRRA, who, together with the Military-Government looked after all our needs.
Day and night Jewish officers and soldiers of the American Army came to Bensheim and brought us news about the other refugee camps in Germany. Hearing this, many of us left in search of our relatives--perhaps someone had survived.
Some of us even travelled to Poland.
Lists of surviving Jews were brought to Bensheim who were searching for their surviving relatives. The lists were hung on a board in the middle of the camp, and with pounding hearts each one of us looked for a relative---
A committee comprised of the liberated Jews was formed to look after internal camp affairs. Marek Guttman was elected at a general meeting, an Audit Commission and a Committee for provisions, clothing, housing.. and culture (entertainment).
The Poles took our lead and formed their own committee, and many times worked together with the Jewish Committee to look after the needs of the camp inhabitants.
As the sanitary conditions were not adequate in Bensheim, Hatler transferred us to Schloss Langenzoll near Heidelberg, in a district surrounded by nature, fields and mountains.
Here did we not only benefit from the fresh air and much needed rest, but we also began to renew our education and cultural activities. A large room with a piano in the Schloss was at our disposal. I wrote programs by hand and posted notices for evenings of satire or music, led by Kadish Korman, (a son of Shmuel Korman, now in America), speeches on national and cultural themes were led by Marek Guttman and Chaim Berger. We gave courses in Hebrew and English.
Prominent personalities of the Yiddish world visited us in peacetime, among them were: Moishe Shertock, (Sharett), Dr. Israel Goldstein, Dr. Nachum Goldman, writer and author, brigadier-soldiers and officers who expressed their thanks for our involvement and rewarded us with more important involvement to broaden our horizons.
A representative of President Truman also came to us, Harriman (or Harison), accompanied by the Joint, H. Shwartz, who were pleased with our new arrangements and our involvement in education [cultural and artistic].
Jews from Radom, liberated in other camps in Germany and Austria, hearing about their Landsleit in Schloss Langenzoll started to stream in from all over. And this is how the Radomer family grew, day by day.
The small percentage of Poles that were with us were sent to a Polish D.P. camp on the order of the Military Government, and only Jews remained in the Schloss.
We should mention the wonderful treatment we received by the UNRRA officials in the Schloss, Mrs. A. Ostry and H. Wodlinger (both from Canada) and the Yiddish officer from the American Military Government, H. K. L. Plesner, who showed us kindness and empathy in our distress.
In The Stuttgart Center
After living in the Schloss for two months in rather adequate conditions, we were transported to Stuttgart on August 25, 1945, thanks to the help of officer Hatler, Mrs. Ostry and the representatives of the UNRRA.
We received a beautiful 5 story building (an entire row of houses) as our new accommodations, on Bismarck Street, with comfortable and furnished apartments.
Day and night, refugees from Radom arrived here from the other camps in Germany, Austria, Italy and even Poland.
In several months other Jews from Hungary and Romania and other towns of Poland arrived.
The center grew larger very quickly, and the Military Government needed to make arrangements for additional housing. Three-four storey houses on Reinsburg Street were added. Likewise, the needs of the center also grew.
Besides the influx of refugees, which grew to over 2000, and another 250 in the D.P. camp of Degerloch, near Stuttgart, (which was under the control of the UNRRA Center), and 600, who were living in private homes in the city, the Radomers were
the envy of the Jewish refugees in Stuttgart. They planned and organized a self- sufficient and cultural life: education, livelihood, social help, and other things.
And this is how the Center developed and became known as The Radomer Center.
The First Agencies in the Center
Immediately upon arrival in Stuttgart, the Radomers stepped in to establish the Center- Institutions to regulate all facets of life for its inhabitants. The colleagues who immediately placed themselves in service and were elected for the first committee were: Marek Gutman, president; Chaim Berger, (a Kinsker, now a devoted member of the Radomer Relief in New York, married to our Radomer Hanka Zukerman)-vice-president; Moshe Kirshenblat -secretary; Simcha Librach (a relative and a son-in-law of shochet Binyamel Librach); Schmai Wacks (former journalist in Radom, many of his poems were published Ojf der Frei [In Freedom], Naftali Glinovetsky (from Lodz, a son-in-law of Moshe Binam Rychtman of Radom); Mordechai Gertner (died in Tel-Aviv); Mordechai Friedland and Leibel Rychtman.
An Audit Commission was also elected with the following: Leib Kurtz, Shlomo Shvinkelstein, and Moshe Gutenstein (the last two are from Bendin).
The committees addressed clothing and food provisions, work, health, living accommodations, trade and general education and other things.
The care for its day-to-day management, besides the committee members, was undertaken by other Radomers and non- Radomers, like: Reuben Borenstein, Motel Fried, Motel Rosenbaum, Yerachmiel Zilberberg, (a brother of the Radomer Rosh Kehillah [community] Yonah Zilberberg), Eliezer Eizenberg, (a Kinsker), Eliezer Weinberg, (a Gnewshewer), Yacov Aaron Rosen (from Lodz), Yacov Klepfisch, Gedalia Ehrenberg and others.
A Commission was also appointed for Culture and Press, with: Marek Gutman, Chaim Berger, Shmai Wachs, Leibel Rychtman; a Disciplinary Court of colleagues, Shmuel Aidelbaum, (from the former Craftsman workers in Radom, he died in 1959 in Canada), magistrate Joshua Rotenberg, (son of the [organization] President Moshe Rotenberg, now a distinguished philanthropist in America), Chaim Griffel (a Stanislavever), son- in- law of Radomer leather merchant Israel Wertheizer, now a rabbi in New Jersey), Zisel Dula, Moshe Wiltchick, engineer Josef Gutman, magistrate Yacov Zilberman, magistrate Godel Korman, Yacov Zabner and Simcha Schleser. Sometime later magistrate Joshua Rosenburg was the head of the Disciplinary Court.
Besides the above mentioned, the following commissions were formed:
This section which was managed by magistrate Yacov Zilberman and magistrate Godel Korman who provided the Center inhabitants with legal advice on various matters and collected, with the help of the military authorities and courts, accusatory material against Nazi war criminals.
The Radomers in Stuttgart were given a free hand in directing the internal affairs of the Center. A Center committee was elected with Marek Gutman as president and Henry Berger as vice president. The committee, considered the official representation of the camp, immediately began to organize some aspects of life in the new surroundings. The major goal of rehabilitation work was to prepare the people for immigration to Palestine where they could rebuild their broken lives.
Commissions were appointed to take care of the pressing needs.
Medical and Sanitation Commission
In cooperation with UNRRA, a health department was organized with the clinic and a 10- bed hospital. The staff of volunteers consisted of five doctors and five nurses who did an admirable job tending to the medical needs of nearly 2000 people. A children's clinic was operated by H. Dobson from the UNRRA leadership. With gentle mannerisms and energetic devotion, she looked after the inhabitants' needs, especially the young mothers. As a means of preventing diseases, periodic inoculations and checkups were compulsory. Dr. D. Wineaple headed the public health Commission. Chief of the clinic was Dr. Boim [from Radom] and upon his immigration to America, Y. Weitz (died in Stuttgart) took over, then Dr. W. Sheradsky became the chief.
The head nurse was Hannah Hershentraum [maiden name Gutman]. The dental clinic was under the direction of Mrs. Dr. Landau.
The Historical Commission
They collected historical material, documents and photos which were related to the destruction of Polish Jewry, and especially pertaining to the Radomer community. It also collected material about life in the Jewish communities in Baden-Wurttenburg region before the Nazi regime, and about the lives of the refugees in the camps in Germany after Liberation.
The Commission worked together with the Central Historical Commission in Munich, and in the beginning, the participants were: professor Constantinowski, Dr. Wineaple, magistrate Joshua Rothenberg, magistrate Chaim Griffel, Marek Gutman, Schmai Wachs, and B. Leventhal. Afterwards the Commission was headed by the historian Dr. I. Friedman and after his departure David Greisdorf, from Vilna. This Commission was comprised of: Schmai Wachs, Marek Gutman and Leibel Rychtman.
The Religious Resource
The Resource was in charge of all the religious events in the centre, like: kashruth in the communal kitchens, weddings, brit-milas, mikveh, burials and others. A new hall was designated for the synagogue where everyday services were conducted and anyone could study a page of Gemara. The American Military Rabbinate and
the Joint provided all the sacred vessels [for religious observance]. A Yeshiva was also organized, where more than 30 children studied under the leadership of two Hungarian Jews, smart scholars: H. Wexler and Y. Leizer.
The rabbi of the centre was rabbi S. Hillert.
Particularly popular were the Oneg Shabbath Parties which the rabbi of the Center arranged each Saturday in the large hall of the Center's kitchen, with appropriate singing and sermons on everyday life, with the participation of military rabbis, American Jewish soldiers and guests.
The religious court also performed exhumations of Jewish victims of the Nazi-regime, for example: an exhumation of several dozen Jews who were killed in 1944 and thrown into a mass grave in Esslingen, near Stuttgart. They were brought to a Jewish burial; 14 Jewish bodies who are buried in a Christian cemetery by the Nazis in Friedhof, in Vaihingen, were brought to a Jewish burial in the Jewish cemetery in Bad-Constant; 12 Jews were murdered two weeks before liberation and their bodies were thrown into a grave at the edge of the forest in Sultzdorf, were brought to the Jewish burial in a Jewish cemetery in Steinbach at Schwebisch-Hol.
The group also returned 17 Torah scrolls from German hands, remains from destroyed schools.
The first religious committee was comprised of the following: Moshe Hirschenberg, Simcha Librach, leibel Rychtman, Shlomo Shvinkelstein and Yacov Leventhal. The following later joined: Yacov Ziranka, David Eizen and Chaim Korman (the last one was a well known Craftsman worker in Radom, died in America).
The Center Police
They were in charge of preserving the status quo and maintaining order in the center under the leadership of H. Schecter and afterwards H. Hammer, both from Lemberg, and towards the end, David Weinthal. Head of the Security Office was the Radomer Israel Glatt, now one of the active Relief members in America. The police wore special uniforms and during service- white helmets. They were not armed, only a few rifles were available in the command center for emergencies. After the Stuttgart Events, see later, the rifles were taken away by the American Military Police.
At the Second Central Committee and Audit Commission, the following 16 were elected [more than a year after the centre was opened], 6 not from Radom. The 10 Radomers were: Marek Gutman, Moshe Rotenberg, Mordechai Gertner, Israel Glatt, Motel Friedland, Pesach Tenenbaum [died in Melbourne], Leib Zilbersrtom, Abraham Krieger, Melech Borenstein and Leibel Rychtman.
The non Radomers were: engineer Jacob Babitsky, [Vilna], Moshe Gutenstein and Shlomo Shvinkelstein [Bendin], Abraham Rosenthal [Piotrokow], Herman Koleva, [Katowice], Leon Mandel [Lemberg], married Radomer Sarah Rutman.
Marek Gutman held the presidency until 1947, then was elected as a member of the Central Committee of the Liberated Jews in the American Zone, with its main office in Munich. His position was filled by Moshe Gutenstein, who remained until the Center was closed in June 1949.
Culture and Education
By forming the administrative apparatus, the inhabitants of the Center began to look for cultural an educational solutions.
In a beautiful three- story building on Reinsberg Street a House of Culture was open with the name of H. N. Bialik, where a library of Yiddish and Hebrew books was installed, with newspapers and periodicals from the entire Jewish world and especially from Eretz Israel. Those thirsty for a Jewish word, in this house, established contact with the broader Jewish and cultural world.
At the head of Beth Bialik was H. Moshe Rotenberg, who came to Stuttgart from the Soviet Union, where he spent his war years and he started right away to dedicate himself to the cultural and social activities of the Center.
In Beth Bialik an elementary school was opened and in the course of time grew and developed. A gymnasium [secondary school] was also opened, recognized by the Agency institutions, UNRRA and Joint.
The foundation- builders of the school, who also belonged to the first pedagogical council were: Moshe Rotenberg, magistrate Yehoushe Rotenberg, magistrate Chaim Griffel, Leibel Rychtman, Marek Gutman, engineer Josef Gutman and his wife Carla, Avraham Goldberg, Rochel Landau, Eliezer Gutman, Leah Langsam, Edward Koltov, Solomon Lederman, Edward Shpitzer [now president of the Randomer society in Studio City] and Yigal Weinstein.
The last, one-born in Eretz Israel, came to Stuttgart with the Jewish brigade, married the teacher Leah Langsam, and was one the most devoted personalities of the Center.
The elementary and middle school started with three classes, six teachers and 36 students, and eventually expanded to seven classes, 18 teachers and the 110 students, besides a lyceum class with 15 students.
A kindergarten was established, which opened with 9 children and eventually had over 40 children. The kindergarten had their own large space
in a separate large building on Reinsberg Street. From a special kitchen, overseen by Mrs. Mintz, the students and children received their daily meals, breakfast and lunch, for free.
At first the school management was hit by many hardships. First of all- the lack of elementary textbooks. The teachers therefore had to give their lessons from memory, especially in mathematics and nature studies. The lectures, despite all, were conducted in an excellent manner and this is how the students were educated.
The second hardship was the human material: children who arrived from the ghettos forests, bunkers, churches and concentration camps. Many of them didn't even know their parents or anything about the Jewish people, A ragged lot, a mishmash of languages. Thanks to the colossal undertaking of the teachers, they needed to transform these children into the image of a Jewish child and they succeeded in a relatively short time. The school served as an example for other immigrant schools in Germany.
In Beth Bialik there were also evening courses for Hebrew and English, with an average of 85 students and in afternoon supplement- courses for grownups, with seven teachers and more than 30 students.
Each summer, colonias [summer camps] were organized for the children, in various healing centers in Germany, under the supervision of teachers and emissaries from Eretz Israel.
In middle school the Yiddish language and literature was introduced. The teacher was Hannah Shmeruk [a Kowler] now a lecturer of the Yiddish language and literature at the Hebrew university in Jerusalem, professor Dov Sadan's assistant.
These students wore light green berets with a special emblem with the inscription Beth Bialik. At national celebrations, they also wore white blouses with blue ties. Each Saturday, the students, with the teacher's supervision, marched in closed ranks to the school to pray.
Many of the graduates of Beth Bialik who immigrated abroad, on the merit of their graduation certificates, became academics in various universities. Some of them hold honorary positions today in their workplaces.
The school teachers were: Dr. Joseph Kurtz [works today in the Weitzman Institute in Rehovot], Dr. Sholem Levy [a chemist in Kupat-Holim in Tel Aviv], Rachel Landau and Rachel Fishman [were well known teachers and educators in Radom], magistrate Yehoushe Rotenburg, Kuba Blatman, engineer Joseph Gutman, Hella Solowitz, Leibel Rychtman, magistrate Ben-Zion Feldshuh, the historian Dr. L .Friedman, Edward Spitzer, Eleazar Gutman, Ben-Zion Bergman, Carla Gutman (Agency emissary and talented teacher) and Mordechai Katz.
Mrs Dr. Margalit was the head nurse.
The educators of the kindergarten were: Frieda Natevich, Mrs. Warsawsky, Paula Rubin (maiden name Gutman) and Mrs. Miriam Gelbrun.
The school director was, until his Aliya in 1947, Moshe Rotenburg. Afterwards-until the dissolution of the center in 1949-Mordechai Katz (a Lemberger).
Gatherings took place at the Center with many Yiddish teachers from the Wurttemberg-Baden region, with participation of the emissaries from Eretz Israel: the poetess Anda Amir-Finkerfeld, Bracha Weinstock; as well as education directors of the Joint, UNRRA and other institutions, among them the well-known historian Dr. Phillip Friedman [the last one died in America].
Thanks to the initiative of the agency and the help of the Center Committee, trade courses were set up for locksmithing, women's tailoring, goldsmithing and theatre mechanics [under the leadership of H. Boyer]. Also a course in bookkeeping under the direction of Yeshaya Eiger, (died in America in 1960) and a course for car- mechanics supervised by I. Zilberstein.
At first the courses were held in the Beth Bialik. But in April 1946, they were taken over by the Central Committee in Munich
The trade school then added to its organization a separate three- story house on Reinsberg Street, and new courses were added: dental technician, laundry, corsetry, millenary, electrical engineering, typewriter- repair and photography
The administrators of the women's trades were Radomers: Mania Bornstein and Hella Adler. The instructors were Radomers: Sima Blum, Regina Dresner, Hanke [Hannah] Fruchtman, Marylla Kempner, Sheva Migdalek, Frymet Schultz, Shoshana Mendelbaum, as well as Leon Altman.
The instructor of the goldsmithing course was Jacob Winegart [a son of Radomer rabbinic Judge Menachem Mendel Winegart].
The director of the dentistry course was the dentist G. Kazdan.
There were about 19 instructors and 300 students, male and female.
From the office of ORT in Landsberg, in 1946, the ladies workshop course received second place: the ladies millinery course-the first place and the goldsmithing course was the only one of its kind in the American zone.
With the ORT organization, (at the 2nd Congress of the liberated Jews in the American Zone, in 1947, in Bad-Reichenthal), the exhibits, diagrams and photographs from the school evoked enthusiasm and recognition from specialists and from the press.
The director of the ORT school until his aliya in December 1948, was the engineer Yacov [Jacob] Babitski, afterwards, Henrik Horowitz ( from Warsaw.)
Moshe Rotenberg was the first administrator
and after his Aliya, Matias Yazhombek, from Bendin.
Engineer Michyslav Buch, from Lemberg was a technical instructor until November 1946, and then-Lev Greisdorf (former instructor in Vilnius ORT organization).
The buyer was the Radomer Meir Ruben.
The Center Committee had a Sports Club by the name of HaKoach [Power] which held a prominent place in the central Jewish sports organisations in Germany.
The club consisted of four divisions: football, net-ball [tennis or badminton], basketball, ping pong, boxing and a swimming section.
The football team excelled, winning many tournaments at the General Championship of the Jewish Sports Club in the American Zone.
The club had their own large locale with various sports facilities and was led by the Radomers: Elimelech Bornstein and Ezekiel Goldfarb.
Special attention was given for the sports movement for schoolchildren, for whom various sports were organized like: street racing, football and light athletics.
Musical and Dramatic Activities
Thanks to the initiative of the former Radomer Hazan Moshe Rontal and Leibel Rychtman, at the end of 1945 a mixed choir of 17 people (mostly Radomers) was organized which performed in the Stuttgart Radio, with concerts of popular and liturgic character. The choir also travelled to various DP camps in Germany and was received everywhere with great enthusiasm.
The choir members were: Hella Adler, Ada Rosensweig, Poltze Frenkel, Dinka Birenbaum, Yezik Rosenberg, Leibel Rychtman, Fela Wertzheimer, Carola Lifschitz, Hannah Puterman, Pavel Greenwald, Eisenberg, Streiman, Hindze Fishman, Abraham Rosenthal [from Piotrikow, died Tel Aviv] and another 7 persons whose names I can't remember. Hazan Rontal directed and Dr. Cohen played the piano.
Every holiday Radio Stuttgart transmitted concerts of Yiddish and Hebrew folk songs and religious music, directed by Leibel Rychtman and accompanied by the Radio Orchestra, conducted by Moshe Grodnitski. Many times the programs were accompanied by welcoming words by representatives of the Jewish Agency, the Culture Club and the Center Committee.
Under the leadership of the aforementioned, students, male and female, from Beth Bialik and from the kindergarten, performed from time to time on the radio with Yiddish and Hebrew songs, discourses, with piano accompaniment by Moshe Grodnitzki or Moshe Gnada.
Many children excelled with various talents in singing, speeches and performing. Among them; Henia Neiman, [beautiful soprano] Gita Greenbard [now a doctor in New York], Rifka Wineberg [now an economist in Tel Aviv] Stefa Morgensteren [now a head nurse in Hadassah-Hospital], Hadassah Eisenberg, the nurse Erhlich, Ruth Sandel, Sonia Neiman, Judy Wisenberg, Lucy Warshawski, Betty Katz, Tamar Tabatchnick, Rachel and Hinda Huberman, Judith Hechtkop, Devorah Warm, Tosha Simel, Tziporah Goldman, Hannah Goldberg, Hannah Langer, [a daughter of Regina Langer], Isaiah Rosen, Yehoushe Glanzer, Leib Warsavchick, Chaim Rosen, Noah Mirmelstein, Yacov Shapira, Zvi Sperber, Chaim Kolton, David Wooltz, David Zapiler and Zvi Rosen.
All of these--rescued boys and girls from the ghettos, bunkers, concentration camps and churches showed highly artistic talents in the performance of the historical play Yehuda HaMaccabi.
From kindergarten, already displaying their singing talents were: Dudle Eisenberg and Poltche Koleve.
Dudel, the grandson of the Yeshivah of the Sages of Lublin activist, Moshe Eizenberg, was barely one year old when he was sent away to Majdanek with his mother, from there, he was secretly taken out by a Polish worker, a friend of the Eizenberg's. The worker was later arrested as a member of an underground movement and his wife threw Dudek into the street. A Polish policeman found him in the snow, almost frozen, and handed him over to the church.
After the liberation of Auschwitz, his mother found out where to find her child, and with all her strength she managed to take back her child.
Dudel, now completed his university studies in America…
On a separate note, the Yiddish play Martzipanes' by Kadye Molodowska, was performed by the students in the higher classes.
Theatre Performances and Concerts
Upon the initiative of several teachers and culture -activists of the Center, theatre performances and concerts were organized and performed by the students of Beth Bialik.
It wasn't easy to prepare the children, who only yesterday languished in Nazi hell, to perform on stage and sing in a choir or sing-solo and dance.
They were still not free from the bloody nightmare. But the performances gave the children a means to show their talents and their optimism [esteem] grew with each performance.
This is not the place to calculate and estimate all the events that took place,
since the origin until the dissolution of the Center, the list is a very long one. I just want to point out here some of those events which stood out due to their magnificent performances.
First Jewish Newspaper in Germany
December 1945, barely seven months after liberation, the center published a Yiddish newspaper of 23 pages. In those days this was an exceptional cultural addition in the life of the refugees. For lack of Yiddish type, all 23 pages were hand printed by L. Rychtman and reproduced by an offset press. The second issue done in the same manner a month later in January 1946 contained 60 pages, with a wealth of information distributed the world over. The magazine, Ojf Der Frei (Free again) was praised as a commendable achievement. The editorial committee consisted of the following Radomers: Schmai Waks, Marek Gutman, Chaim Berger and Leibel Rychtman; later acquired Yiddish type and continued publication until the Stuttgart center was dissolved. The drawings were made by the artist Moshe Perel.
The London journalist S.I. Dorfzon, writes about this journal to others: in Stuttgart a monthly newspaper published, OJF DER FREI, which is truly unique and thereby earns separate praise. This remarkable newspaper is written, letter by letter, by a Jewish lad (a stubborn face) named Leibel Rychtman, and he writes about Jewish events with the same love and reverence as once written in the style of our holy religious writers and honorable writers of Torah.
The second edition of the newspaper with the above mentioned writing-style was published in January 1946 with 60 pages with lengthy photojournalism from the 1st Congress of the liberated Jews in the American zone in Munich (as representative of the Center the participants were: Moshe Rosenberg, Marek Gutman and Abraham Rosenthal ) assembled by Bernard Ginsberg. In this publication we find written greetings for the refugees in Stuttgart, from David Ben Gurion, Marek Yarblum and Dr. Yitzhak Schwartzbard.
And here is Ben Gurion's Blessing:
To my dear friends in Stuttgart,
Despite everything and despite all the obstacles-
We will have the Land and you will be among the builders.
The other publications which were periodically published until the dissolution of the Center, were then with a typed format, thanks to Jewish script which the Committee outsourced with a large printing house in Frankfurt.
The others who co-edited the publications were engineer Yakov Babitski and the above mentioned Bernard Ginsberg.
A special edition was published after the murder of the late Samuel Danzinger, which you will read in a later chapter.
The fact that a large number of refugees from Radom found themselves in the same place enabled them to assemble a memorial in the form of a memorial book dedicated to the destruction of Jewish Radom. As soon as the center was founded, a special Commission with magistrate Yehouse Rotenberg as leader, systematically selected materials and documents which mirrored or reflected the great destruction of our town.
The committee went to great lengths in order to include all the assembled material but, because of certain negativity, a separate Exit Germany book was published in Stuttgart, only one part (The Jewish Radom during the Holocaust)[b], published by the Radom Committee in Stuttgart in 1948, 277 pages, which begins when the Germans march into Radom until after the great deportation. The rest of the material was handed over to the Yirgun Yotzei Radom in Israel and served as eyewitness accounts for the Holocaust in this book.
The introduction to The Jewish Radom during the Holocaust was written by I.M. Gutman, and the book begins with a larger and worthier work by Moshe Rotenberg, and others. General information about Yiddish Radom.
The editing committee were the following: Magistrate Yehoushe Rotenberg, Rochel Rotenberg, Yacov Zabner, Marek Gutman, Leibel Rychtman and David Greisdorf. Many helped, such as magistrate Godel Korman, a son of Eishel Korman.
Their Own Printing Press
With acquiring the Yiddish type, in agreement with the Center Committee, a press was opened which rapidly grew. Not only did they publish their own newspaper Oif Der Frei, but they began publishing for other neighboring centers. For others it published The Agricultural Directory for the Center in Munich, and a one time edition for the regional ORT- Committee, under the editorship of engineer Jacob Babitski.
The director of the printing house was S. Krakowsky, after him-A. Moultash and Pshedbarsky. With the desolution of the Center, the press was handed over to the Jewish Agency.
Protection Activity in the Center
In the first half of 1947, with the help of the Haganah representative Mordehai Ben- Ari, a protection division was formed for the entire region. Groups of young people practised military exercises in secret. They collected significant amounts of money for the Haganah in Eretz Israel with which they bought weapons, which were transferred to the Haganah-Authorities in Eretz Israel. The connections with Ben-Ari were: Tuvia Beck (died in Israel) and Yitzhak Rakatch. Among these active members were: Lederman, Finkelstein, Rychtman and others.
Ben Gurion's Visit to the Center
An incredible experience and joy for the center inhabitants was Ben Gurion's visit in November 1945; accompanied by president Marek Gutman he visited all the center inhabitants and became interested in their activities. President Gutman reported to Ben Gurion both the Zionist activity of the center and about the two groups of illegal immigrants that had already left Stuttgart with the group Aliya Beth.
The visit of General Eisenhower, Mrs. Roosevelt and other personalities
In November 1945, General Eisenhower visited the Center accompanied by high ranking military officials. He became interested with the living conditions, nutrition, cultural life and asked several individuals of the center about their plans for the future.
After the unorthodox decision about creating a Jewish State, Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt visited the Center. She demonstrated a keen interest in the living conditions of the center- inhabitants, especially of the children. Her farewell words ended with these words: I too will contribute my part for peace in Israel.
The Center was also visited by the poets H. Leivik and Israel Efrat from America. They separately were interested with the fate of the orphans after the murder Shmuel Danzinger and they were photographed with them.
Others visited us; the American senator J. Javits, Colonel chaplain Neiditch, Eisenhower's city judge Rifkin, Rosenwald, a well known leader of the Zionist committee in America, Dr. S. A. Yuris, who performed important work, Dr. Chaim Hofman (head of this Agency in Germany), professor Kopel Pinson, (World director of education of the Joint), the artist Jonas Turkov and Diana Blumenfeld, the writer S. Berlinski, Jacob Zerubavel, Benjamin Mintz, Zav Herring and others.
Zionist Activities in the Center
As soon as the center opened, a separate division of the Zionist Organization was organized with its work aimed for youth-involvement. At the first Union Committee meeting the following participated: Moshe Kirshenblatt, Marek Gutman, Leibel Rychtman, Israel Glatt and Abraham Rosenthal.
Simultaneously a division of The United Zionist Youth Organization,Aihud [Comfort] was formed under the direction of these members: Zvi Rakatch, Leibel Rychtman, Yitzhak Lederhandler, Sarah Natick, Leah Langsam, Shlomo Lederman, Moshe Conner and Moshe Kaplan; a movement of warrior pioneers (former partisans) who left for training and afterwards made Aliya.
At the general assembly of the Union three months after its founding, a new committee was elected with the following members: Moshe Rothenberg- president, Israel Glatt-vice president, Abraham Rosenthal- secretary, Mara Gutman, Leah Langsam , Leibel Rychtman, Isaiah Shvinkelstein, Israel Lederman, Afroyim Kreitzberg, Zalman Wasserman, Shlomo Nativitch.
In February 1947, the founding conference of the Poalei Zion Association was held, with the following members: Joseph Sprintzak, Yona Kasui [now a member of the Knesset] Abraham Hartzfeld, Rochel Katznelson, Zav Herring and others.
Moshe Rotenberg greeted all in the name of the Center Committee and Marek Gutman was elected as a member to the central Committee of the party
In the kibbutz and instructors- seminar, the following participated: Sarah Neidich, Dov Leventhal, Tzi Rakatch, Moshe Conner,Abraham Moshkovitch, Yitzhak Bernaman, Avsholem Finkelstein and Devorah Kestenberg.
The Struggle for a Jewish State
In March 1946 a mass rally was held protesting English terror in Israel with speeches delivered by: Marsha Rothenberg, Marek Gutman and representatives of the Israeli Cultural Organization. After the meeting which was attended by representatives of the military regime, press reporters and journalists, a mass demonstration brewed, which carried proper signs and national flags. The developments were also filmed. The Hebrew Hour in the Stuttgart Radio transmitted a special edition dedicated to this Protest Day.
In June 1947 a petition was sent to President Truman by the center inhabitants requesting to open the doors to Eretz Israel for a free Jewish immigration.
Testimony Before the Anglo- American Committee
The Anglo- American Commission which visited the Center in the beginning of 1946 accompanied by Eisenhower's judicial advisor Rifkind, listened to the committee representative Marek Gutman in the presence of the UNRRA director and the center inhabitants; Moshe Rotenburg, Shmuel Aidlebaum, magistrate Chaim Grifel and Leah Langsam.
After the hearing, which lasted several hours, the American representative Bartley Cross expressed:
I admire and delight myself, that a Jew who had experienced so much in the concentration camps, in such a circumstance is willing to defend his point of view.
The Good News about the UN Decision for a Jewish State
The good news became known in the Center in the middle of the night. Spontaneously the inhabitants streamed into the streets with enthusiastic singing and hora- dancing, lasting throughout the night.
The next day an official parade was organized with more than 3000 people marching in closed ranks to the State Theatre. This joyful event took place with the participation of many countries.
The hall overflowed. President Gutman opened the Academy in name of the Regional and Central Committee. After him, the representatives of France, Norway, United States and other countries, as well as the Stuttgart mayor, extended their greetings. Also invited to the Academy was the Soviet representative but he reported by telephone that he is waiting for instructions from Moscow. In the same day the Moscow radio reported about the invitation and about the Academy in Stuttgart.
On the day when the State of Israel was declared, a grandiose parade took place with flags and banners, singing and dancing. In the Center synagogue a solemn prayer took place with the Agency representatives and other institutions. Leibel Rychtman finished the prayer and made the first blessing on behalf of the State of Israel. The Hebrew Hour in the Stuttgart Radio transmitted a suitable program.
When the sad news arrived about the Arab revolt against the State, immediately a Mobilization Commission was formed of volunteer youth to the Israeli army to defend the infant State and to conduct fundraisers.
Radomer Brigadier Soldiers in the Center
An extraordinary satisfaction was the visit (in 1946) of the Radomer Brigade soldiers Ezekiel Grossfeld, Dov Bennett and Schmuel Nem-Zuker.
They brought lists of surviving Radomers published in the Eretz Israel press.
Radomers Seeking the Murderers of Their Nearest
Immediately after the creation of the center a group of Radomers organized themselves with the holy work to bring the murderers of Radomer Jewry to justice.
Moshe Perle, Ackerman, Yehushe Kuperwassar, Leibel Rychtman, Kopel Zuker, Simcha Librach and others travelled
[the British Zone] in pursuit of Radom's top criminals. They succeeded, after much effort, to obtain addresses of the many SS men, among them of the camp director of the Vaihingin concentration camp, Obersturmfuhrer Lautenschlager.
The writer of these lines, with the American police went to his home to look for him. We undertook a quick action to collect indictment evidence which was sent to the proper war tribunal, the guilty were presented before the court. Stormtrooper Frick, the brutal sadist, who instilled fear and panic when the Jews worked in the Witwurnia [armament factory]. He was captured by Zuker, Librach and Rychtman in a small town near Stuttgart. He was condemned to prison for many years.
In 1946 our landsman Tuvia Friedman visited the center, who was the director of the Historical Documentation Institute in Vienna, (author of Fifteen Years I chased after Adolf Eichmann [The Hunter]. Together with Perle, Kuperwasser and Ackerman, they left to search for the Radomer SS Police Director General Boettcher and his right hand man, Stormtrooper Blum. The work succeeded and these two war criminals were handed over to the Polish government in Radom where they were sentenced to death and publicly hanged.
Being in Stuttgart, Friedman was asked to continue his search in Austria for the criminal Commissioners of the Radomer weapons factory: Peronik, Reich, Miller and Yanken.
After a short while Friedman sent news from Vienna to Stuttgart that these persons are already in his hands and are ready to go to trial.
Also, several center inhabitants were witnesses at the lengthy trial in Rastatt (near Baden- Baden) testifying against the notorious SS guards: Herzog, Hacker [Hecker] Pospischil, Piel and others who held important positions in Radom and afterwards, to Vaihingen where they found Dr. Dietman, who was responsible for the medical treatment in the Vaihingen concentration camp. Five of them, with Hecker at the head, were sentenced to death. The others-long prison terms. During this trial a Jewish Kapo from Radom was also convicted.
Unions in the Center
Radomers in External Institutions
Artists Touring in the Center
The first Yiddish folk singer who was welcomed with great enthusiasm at the Center was Emma Lazarov- Schaver, sent by the American Jewish World Congress.
The first Jewish radio program in post war Germany was transmitted from Stuttgart. Speeches were transmitted by Dr. Chaim Hoffman, (Dr. Yachiel, today leader of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs), Agency representative Naftali Hertz Antman and musical renditions by the singer Emma Schaver.
Thanks to the initiative of Mordehai Gertner the following were engaged: the Theatre Troupe from Landsberg, the Theatre troupe Mikat the well known folk singer Lola Polman, Newman Urbach (fiddle), Efroim Zeigelboim (recitations) and Korenblit (dance), Max Mixer and Dagmara (dance), the famous Israeli pianist Pnina Zaltzman; theatre troupe In The Desert from Foerenwald; the singer Raina Simon; Sarah and Jacob Crossman and Perlmutter; S. Zwillik, Chaia Shipper, Lifschitz, Herrman Yablakov; Happy-boys orchestra; Munich National Yiddish Theatre and many others.
The Center Residents that Perished
In August 1945, in a motorcycle accident in Stuttgart, the Radomer Miriam Lastman died (a daughter of Jacob Lastman).
In October 1945, the following centre inhabitants were shot by unknown bandits: Avraham Yaskolka and Zachariah Seidel.
In November 1945, in automobile accident near Frankfurt, the Radomer Benjamin Rosenberg died.
On the way to Eretz Israel in the beginning of 1946, the Radomer Israel Kaplan was murdered by Ukrainian bandits in Italy.
In April, in an automobile accident in Stuttgart, the Radomer Berman died (a son of the ritual-slaughterer Shmarya Berman)
All the above mentioned passed through the Seven Gates of Hell during the Nazi regime.
A Memorial to the Deceased in the Vaihingen Concentration Camp
Thanks to the initiative of the Center Committee in 1946, on the site of the concentration camp, a huge rocky monument was erected to the memory of the 1,600 victims who perished, among them hundreds of Jews mostly from Radom. Among the participants were former inmates and important representatives of the Military Government and Jewish Institutions. The eulogy was given by Marek Gutman and the memorial-prayer- Leibel Rychtman. The text on the monument was engraved in five languages, also Hebrew.
Also individual tombstones were erected in Vaihingin: the graves of David Frenkel, Moshe Mintzberg and others.
On the orders of the French Military Government, German workers, under the supervision of the Vainhingen mayor, performed an exhumation of victims buried in mass graves (shortly after the war), Jews and non Jews. The victims were brought for burial in the cemetery on the grounds of the camp and on each grave a plaque was placed with the name of the victim. As recounted by recent visitors to Vaihingen, the cemetery is cared for with great respect.
Jewish books Published in Stuttgart
On the basis of a license-agreement with the Center newspaper Ojf der Frei, the following books were published in Stuttgart: Siedem Piekiel by Center resident Tadeusz Stobholtz and Jewish Agriculture in Stanislav Voivodeship [province] by Jacob [Yacov] Babitsky.
Through private initiatives, the following books were also published; Y. Zerubavel-Mountain of Destruction; magistrate Benzion Feldshuh- Survivors Bibliography; A. Pshedborsky-Poems; B.Ellis-In Such a World; Yivo- Yiddish spelling.
by Leibel Rychtman
Translated by Anita Frishman Gabbay
The Murder of our Landsman Shmuel Danziger
Friday March 29, 1946, our Radomer Landsman Shmuel Danziger was murdered in the Center.
This is how the events enfolded:
An estimated 250 uniformed German police, armed with United States Army rifles and accompanied by police dogs, encircled the Center (on the Reinsberg and Bismarck Streets) at 6:15 in the morning, the 29th of March 1946. Several uniformed Germans and secret police, fully armed, entered the Jewish militia office in the Centre and demanded possession of the five weapons stored there for emergency cases. The Jews refused and called the US military police; several MP's arrived and ordered the German police to leave.
Meanwhile, the Germans announced through a loudspeaker, in Polish and German, that they would conduct a search of the buildings, authorized by the American military government, and that everyone, except mothers with their infants, was to leave their rooms and assemble in the courtyards.
This order however was contrary to the ordinance of the military government, that the German police could only enter a DP camp when accompanied by the American military police. With light [flashlights] we searched for an American policeman. However, no-one could be found. Opposite us, as we saw large columns of uniformed German police with weapons, ready to shoot and with rubber -whips in their hands.
The awakened Center population looked through the windows and saw the battle-ready lines of Germans in uniform, with their guns aimed at the buildings. To them it seemed like a nightmare, reminiscent of events in the concentration camps and ghettos during the heyday of Nazism. This was an unprecedented site in Stuttgart and the people considered it illegal. The conduct of the Germans was discourteous and rough. When the police entered one of the buildings on Reigenburgstrasse, they encountered a Radomer man slowly walking down the stairs. Pointing a gun at him, they shouted: faster you cursed [damned] Jew! Get things done faster?
The man refused to move, in protest, and after a scuffle he was handcuffed and led to the street by four policemen. His neighbors rushed to his side; a Jewish militia man attempted to release him. The Germans fired and wounded the militia man in the leg. Two friends brought him to the clinic. Aroused by the sound of shooting and the sight of blood, the Jews cried, clear out the murderers! Men and women ran to their houses and grabbed cans, pots, sticks, calling for resistance against the Germans.
The sound of the shots and the blood of the wounded brought back gruesome memories.
In the meantime, the police, were plundering some apartments, destroying Jewish property, demolishing and tearing pictures, curtains and books. In other homes they took packages of cigarettes boxes of milk, women's clothing, shoes and stuffing other things into their pockets.
The wrath grew and grew, minute by minute.
At the sight of the angry advancing Jews, the Germans retreated with their rifles at the ready.
A group of 50 Jews started a resistance. They threw empty bottles and pots and other things. At that moment several bullets were fired and a person falls down dead, Samuel Danziger. Two other Jews were wounded.
As witnesses later recounted, a German guard aimed directly at him, the German police were still not satisfied and the shootings continued for another two minutes. One bullet went through a window of the out-patient clinic. The masses started to attack the German police with whatever they had in their hands, forcing them to retreat to nearby streets.
About 200 men and women moved toward the police cordon hurling bottles and pots. The Germans fired another volley and wounded three more men. Samuel Danziger was about to lift an empty gasoline can; a German Sergeant walked over to him and fired point blank at his head. Danziger was killed instantly. At that moment a detachment of military police arrived with an armored cars and ordered the Germans to withdraw from the Center. The police cars left behind by the Germans were then demolished by the Jews.
The funeral service for Danziger was held that same day. All the inhabitants of the Centre attended.
The cortege draped in a blue-white flag was carried by members of the Jewish committee. As part of the security precautions taken by the military government the Jews were not permitted to march to the cemetery, instead they were driven in a convoy of 60 trucks through the city streets to the ancient Jewish burial grounds. Military honors were given to Danziger during his last rites.
Marek Gutman presided at the open grave. The funeral prayer was delivered by the military rabbi Cohen. Hazan Moshe Rontal performs the memorial and the brother-in-law of Danziger recites the Kaddish [prayer for the dead].The spasmodic cries of the widow and her two children reaches the heart of the heavens.
The events in Stuttgart shocked the world and inflamed feelings among the Jews throughout Germany. Protest meetings were held in all displaced persons camps. At a huge rally in Stuttgart, attended by delegations from Jewish centres in Munich [Military-government, UNRRA, Joint and Jewish Agency] the Jews were urged to remain calm and demonstrate to the world that they were a peace loving people.
Those protested with strong speeches: David Treger, from Central Committee in Munich, Marek Gutman, Moshe Kirschenblatt, representative of the Jewish central-organization in Germany; UNRRA, Joint, Municipality, and the Military Chaplain Cohen. In the name of the Central-Committee, Marek Gutman delivered a memorandum to the appointed American Military Government representative, a coronel, who offered condolences to grieving family and reassured them,
that as long as the American army remains on German soil, such incidences will never reoccur.
The situation in Stuttgart and critical conditions in all other camps were cited as additional proof of the need to open the gates of Palestine to Jewish immigration. The American officer, speaking as a representative of the military government declared that as long as United States troops remained in Germany, a repetition of such provocative acts by the Germans would not be tolerated.
General McNarney, commander of the United States forces in Europe, indeed resented the authority for German police to enter Jewish displaced persons camps.
The murder of Samuel Danziger had its repercussions in Washington: a memorandum, signed by Henry Monsky, protesting the handling of the Stuttgart raid was given to Secretary of State James F. Byrnes by a delegation of the Jewish World Congress. Such a shameful act, the death of the concentration-camp survivor in Stuttgart, compromised the good name of the United States of America and its democratic principles, for which they fought in World War II.
Representative Emanuel Seller of New York demanded the punishment of all officials responsible for permitting and conducting the raid in Stuttgart.
The developments in strict guard were widely reported in the American press and the impact on public opinion resulted in a more liberal policy toward the Jews.
He was born in Radom in 1910, son of Noah. From his early youth he belonged to a National Youth movement and was very involved in their ranks.
In 1939, during the German- Polish war, he participated in the battle at Wielen.
He tasted the Radom Ghetto and was sent for forced labour to the armament factory in Pianki.
In October 1944, he was sent to Auschwitz and from there to Sosnowiec, then returned back by foot to Mauthausen, and from there to Gusen, where on the 17th of May 1944, he was liberated by the French Army.
Being sick, the French sent him to a sanatorium in Paris, where he stayed until January 1946.
His wife Rifka, born Mandelboim, and their two children, were liberated in Auschwitz on January 17th 1944, by the Soviet army.
Knowing that his family survived and are in a DP Camp in Stuttgart, Shmuel made arrangements to join his family.
The next morning, after his arrival in Stuttgart he was killed by a German bullet at the age of 35.
His father Noah Danziger was a teacher of Hebrew and Tanach and one of the elders of the Zionist movement, as well as a reader in a Zionist Minyan.
by Sarah Neidik-Wallach
Translated by Anita Frishman Gabbay
It is now the beginning of 1946. The refugees from the Nazi -Hell are still homeless, waiting in the refugee centers in Germany, Austria and Italy. Almost all the war- enlisted returned home to their fatherlands, but the gate of the Jewish fatherland is still closed.
Jewish and non -Jewish delegations met in all the camps, in order to familiarize themselves with the needs of the refugees and provide them with documents, but the ears of the inviting countries were blocked and they could not hear the pleading of the Jewish refugees.
A group of youth from Stuttgart, mostly Radomers, took matters into their own hands. They had become desensitized to the empty promises and hopeless waiting and to eating the gifted bread. They decided: to no longer wait for charity from foreign entities, to procure their own documents with their own resources and to forge a route to Eretz Israel.
We embarked on an illegal route to reach our goal. The road was a long one and a difficult one, with stumbles and dangers. To our joy, we were not the only ones. In Italy we met up with other groups in a similar situation, among them, many Radomers.
For three months we remained in in a faraway corner of Italy, in destroyed houses with broken roofs,
in unsanitary conditions. There was a shortage of bread and clothing. Sometimes we slept in our clothing in case we had to run away from the raging sea.
In those days, our Radomer, Israel Kaplan, of blessed memory, was murdered by a Ukrainian bandit. He was brought to the Jewish cemetery in Milan. It took us a long time to recover from this heartache.
The difficult conditions and the forced waiting for an opportune time, brought many colleagues to despair and they resigned from our group; the remaining group looked for other means[illegal].
We sat around with anxiety and waited for a boat which will bring us to Eretz Israel. There was joy among our group when the announcement came, the ship was arriving….
It was a dark evening without stars in the sky. Our group leaders helped with the embarkation of the people with their parcels onto the boat. When day-light broke, we saw the overflow: the boat was full of refugees from all parts of Europe, among them, also Radomers, who were overjoyed to see us.
After several days at sea, an English boat intercepted us and ordered us to change course in the direction of Cyprus. We refused and energetically protested.
The English employed force and a battle ensued, until the port of Haifa, where our boat ended up on sand-bank and we were forced to surrender. We were sent to Cyprus.
In the camps in Cyprus, we found our Radomers, who came from various countries. Their numbers reached 70. Among them, several children were born in Cyprus.
Later the transportation of people from Cyprus to Eretz Israel began, according to a list.
Each one of us had to wait his turn. The time we spent in Cyprus did not go to waste.
We used the time for cultural activities, studied Hebrew, and those that knew it taught the others.
Finally, with the newly born State of Israel, the last of the detainees in Cyprus were freed. The largest part went straight into the military and had the privilege of participating in the War of Independence, which decided the independence of our country.
by M.D. Gisser
Translated by Janie Respitz
|Growing up and arising
Is a new young generation,
Ready to span over many lands
When the hour strikes.
Over rivers and seas
Nothing will stop them,
Girded by passionate desires
With the sweat of their limbs
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