“Nagyecsed” - Encyclopedia of Jewish
Communities in Hungary
(Hungary)

47°52' 22°24'

Translation of the “Nagyecsed” chapter from
Pinkas Hakehillot Hungary

Edited by: Theodore Lavi

Published by Yad Vashem

Published in Jerusalem, 1975


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Acknowledgments

Our sincere appreciation to Yad Vashem
for permission to put this material on the JewishGen web site.

This is a translation from: Pinkas Hakehillot Hungary: Encyclopedia of Jewish Communities, Hungary,
Edited by Theodore Lavi, published by Yad Vashem, Jerusalem. Pages 366-367.


This material is made available by JewishGen, Inc. and the Yizkor Book Project for the purpose of
fulfilling our mission of disseminating information about the Holocaust and destroyed Jewish communities.
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JewishGen, Inc. makes no representations regarding the accuracy of the translation. The reader may wish to refer to the original material for verification.
JewishGen is not responsible for inaccuracies or omissions in the original work and cannot rewrite or edit the text to correct inaccuracies and/or omissions.
Our mission is to produce a translation of the original work and we cannot verify the accuracy of statements or alter facts cited.


[Page 366]

Nagyecsed

Translated by Jerrold Landau

Donated by Aaron Slotnik

Nagyecsed is a town in the District of Szátmar, near the Kraszna River, 50 kilometers from Nyiregyháza. It is known for its famous fortress, which played a role in the many battles that took placed there during the 16th and 17th centuries. Its population in 1941 was 7,534.

 

Jewish Population

Year Population
1815 16
1880 117
1900 236
1930 533
1941 600
1963 3 families

 

Until the Second World War

The first Jews arrived in Nagyecsed at the end of the 18th century, after the draining of the Ecsedi–láp swamps, which gave Nagyecsed fertile ground. Its farmers were blessed with bountiful crops of sugar beets, potatoes, and grain. The economic success attracted Jews to the area.

Most of the Jews of Nagyecsed were merchants of grain and other agricultural products. The minority were tradesmen, including a shoemaker, carpenter, butcher, and tailor. Others were wagon drivers, leasers of estates, a physician, and an owner of a flourmill. A few supplied wood for building.

The community was Orthodox, and its members were known for the great piety. The birthrate was very high, with an average of seven or eight children per family.

In the town, there was a Chevra Kadisha [burial society], synagogue (built in 1850), cemetery, mikva [ritual bath], Chevra Mishnayos [Mishna study group], Chevra Shas [Talmud study group], Gemilut Chasadim organization [charitable organization], women's organization, and Tiferet Bachurim.

There was a rabbi, shochet [ritual slaughterer], shamash [beadle], and melamed [teacher of children] serving the community.

There was no Jewish school in Nagyecsed. The children studied in the Christian school, and received religion lessons from a Jewish teacher. In 1920, a special building was built for the Talmud Torah, including the cheder.

During the years of the Revolution of the Left and the White terror (1919–1922), the Jews of Nagyecsed suffered greatly from gangs of hooligans, first Romanians, and then Hungarians. Some Jews were imprisoned in a Blockade Camp.

With the issuance of the discrimination laws in 1939, the farmers continued

[Page 367]

to work on their lands – a rare occurrence in Hungary during those days.

 

The Holocaust

In 1941, 120 Jewish men of Nagyecsed were taken for forced labor and sent to Ukraine. Only a few survived.

In 1942, the government banned business with Jewish shops. Having no choice, they began to peddle slaughtered fowl in the communities of the region.

With the German conquest in 1944, the Jews of Nagyecsed began to be separated from their Christian neighbors, and they were forbidden to appear on the roads of the town. They could go out to purchase food for only one hour a day, at noon. Immediately after Passover, the Jews of Nagyecsed were concentrated in the synagogue and the home of the rabbi. Two days later, 600 Jews of Nagyecsed, including the old rabbi of the community, Rabbi David Teitelbaum (1912–1944), were transported to the Mátészalka ghetto, from where they were taken to Auschwitz.

A few of the forced labor workers as well as some Auschwitz survivors returned after the war. They found the synagogue destroyed and the cemetery desecrated. They revived the community with the assistance of the JOINT.

When the State of Israel arose, most of the Jews of Nagyecsed decided to make aliya to the Land. The community sold the Talmud Torah building and the lot that was designated for the building of a new synagogue. They used the money to finance the aliya of the group, which also included refugees from Romania who reached Nagyecsed in various ways.

The community was liquidated in 1963, and only three families remained.

 

Sources and Bibliography:
Yad Vashem Archives E 7–4/113–114.
Borovszky: Szatmár vármegye, p. 122. In: Magyarország vm–i.
Fényes, E: Magrarország geographiai szótára, p. 289.

 


This material is made available by JewishGen, Inc. and the Yizkor Book Project for the purpose of
fulfilling our mission of disseminating information about the Holocaust and destroyed Jewish communities.
This material may not be copied, sold or bartered without JewishGen, Inc.'s permission. Rights may be reserved by the copyright holder.


JewishGen, Inc. makes no representations regarding the accuracy of the translation. The reader may wish to refer to the original material for verification.
JewishGen is not responsible for inaccuracies or omissions in the original work and cannot rewrite or edit the text to correct inaccuracies and/or omissions.
Our mission is to produce a translation of the original work and we cannot verify the accuracy of statements or alter facts cited.

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