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Appendix I {Cont.}

KLOBUCKO (P). Sefer Klobutsk; Mazkeret Kavod Le-kehila Ha-kodosha She-hushmed (The Book of Klobucko; In Memory of a Martyred Community which was Destroyed). Tel Aviv, Former Residents of Klobucko in Israel, 1960. (Yiddish) "Klobucker Wedding Customs," by Barukh Shimkovitch, pp. 58-59

There was no kapelye in Klobutsko, so either the Zaloshner or Vloyner kapelyes were hired for celebrations. The Vloyner kapelye had five persons; the Zaloshner only four, so the Zaloshner kapelye cost two less rubles than the other kapelye. In town, the Zaloshner klezmorim were known as grimplers.

KOBYLNIK (P). Sefer Kobylnik (Memorial Book of Kobilnik*). Ed.: I. Siegelman. Haifa, Committee of Former Residents of Kolbilnik in Israel, 1967. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "The Wedding Ceremony," by Dvora Bakhman, pp. 53-6. (Hebrew)

At the wedding feast everyone ate, drank, and danced. The kapelye played everything from a sherele to a tango. The dancing lasted to dawn.

KOIDANOVO (P). Koydenov; Zamlbukh tsum Ondenk fun di Koydever Kedoyshim (Koidanov; Memorial Volume of the Martyrs of Koidanov) Ed.: A. Raisen. New York, United Koidanover Assn., 1955. (Yiddish) "At Poor Weddings," pp. 98-103.

Legboymer was very important for the klezmers because they could not play while it was sfire. When it was Legboymer the klezmers, under the leadership of the violinist Kaldunya, often split up so they could play at two weddings and then divvy out the total earnings according to the usual percentage each klezmer received.

KOIDANOVO (ibid.) "A Guest in My Town Koydenovo," by M. Slovin, pp. 198-207.

The author wrote about his trip back to his town in ten years after having left it in 1917. He visited the Koydanover shtibl and found out that the rabbi's daughter was getting married. Many khasidim came to the wedding.

KOLKY (R). Fun Ash Aroysgerufn (Summoned from the Ashes). By Daniel Kac. Warsaw, Czytelnik, Zydowski Instytut Historyczny w Polsce, 1983. (Yiddish)  "The Transformation of a Nign," by Daniel Kac, pp. 69-77. (photo caption: klezmer Peysakh Shnitser)

Peysakh the Klezmer was the leader of the town's kapelye. He met his tragic fate at the hands of the Nazis and Ukrainian police. He was shot while he stood naked in front of an open grave and played the violin. Legend has it that farmers have said they have heard violin music coming from the Jewish cemetery.

KOLOMYJA (P). Pinkas Kolomey (Memorial Book of Kolomey). Ed.: Sh. Bickel. New York, 1957. (Yiddish) (poem) "Yosl Klezmer Who Saved the Town From a Fire," by Naftuli Gross, pp. 251-52.

One night a large blaze lit up Kolomyja. As the firemen worked to extinguish the fire, Yosl Klezmer played his violin in the middle of the market square. He played until the fire was out. Afterward he went to the tavern, played some more, and drank the whole night.

KOLOMYJA (ibid.) "The Speech Is Affirmed at the Funeral – Thursday April 10th," by Shlomo Bikl, pp. 262-63.

The author praised and spoke about his friend Naftuli Gross, who was a known poet throughout Galicia. Gross's alter ego was the character Yosl Klezmer.

KORZEC (P). Korets (Wolyn); Sefer Zikaron Le-kehilatenu Sh-ala Aleha Ha-koret (The Koretsm Book; In Memory of Our Community that is No More*). Ed.: E. Leoni. Tel Aviv, Former Residents of Korets in Israel, 1959. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "This Is How Someone Destroyed Our Town," by Dov Bergel, pp. 338-44. (Hebrew)

Dob Bergel was one of the few survivors of the town and in his memoirs he mentioned the people he knew who perished. Among the many was Aaron, who was a religious Jew. He was the son in-law of Peysakh Klezmer.

KOPRZYWNICA (P) Sefer Pokshivnitsa (Memorial Book of Koprzywnica). Ed.: E. Erlich. Tel Aviv, Former Residents of Koprzywnica in Israel, 1971. (Hebrew, English, Yiddish) "Two Weddings in the Town," by Samuel Kozinsky, pp. 37-44. (English)

The author remembered a large khasidic wedding in town where two batkhonim, one for the bride and one for the groom, were hired, along with a kapelyes from Apt and Clementov. In contrast to this wedding, there was the wedding of the poor orphans. To pay for the poor wedding, the rich households were taxed to raise the necessary funds. However, there was not enough money to hire a kapelye, so two brothers played some violin while some young boys were given whistles and tin covers and asked to be the percussionists.

KOSOW (East Galicia). Sefer Kosow-Galicia Ha-mizrahit (Memorial Book of Kosow, Kosow Huculski). Ed.: E. Kresel. Tel Aviv, Former Residents of Kosow and Vicinity in Israel, 1964. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "Music in Kosow," pp. 138-39. (Hebrew)

Kosow was a musical town. The local klezmers were known to everyone, even those who lived as far away as Kolomyja. They played for the Jews and Poles. Many youth in the town studied violin with one of the klezmers, Yekl Khayim Nakhmanes.

KOSOW (P). Megiles Kosow (The Scroll of Kosow). By Yehoshua Gertner. Tel Aviv, Amkho, 1981. (Yiddish) "The Kosower Mountain Merchants," by Yakov (Buzia) Raykher, pp. 193-95.

Life in the Carpathian Mountains was exciting but difficult. There were Jews who traded in cattle and others who went to the synagogue to bentch gomel [Yid.: blessing said by Jews after escaping any kind of danger] after having survived a bear or wolf attack. The weddings were lively with klezmer music and a lot of drinking.

KOSTOPOL (P). Sefer Kostopol; Hayeha U-mota Shel Kehila (Kostopol; The Life and Death of a Community*). Ed.: A. Lerner. Tel Aviv, Former residents of Kostopol in Israel, 1967. (Hebrew) "Matchmakers and Weddings," pp. 43-44.

Sometimes there was a wedding in town without any festivities and klezmorim. This happened when the groom was getting remarried because his first wife died. Other times it was because the respective in-laws from both sides did not like each other. But most times, weddings were celebrated with klezmorim.

KOZIENIEC (P) Sefer Zikaron Le-kehihat Kozieniec (Memorial Book of the Community of Kozieniec) Ed.: B. Kaplinski. Tel Aviv, Former Residents of Kozieniec in Israel …, 1969. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "The Kapelye," p. 215. (Yiddish)

Itsik had three sons. He played the violin while his oldest son Shloymele played on several different instruments. Besides just playing in their father's kapelye, the sons also played in the Fireman's Orchestra. Shloymele was the conductor of the Fireman's Orchestra. The second son, Yekl, had a barber business. Meyer, the third son, was twelve years old and played the violin.

KOZIENIEC (ibid.) "Itsik Klezmer (Nodelman)," p. 253.

Itsik Klezmer and his sons had a good reputation in town. He was the leader and first violinist in the kapelye. Nearly everyone in his kapelye was a family member or relative.

There was Shmerl on bass, Meyer-Shakhnes on flute, Yisroel the Tall with the long trumpet, his son Elal on bass drum, and Khamyia on violin. They played at Jewish weddings and celebrations, gentile landowners' weddings, in towns, and in villages. They were the only kapelye in the Kozieniecer district. When Itzik played for the badekns, the wives and men swayed their heads as they all cried. Itzik played with great strength and was an immense artist.

During the Holocaust, Itzik's son Shloyme worked in the gas chambers in Treblinka. He played with the orchestra at the entrance as people were being led into the gas chamber. While he stood, he saw his nine-year-old son was being led inside. Suddenly Shloyme grabbed his son and pulled him out of the line. A SS officer saw this, kicked the boy in the stomach, and laughed. At that very moment, Shloyme smashed his violin over the SS officer's head and marched with his only child into the gas chamber.

KOZIENIEC (ibid.) "The Gabe's Wife Celebrates a Wedding," pp. 283-284.

The gabes' wives helped the poor with food, clothing, and shoes. Sometimes they also helped to make a shidukh. Once they helped Shammai the blind water porter's daughter get married. They prepared everything for the wedding, including hiring the klezmorim.

KRZEMIENIEC (P). Kremenits, Vishgorodek un Pitshayev; Yizker-Bukh (Memorial Book of Krzemieniec). Ed.: P. Lerner. Buenos Aires, Former residents of Kremenits and Vicinity in Argentina, 1965. (Yiddish) "Jews Celebrate a Wedding," pp. 322-323.

A typical Jewish wedding in Krzemieniec had music provided by Hirsh the Klezmer. His kapelye consisted of his three sons, Moyshe on violin, Yankl on trumpet, Mikhl on bass, and a drummer who also played cymbal. The music included such dances as the broyges tants, polka, quadrille, and sher. The gentile neighbors were very curious and crowded around the windows of the house to watch the celebration.

KRZEMIENIEC (P). Pinkas Kremenits; Sefer Zikaron (Memorial Book of Krzemieniec). Ed. A. S. Stein. Tel Aviv, Former Residents of Krzemieniec in Israel, 1954. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "Hirsh Klezmer," by M. Karnits, p. 403. (Yiddish)

Hirsh Klezmer's real family name was Komediant. Children would call him Komediant, but the town's Jews called him Hirsh Klezmer. His whole family made up the kapelye except for the drummer, who was also the water porter.

KRZYWICZE (P). Ner Tamid; Yizkor Le-Krivitch (Kryvitsh Yizkor Book*). Ed.: Matityahu Bar-Ratzon. Tel Aviv, Krivitsh Societies in Israel and the Diaspora, 1977. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "Customs and Traditions – A Wedding in Town," by Yosef Shmir, pp. 121-23. (Yiddish)

A wedding in the town was a happy affair for everyone, Jews and Christians alike. Yankl Klezmer played vulekhls, quadrilles, and other dances. While this happened, Christian men lined up two rows of pails full with water. This signified that the newlyweds' life should be as full of happiness as these pails were with water. As people walked by, they through coins in the pails.

KUROW (P). Yizker-Bukh Koriv; Sefer Yizkor Matsevet Zikaron La-ayaratenu Koriv (Yizkor Book in Memoriam of Our Hometown Kurow*). Ed.: M. Grossman. Tel Aviv, Former Residents of Kurow in Israel, 1955. (Yiddish) "The Grandfather Made a Quiet Wedding Without Klezmorim," by Tuvia Gutman, p. 726

The bride was only thirteen years old and already a mother. The wedding was not an official act, was not publicized, and klezmorim were not hired. Only the bride's and groom's families and relatives were at the khupe.

KUROW (ibid.) "The Mother's Head and the Mitzvah-Tants," by Tuvia Gutman, p. 727.

The morning of the wedding, the mother (of the bride) shaved her head and put a kerchief on her head. The next morning, she put on the traditional head covering. During the mitsve tants, everyone dance a korohod with the bride. Afterward, everyone sat down to a good meal.

KUTY (P). Kitever Yizker-Bukh (Kitever Memorial Book). Ed.: E. Husen. New York, Kitever Sick and Benevolent Society in New York, 1958. (Yiddish) "Family Celebrations with the Kitever Jews," pp. 60-62.

In the town there were many family celebrations. There was a bris for a baby boy and a festive meal for a baby girl. When there was a wedding, the whole town celebrated with music from the klezmers and a special khupe nign by the shames.

LACHOWICZE (P) Lachowicze; Sefer Zikaron (Memorial Book of Lachowicze). Ed.: Yiddish) "Reb Itche the Painter, Limestone Miner, Shoemaker, Glazier, Klezmer and Gravestone Engraver," by Shimshl Bagin Kaprisin, pp. 155-56. (Yiddish)

Reb Itche was an old skinny man with a white beard, youthful eyes, and a constant smile across his face. No matter what he was doing, he was always prepared to stop and tell a joke, riddle, or funny story. Though Reb Itche the painter, limestone miner, shoemaker, glazier, klezmer, and gravestone engraver had a many professions, he still was poor.

LACHWA: (P) Rishon La-Mered; Lachwa (First Ghetto Revolt, Lachwa*). Eds.: H. A. Malachi et al. Jerusalem, The Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora, 1957. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "Shlomo Muzikant," by A. Faynberg. (Hebrew)

Shlomo Muzikant was born in Luniniec into a family of klezmorim. After high school he went into the Polish army and became an officer. That was unusual for a Jew at that time. Eventually he moved to Lachwa and became a teacher in the Polish public school, where he taught Judaism.

LASK (P). Lask; Sefer Zikaron (Memorial Book Lask). Ed.: Z. Tzurnamal. Tel Aviv, Assoc. of Former Residents of Lask in Israel, 1968. (Hebrew, English, Yiddish) "Klezmorim," by Yekhil Naymen, pp. 96-97. (Yiddish)

Though Khayml Klezmer's whole life was spent in poverty, he and his fellow shpilmans enjoyed playing at weddings. At poor weddings Khayml and his kapelye played for free but were given all the whiskey they wanted to drink. Once the kapelye traveled to play for a gentile landowner. Along the way they all tragically all died in a fire.

LASK (ibid.) "Short Stories," by Zav, pp. 106-113. (Yiddish)

In Lask there was no theatre or movie house, but there were some holy institutions like the big synagogue, a large besmedresh, two Gerer shtiblekh, one Alexander shtibl, and a row of buildings that housed several organizations including the Charity for Unmarried Women. Once Khayml Klezmer and his kapelye performed for an old maid and her groom who got married with help from the Charity for Unmarried Women.

LENIN (P) Kehilat Lenin; Sefer Zikaron (The Community of Lenin; Memorial Book). Ed.: M. Tamari. Tel Aviv, Former Residents of Lenin in Israel and in the USA, 1957. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "The Status of Culture in Our Town," by Avraham Yitskhok Slutski, pp. 253-55. (Yiddish)

There was a bookbinder from Pinsk who started a theatre troupe in the town. All winter they rehearsed, and on Purim they presented their plays. On Purim all the actors in their costumes and many of the townspeople including Christians paraded through the streets led by a kapelye. Once, after the play was performed, the police came looking for the director. They were suspicious that he might be a revolutionary.

LESKO (P). Sefer Yizkor; Mukdash Le-yehudei Ha-ayarot She-nispu Ba-shoa Be-shanim 1939-44, Linsk, Istrik… Ve-ha-seviva (Memorial Book; Dedicated to the Jews of Linsk, Istrik… and Vicinity Who Perished in the Holocaust in the Years 1939-44). Eds.: N. Mark and Sh. Friedlander. Tel Aviv, Book Committee of the "Libai" Organization, 1965. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "Town Celebrations," by Shimon Friedlander, pp. 161-66. (Yiddish)

Linsk was a small town and maintained some of its own customs. Customs like when the bride walked to the khupe, she carried two hard-boiled eggs in her bosom that meant she should breed well. The town had no kapelye so they brought in klezmers from Istriker. The day after the wedding the attendants checked the sheets of the newlyweds. If there was a problem there was blushing among the wives and gossip for a week. The wedding then was known as treyf and spoiled.

LESKO (ibid.) "Three Village Weddings," by Natan Mark, pp. 293-98. (Yiddish)

The author described three different weddings. At one wedding two people were shot dead. Two gentiles were caught and justice was meted out. This wedding was known as the "black wedding." Another wedding was of a Polish and Ruthenian Jewish couple. And the third wedding employed two batkhonim. One who spoke in Yiddish and the other in Polish.

LIPNO (P). Sefer Lipno; B-hotsat Irgun Yotsay Lipno V-haseviva (Memorial Book Lipno). Ed.: Shmuel Alon (Domb). Tel Aviv, 1988. (Yiddish) "A Wedding in the Shtetl," by Domzinski, pp. 156-58.

Two shamesim carried lanterns borrowed from the khevre-kedishe and led the bride and groom to the synagogue courtyard. The kapelmayster was a bum, but polite and played with a sweet and fascinating tone.

LOSICE (P). Loshits; Lezeykher an Umgebrakhte Kehile (Losice; In memory of a Jewish Community Exterminated by Nazi Murderers*). Ed.: M. Shener. Tel Aviv, Former Residents of Losice in Israel, 1963. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "Yokl Poyker," by Duvid Rozl, p. 188. (Yiddish)

Yokl was a small, solidly built man and his drum was nearly as big as he was. He and his two sons played for the town's poor weddings. Rich weddings brought in klezmers from Semiatycze or from Siedlice with Izikl Batkhn (from Siedlice). However, all the Losicers insisted that Yokl had to be the drummer at these weddings.

LUBLIN (P). Lublin (Lublin Volumn*). Eds.: N. Blumenthal and M. Korzen. Jerusalem, The Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora, 1957. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "Yuntil Klezmer Plays for His People," by M. Sh. Gashori, pp. 591-98. (Hebrew)

Both Jews and non-Jews of Lublin and Warsaw remember Yuntil Klezmer's violin music, which he played at weddings and balls. His name was surrounded in stories and legends about his virtuosity. He was also a noted composer who wrote batkhones, khazones, and klezmer music. He was born in Meziritsh in 1827 and died in Warsaw in 1892.

LUNINIEC (P). Yizkor Kehilot Luniniec/Kozhanhorodok (Memorial Book of the Communities of Luniniec/Kozhanhorodok). Eds.: Y. Zeevi (Wilk) et al. Tel Aviv, Assoc. of Former Residents of Luniniec/Kozhanhorodok in Israel, 1952. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "Klezmorim," by Moshe Ackerman, pp. 204-205.

When there was a wedding or a bris in town, Yakov the Klezmer and his family kapelye played. Before the wedding they played either a polka or quadrille for the bride and her girlfriends. For the in-laws they played a mazltov dance and at the end of the droshe-geshank the kapelye received a percentage of the money that was given.

LUNINIEC (ibid.) "The Klezmer," by Yosef Zabi, pp. 220-21. (photo of Yakov Muzikant and his wife.)

The local klezmer kapelye was the Muzikant family. The leader Moshe Leyb eventually immigrated to America, followed by several other klezmorim.

MAKOV-MAZOWIECKI (P). Sefer Zikaron Le-kehilat Makow-Mazowiecki (Memorial Book of the Community of Makow-Mazowieciki). Ed.: J. Brat. Tel Aviv, Former Residents of Makow-Mazowieciki in Israel, 1969. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "My Town Makov," by Doba Gudes Kalina, pp. 154-57. (photo caption: A group [of] youths celebrating with members of the Makover klezmorim. Shlomo Modrikamyen and his son Zalmen Fodl in 1919) (Yiddish)

Shabes was an idyllic time in the town. Nearly every Friday evening a bride was led to the khupe as the townspeople rejoiced. When the elderly rabbi finally decided to immigrate to Israel, the town saw him off with lowered heads and heavy hearts.

MAKOV-MAZOWIECKI (ibid.) "The Kosker Rebe Asks a Klezmer From Makov to Play at Jewish Weddings," by Yehuda Rosenthal, pp. 433-34. (Yiddish)

The father of the khasid Reb Yehoshua Yakov from Makov was a simple Jew who made a living playing at weddings. The rules of the Makover Jewish community stated that no other klezmer could play at weddings in the town except for this klezmer, as it was his only means for a livelihood. When he died, the town made his son Yehoshua-Yekl the town klezmer. However, he could not decide if he should play at weddings where women danced, so he went to the Kosker Rebe for advice. The Rebe advised him that one needs to enjoy himself after much toil but this enjoyment should be engaged in a spiritual way. So Yehoshua-Yekl went home and played at the weddings with his face turned to the wall so he could not see the women dancing. When the Kosker Rebe was married to his second wife, the Makover klezmer played at the wedding.

MIELNICA (RU). Melnitza, Pelakh Volyn-Ukrainah Sefer Hantsaha 'edot Ve-zikaron Le-kehilat Melnitsah (Melnitza; In memory of the Jewish Community*). Ed.: Joshua Lior. Tel Aviv, Melnitza Survivors in Israel and the Diaspora, 1994. (Henrew, Yiddish, English) "Yidl With His Fiddle…," p. 150 (Drawing of klezmorim) (Yiddish)

This poem was about two klezmers, Yidl and Berl, who used to play Yiddish songs on the streets. "They were devoured by wild beasts. Now the streets are silent."

MIKULINCE (AH). Mikulince; Sefer Yizkor (Mikulince Yizkor Book*). Ed.: Haim Preshel. The Organization of Mikulincean Survivors in Israel and in the U.S.A., 1985. (Hebrew, English) "The Klezmorim of Mikulince," by Yitzhak Schwartz, pp. 192-94 (English)

The kapelye was made up of all family members except for the clarinetist, drummer, another violinist, and a Pole who played accordion. Outsiders were never considered as equal partners. The klezmorim had to work two jobs to make ends meet. Once, after a hard day's work, Naftuli Bass fell asleep while playing his bass. This angered the kapelmayster, who awoke Naftuli, who then immediately played at a faster tempo. This angered the kapelmayster even more.

MINSK (B). Minsk; Ir Ve-em (Minsk, Jewish Mother City; Memorial Anthology*). Ed.: Shlomo Even-Shushan. Israel, Minsk Society, Ghetto Fighters' House, ha-Kibbutz ha-Meuhad, 1975-v. 1. (Hebrew) "Melodies of the Klezmer," by Tsvi Gordon, pp. 528-29.

At the end of the nineteenth century, all weddings in town were done according to the Shulkhn Arukh [Heb.: the collection of laws and prescriptions governing the life of an orthodox Jew]. The klezmorim played and the batkhn Eliakum Zunser sang songs. Itche Duvid was the leader of the kapelye. After the bazetsn, he played a nign he called shteyger. Sometimes, to entertain the guests, he played his violin behind his back without missing a note.

MINSK-MAZOWIECKI (P). Sefer Minsk-Mazowiecki (Minsk-Mazowieciki Memorial Book*). Ed.: Ephraim Shedletzky. Jerusalem, Minsk-Mazowieciki Societies in Israel and Abroad, 1977. (Hebrew, English, Yiddish) "Streets and People," by Yisroelke Himlfarb, pp. 328-33. (Yiddish)

After revisiting Minsk after World War II, the author remembered the differences in the town from his boyhood days. The local klezmer band, the son, and the clarinetist were all close friends of the author.

MIR (P). Sefer Mir (Memorial Book of Mir). Ed.: N. Blumenthal. Jerusalem, The Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora, 1962. (Hebrew, English, Yiddish) "Childhood," by Mendl Tabashnik, pp. 537-8. (Yiddish)

The Polish government officials, priests, and other dignitaries came to visit the schools. The gentile schools purposely failed to tell the Jewish schools they had also been invited. Nevertheless, Mendl Tabashnik took matter[s] in his own hands and led the Jewish children in exercises (to the accompaniment of the local klezmer orchestra), so they could have their own celebration.

MLYNOW – MARVITS (P). Sefer Mlynow-Marvits (Mlynow-Muravica Memorial Book*). Ed.: J. Sigelman. Haifa, Former Residents of Mlynow-Muravica in Israel, 1970. (Yiddish, Hebrew) "A Wedding in Mlynow," by Sylvia Barditch-Goldberg, pp. 27-29.

There was a big khasidic wedding in town that hired two kapelyes. One came from Loystk and the other from Alyk. The Alyker kapelye was led by Lazar the batkhn, while Itsik the Klezmer, who was deaf, led the Loystker kapelye on the violin. When the bride and groom were each led to the khupe, the rabbi greeted them in Hebrew, Russian, and Yiddish. During the festivities the kapelye played for the guests a variety of dances such as padespans, wingerkas, quadrilles, mazurkas, krakowiaks, freylekhs, a sher, and a lancer.

MLYNOW-MARVITS (ibid.) "The Groom Is Coming," pp. 172-74. (Yiddish)

For several generations, the wedding customs of the town remained the same: klezmorim accompanied the groom into town, played for the batkhn, and accompanied the bride and groom to and from the khupe. The batkhn was responsible for entertaining everyone all evening. After the formal ceremony, the klezmorim played all night long.

MLYNOW-MARVITS (ibid.) "A Bris," p. 174. (Yiddish)

A bris was a special event even though it was smaller than a wedding celebration. The klezmorim were hired to help celebrate the occasion.

MLYNOW-MARVITS (ibid.) "Other Celebrations," pp. 175-77. (Yiddish)

When there was either a new Sefer Toyre or Aron Hakoydesh dedicated, it was celebrated with as much joy as a wedding. The Sefer Toyre was carried under a khupe while the Alyker klezmers played and people danced. The celebration lasted all day.

MOGIELNICA (P). Sefer Mogielnica-Bledow (Book of Mogielnica-Bledow). Ed.: Yisrael Zunder. Tel Aviv, Mogielnica and Bledow Society, 1972. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "Klezmorim," by Yisroel Zonder, pp. 321-23.

The kapelye consisted of the kapelmayster, who played the trumpet, his sons and two nonfamily members. After they got paid, each klezmer got a percentage of the payment according to the hierarchy of the kapelye. The kapelmayster got the largest percentage; then the first and then the second violinist, etc. After the wedding, arguments in klezmer-loshn were heard from the kapelmayster's home about who was paid what percentage and why.

NOVOSELITSA (L) Novoselitsa. Ed. Shalom Dorner. Tel Aviv. Irgun Yotse Novoselitsa be-Yisrael, 1983. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "The Jewish Orchestra That Almost Was," by R. Yehoshua Markus, p. 62 (photo of kapelye)

In the town the gypsy band played at all the Jewish occasions. However, once they refused to play a request at a celebration. So some Jews who played in the Russian bands decided to put together their own kapelye. They went to play a wedding when the gypsies heard this and begged them not to compete with their band. The gypsies promised to behave, so the kapelye took pity on them and disbanded.

NOWY SACZ (P). Sefer Sants (The Book of the Jewish Community of Nowy Sacz*). Ed.: R. Mahler. New York, Former Residents of Sants in New York, 1970. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "The Beginning of Yiddish Theatre in Naysants," by Khayim Flaster, pp. 519- 23.

In the summer of 1898, the Yiddish Theatre came to Naysants. The leader of the troupe was Vaynberger. He was a good actor and director and his wife, Mrs. Schvarts, had a beautiful voice. In this troupe were the famous Weisenfrainds from Lemberg, with their two small children. The boy was Phillip, who was a good character actor and comedian, and the daughter, Sala, was a soubrette with a good voice. Besides them there were twelve others in the troupe. While in Naysants, the two children learned with Rabbi Shabatay in kheder. Phillip later on became the famous actor known as Paul Muni.

Since Naysants did not have a theatre hall, the troupe performed in horse [s]tables owned by Mordkhay Landau. Soon the stalls looked like a regular theatre. The stalls were thoroughly cleaned, limestone was put on the walls, the footbaths were filled with sand, and a stage and gallery were constructed from wood. The troupe made their own decorations with a red curtain that had a blue harp on it. They planned to present some Goldfaden operettas and other plays, but they first had to get this accepted by the censor, Meshulam Shater. And after him, it had to be accepted by one of the local Polish authorities.

The orchestra was composed of the local klezmorim that played at all the weddings. The leader of the orchestra was Lazar, who had a beard and payes and wore a kapote and shtrayml on Shabes. It was his first time leading a theatre orchestra. There was also Nahum Goldberger on clarinet, his two brothers, Hershel on flute and Meyer on bass, and their children Wolf on the drum and cymbal, and Solke on trumpet. Then there was Mendl Tsimbler and his two sons, Zanvil and Leybush, plus Herman and Shmuel his brother. They all played wind instruments. Final[l]y there was Safir on violin and his two sons Yidl and Oskar. In this group Hirschele Folger played the violin as well.

Folger was not a known musician but a Talmud scholar. Some years later he played for khasidic weddings and made a living. In the beginning he was bashful to play in Reb Lazar's theatre orchestra because he was a religious Jew. He kept company with religious Jews and visited the Rebe on the Jewish holidays. But gradually he began to wear nice clothes and enjoyed playing in the orchestra. But he still stayed religious.

The theatre performed four times a week: Saturday night, Sunday, Tuesday, and Thursday. The crowd was always large and even included the Austrian officers who were serving their military duty in Naysants. They enjoyed hearing the Daytshmerish, which was spoken by the actors. They understood quite a bit. It was very difficult for these itinerant Yiddish theatre troupes to make a living. By the years 1904-05, the repertoire of these Yiddish theatre troupes included works by Sholom Aleichem, Dimov, Gordin, Gutzikov, and others. However, it was a constant struggle for them to earn enough just to pay their expenses, so many of the actors had several other jobs to help earn a living.

OLYKA (P). Pinkas Ha-kehila Olyka; Sefer Yizkor (Memorial Book of the Community of Olyka). Ed.: Natan Livneh. Tel Aviv, Olyka Society. 1972. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "Klezmer," pp. 206-07. (Hebrew)

The local klezmer kapelye was known for its expertise and hired by gentiles as well as Jews to play for all kinds of celebrations.

OPATOW (P). Apt (Opatow); Sefer Zikaron Le-ir Va-em Be-Yisrael (Apt; A Town Which Does Not Exist Anymore*) Ed.: Z. Yasheev. Tel Aviv, The Apt Organization in Israel, USA, Canada and Brazil, 1966. (Hebrew, English, Yiddish) "A Black Wedding in Apt," by Pinye Titl, pp. 106-07. (Yiddish)

There was a terrible cholera epidemic and the local rabbis decided to end the scourge with a "black wedding." They arranged for two orphans to be married in the local cemetery. The town turned out to celebrate as the klezmorim and the batkhn urged the guests to give gifts to the newlyweds.

OPATOW (ibid.) "A Wedding," By Eliezer Glatt, p. 108. (Yiddish)

Weddings in the town were attended by all. They were tragicomedic events, especially when Aryesh Klezmer led the kapelye in a nign or sher and everyone cried.

OPATOW (ibid.) "The Economic Structure Among Jewish Workers – Klezmers," p. 133. (Yiddish)

The kapelye s in Opatow were the Lustig and Lewak families.

OPATOW (ibid.) "Klezmorim," Pinye Titl, pp. 137-39. (photos of Khayimke Klezmer and Arish Lustik) (Yiddish)

Khayimke Klezmer lived in the 1880s. He was a talented musician and was the leader of the kapelye. He and his son were called "the Lewaks." His son Moshele was a very good player and later on played second violin in the Lodzer philharmonic. His second son, Yakov-Simkhe, finished the conservatory studying the cello. Later on he played in the Warsaw symphony orchestra. From all these capable musicians, there was Aryesh Lustik.

Lustik returned from serving in the Czar's army in the 1880s. When he was in the army, his commander asked who wanted to be in the music corps. Since Aryesh loved music, he joined. The commanding officer (who had the rank of surveyor) told him to try the clarinet. Slowly he brought it to his lips and blew; a note came out. After a few more toots his commanding officer was pleased and told him to continue. Later on he learned the fingerings and soon became one of the best clarinetists in the music corps.

Yosef Lustik was Aryesh's older brother and Khayimke's brother-in-law. He was a talented violinist with good technique and played in the kapelye as well. But Aryesh, who learned the clarinet, was also a violinist and his specialty was Jewish music. After Khayimke's death he became the first violinist in the kapelye.

At a wedding when it was time for the badekn, Aryesh listened to the batkhn's song "Y'hi Ratson" [Heb.: let if be his will] and knew exactly what to play. His violin spoke words that went to God in heaven and pleaded with him that he should watch over the bride as she went into her new life. Everyone had some tears in their eyes. Then, after the khupe, Aryesh stood by the wedding table while people were being served and began to play some more, sliding his hand back and forth on the long strings.

Another klezmer that played the violin was Meyer Wolf, Khayimke's son. He was the last of the Lewaks to play in the kapelye. He played with his eyes closed and often kept playing when the kapelye was quiet. When Aryesh played, his violin spoke of Jewish experiences. He did not play at all the Jewish weddings, so when he did, many people gathered outside the windows to listen and watch him.

During the winter the modern Yiddish theatre in Warsaw was closed, so some of the actors came to Apt and created a Yiddish theatre. The actors were amazed by Aryesh's musical talents. When he led the kapelye from the stage, they were like any Yiddish theatre, whether it was in Warsaw or Lodz.

There was a tradition in Apt to bless the new moon every month and bless the sun every twenty-eight years. In 1925, eight days before Passover, at six A.M., everyone gathered for the blessing of the sun ceremony. The rabbis had received permission to gather and greet the sunrise with music. People waited for Aryesh because they knew he had written a new melody for this special occasion. Then all of a sudden everyone heard this beautiful march. A thousand Jews gathered around the synagogue. At five A.M. the chief rabbi, Rabbi Khayim Yosef,dressed in his holiday clothes with a shtrayml, came out along with the other rabbis. The klezmorim played the Polish national anthem, then the Hatikvah. Then the public walked to the music along the wide street to the open field near the shokhtim houses. There Rabbi Khayim Yosef pointed his arm towards the east where the first rays of the sun were appearing. Everyone waited for the sign from the rabbi that told them they could now bless the sun. Then simultaneously the klezmorim took out the music that Aryesh composed and began to play. This melody written just for the blessing of the sun was talked about and remembered for a long time.

When the First of May came, the Jewish Workers Party prepared for demonstrations. The whole kapelye came with their wind instruments. They marched to the middle of the square, played the "Marsellaise" and then the "Internationale" to celebrate the workers' holiday. By the union house stood Moyshe Miler's house. Moyshe, a member of the Bund, stood on his balcony and gave a speech. At the end of it he yelled: "Long live the First of May!" Then Aryesh gave a sign to the kapelye by putting his clarinet to his mouth to play. Meyer Wolf stood with his violin under his chin with the peak of his cap down over his closed eyes while he took a nap. Then all of a sudden there was this was a loud shout, "Death to the bourgeoisie!" from the huge crowd below. Immediately Meyer Wolf woke up and began to play.

Aryesh enjoyed all kinds of music, so he often went to the home of the city's organist, who was also a singer and pianist, to play music. Aryesh played with him the necessary cultured music in town; thus the doors of all the distinguished Christian manors were always opened to Aryesh. From time to time a landowner's carriage came and picked up Aryesh, who was going to play at a Christian party. When there was a Christian ball in the city or at the manor, Aryesh brought his whole kapelye.

Aryesh gave his whole life to music and had a big heart. When other klezmorim would just shrug their shoulders when asked to play at a poor wedding, Aryesh would play for free. At these weddings Aryesh took his son or his son-in-law or his brother-in-law Leybush Poyker and made the wedding beautiful.

In 1925, there was a mining accident that buried five Polish miners. The mine was owned by a Jewish contractor, which gave the farmers in the villages an opportunity to go after the Jews. They proclaimed that "a Jewish sand contractor killed our brothers. Poles, your conscience cannot be calm. We must expel these parasites from our Polish land!" For three days the farmers came to town to visit the two who died as they lay in their coffins. The Jewish community knew that nothing good would come of it if the Poles came. Quickly some friends went to Aryesh to see if he could organize something with the church and the priests so that they would calm down this terrible situation and prevent any riot from taking place. The priests looked at each other and nodded in agreement that they would do something. Aryesh and his kapelye came and played a variety of tunes appropriate for the mourning of the two miners who were killed.

Off the wide main street lived the Lustik family. One always could hear music coming from their home. So a part of the street was called the "klezmorim street." In Aryesh's later years he played more of his own compositions. Of his eight children, all five of the boys were musicians, with Yankl and Leybush becoming the most known. One daughter, Tobele, became a skilled musician as well. Duvid, the only son who lived in Toronto, was the last of the Lustiks to play the violin. Duvid's son (Aryesh's grandson) Natan played the piano.

OPATOW (ibid.) "Khayim Barukh Batkhn," by Sh. Mitsmakher, pp. 141-42.

In Kielce and the surrounding towns the most known batkhonim were: Yankl Krakowski, Yosl Keltser, Tuvia Marshalik from Staczow, and Khayim-Borekh, who came from a family of artists. Between the batkhonim and the klezmorim, the town was well served at wedding celebrations.

OSTROG (P). Pinkas Ostra; Sefer Zikaron… (Ostrog-Wolyn; In Memory of the Jewish Community*). Ed.: H. Ayalon-Baranick. Tel Aviv, Association of Former Residents of Ostrog, 1960. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "A Wedding in Town," by Mikhl Grines, pp. 359-66.

After the wedding meal, everyone danced. Each dance had a designated price. If the hall had dance leaders, they would not allow the klezmers to be paid separately. They led everyone in a khasidishe rikudl or a something else. However, the klezmorim would ask for a better price "under the table" for the dance tunes they played. The dance leaders were competition for the klezmorim and both performed until daybreak.

OSTROLENKA (P). Sefer Kehilat Ostrolenka (Book of Kehilat Ostrolenka*). Ed.: Y. Ivri. Tel Aviv, Association of Former Residents of Ostrolenka, 1963. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "Klezmorim," by Yitzkhok Ivri, pp. 92-3. (Yiddish)

In this religious town and the neighboring towns, klezmorim were able to make a good living. They played for weddings, where the local belief was, "Life went like the playing of the music." However, the wealthy families hired klezmorim from Lomza.

OSTROW MAZOWIECKA (P). Ostrow Mazowiecka by Judah Loeb Levin, Jerusalem-Tel Aviv, Yad Yahadut Polin, 1966. (Hebrew) "A Wedding in the City," by Mikhl Grins, pp. 299-303. (Hebrew)

At weddings children gathered around the klezmorim while they tuned. When the klezmorim were not looking, the children loved to play the instruments without getting caught. The klezmorim played an assortment of dances, including one called a tush.

OSTROW-MAZOWIECKA (P). Sefer Ha-Zikaron Le-kehilat Ostrov-Mazovyetsk (Memorial Book of the Community of Ostrow-Mazowiecka). Ed.: A. Margolit. Tel Aviv, Association of Former Residents of Ostrow-Mazowieck, 1960. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "Klezmorim," pp. 373-74. (Yiddish) (photo of Shlomo Klezmer)

The klezmorim in town were poor but "purified" because their hearts and souls were full of music. They played for all the Jewish celebrations, as well as for balls held by the gentile landowners, who loved Jewish music and Jewish fish.

OSTROW-MAZOWIECKA (Ibid.) "The Wedding Canopy," pp. 379-80 (drawing of a wedding with klezmorim) (Yiddish)

For a winter wedding celebration, the klezmorim played joyous music while the people, in all their finery, danced and played in the snow. The batkhn entertained as well.

OSZMIANA (P). Sefer Zikaron Le-kehilat Oshmana (Oshmana Memorial Book*) Ed.: M. Gelbart. Tel Aviv, Oshmaner Organization in Israel and the Oshmaner Society in the USA, 1969. (Hebrew, English, Yiddish) (photo caption: The production of Shulamis led by the drama circle. Photo includes the actors and klezmorim) (Hebrew, Yiddish)

OTWOCK (P). Yizker-bukh; Otvotsk-Kartshev (Memorial Book of Otvosk and Kartshev*). Ed.: Sh. Kanc. Tel Aviv, Former Residents of Otvotsk-Kartshev, 1968. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "Batkhonim and Klezmorim,
" pp. 107-110. (Yiddish)

Two batkhonim and the klezmorim gave beauty and joy to Jewish weddings in Otwock.

OTWOCK (ibid.) "A Wedding in Otwock," by Yoel Mastboym, pp. 677-82. (Yiddish)

The news that the Czar was dead and that Piltzuki, who was sitting in prison, was released caused an outbreak of celebration with music in town. Later on a local man who was an orphan got married with the help of a gentile woman friend, who arranged everything. The townspeople laughed at the absurdity of the groom's nervousness, as he was not a young man.

OZAROW (P). (Memories of Ozarow; A Little Jewish Town That…) Ed.: Hillel Adler and Translator William Fraiberg. Montreal, Ozarow Press, 1997. (English) "The Musicians," by H. Czechowski, pp. 84-86.

When the klezmorim were not playing music then they worked as hairdressers, healers, and sometimes as tailors. One of the violinists was also the batkhn, who was married three times. Another klezmer, Moshe Lustig, owned a beauty salon with his wife. He had a radio, which was rare in town, and connected it to a speaker so passersby could hear the music. That same radio announced when Germany attacked Poland.

OZAROW (ibid.) "A Marriage in Lasocin," pp. 144-45. (English)

Two old friends decided to have their children marry each other. The bride came from the village and the groom from town. The wedding took place in Lasocin complete with a batkhn and klezmorim. The kapelye consisted of two violins and an accordion.

PARYSOW (P). Sefer Porisov (Parysow; A Memorial to the Jewish Community of Parysow, Poland*). Ed.: Y. Granastein. Tel Aviv, Former Residents of Parysow in Israel, 1971. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "A Wedding in Town," by Melekh Poskinski, pp. 152-53. (Yiddish)

In Parysow there were different wedding customs that were observed. One included hiring a gentile called the "red shaygetz," who led the mixed dances.

PARYSOW (ibid.) "A Wedding in Town," by Aron Zaygelman, pp. 178-180. (Hebrew)

Hirshele Sobiner from Sobin was a sought-after bandleader, who was known even to the Polish Congress. One had to arrange a wedding far in advance to hire him.

PINSK (P). Pinsk Sefer Edut Ve-zikaron Le-kehilat Pinsk-Karlin (Pinsk*). Ed.: N. Tamir (Mirski). Tel Aviv, Former Residents of Pinsk-Karlin in Israel, 1966-77. 3 Vols. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "The Purim Actors," by L. Morgontoy, pp. 235-36.

The shtetlekh loved to celebrate Purim. During Purim, actors and klezmorim made a good living going from house to house, despite the town's poverty.

PODHAJCE (P). Sefer Podhajce; Dos Religize un Gezelshaftlekhe Lebn (Podhajce Book; This Religious and Community Life). Ed.: M. S. Geshuri. Tel Aviv, Podhajce Society, 1972. (Hebrew, English, Yiddish) "The Religious and Community Life," by M. Pomerants, pp. 168-70. (Yiddish)

In Podhajce, weddings were held in the halls of the hotels. Sometimes the Faust kapelye was brought in from Rohatyn to play.

PRUZANA (P). Pinkas Me-hamesh Kehilot Harevot… (Memorial Book of Five Destroyed Communities…) Ed.: M/ W. Bernstein. Buenos Aires, Former Residents of Pruzana…, 1958. (Yiddish) "A Wedding in Malch," pp. 482-83.

There were many weddings in Pruzana. Sometimes the klezmorim from Kartuz-Bereza were hired to play at them. Once there was a lavish wedding for the daughter of a wealthy Jew. He was eventually forced by the Czar to sell his vast estate, because no Jews were allowed to own forests.

PRUSZKOW (P). Sefer Pruszkow, Nadzin Ve-ha-seviva (Memorial Book of Pruszkow, Nadzin and Vicinity). Ed.: D. Brodsky. Tel Aviv, Former Residents of Pruszkow in Israel, 1967. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "Berl Dukhnitser (Birnboym)," by Ruveyn Postolski, pp. 181-186. (Yiddish)

A wealthy Jewish landowner's most prized possession was the watch given to him at his wedding by his father-in-law. At weddings, he listened to the klezmorim and rubbed his watch.

PRZEDBORZ (P). Sefer Yizkor Le-kehilat Radomsk Ve-ha- seviva (Memorial Book of the Community of Radomsk and Vicinity). Ed.: L. Losh. Tel Aviv, Former Residents of Radom…, 1967. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "The Purim Ball," pp. 183-84. (Yiddish)

When there was a Purim ball in the town, the musicians came from Radomsk. At the ball the young people from many different organizations including Poale-Tsion, Betar, and Tsair Mizrakhi attended. Once some Polish youth came to the party who became drunk and tried to dance with the Jewish girls. Soon there was a big fight and they were eventually expelled from the ball. The following Purim ball these same Polish youth were not allowed in. That night when some of the young Jews walked home, they were hit over their heads with irons. But this time these Polish youth were quite astonished when some Jewish youths from Lodz came out of the ball and defended themselves.

PRZEDBORZ (ibid.) "Gershon Klezmer," pp. 219-20. (Yiddish)

Gershon Klezme r and his sons made up the kapelye with Kopl Blokhotzsh, who played bass. None of them were trained musicians.

PRZEDBORZ (ibid.) "A Wedding in Przedborz," by Sara Hamer-Jaklyn, pp. 245-52. (Yiddish)

The author went to her cousin's wedding when she was eleven years old and remembered everything in sharp detail.

PRZEDBORZ (ibid.) "The Tragic Wedding," by Malke Alfisher-Vishinsk, pp. 285-87. (Yiddish)

On the day of the wedding the future in-laws came to meet the bride. The groom's mother had never seen her and did not know she was a hunchback. She decided that she and her son would go home. But the groom refused and married his intended mate. That night, while everyone danced, the mother, who was still upset, stayed outside in the cold air. Shortly after she became ill and died.

PRZYTYK (P). Sefer Przytyk. Ed.: David Shtokfish. Tel Aviv, Przytyk Societies in Israel, France and the USA, 1973. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "Portraits and Events," by Hillel Shtrossman, pp. 105-09. (Yiddish)

Every wedding processional was accompanied by music and a hundred people carrying lit torches.

PRZYTYK (ibid.) "A Wedding in Town," by Duvid Zitni Boymlgrin, pp. 146-50. (Yiddish)

The author described the wedding of Reb Yekl the wealthy furrier's daughter.

PULAWY (P). Yizker-bukh Pulawy (In Memoriam – The City of Pulawy*). Ed.: M. W. Bernstein. New York, Pulawer Yiskor Book Committee, 1964. (Yiddish) "Nosn the Klezmer," by Moishe Rubenshteyn, p. 99.

Nosn the Klezmer had such a patriarchal mien. He was indispensable at weddings, even though he was not a very good musician.

PULTUSK (P). Pultusk; Sefer Zikaron (Pultusk Memorial Book). Ed.: Yitzhak Ivri. Tel Aviv, Pultusk Society, 1971. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "My Musical Memories," By Dan Aronovitch, pp. 263-67. (Yiddish) (music examples)

I was born in 1909 in a small town near Mlawa. When I was four, my father Tsvi Aronovitsh and his family moved to Pulusk because he was hired as the town's khazn- shokhet. My father formed a large choir in which I sang that accompanied him when he prayed on Shabes.

My father was my first music teacher. During the long winter nights I sat on one side of my father and my younger brother Wolf on the other side as he taught us to read music notes. If my brother or I made a mistake when telling my father what note it was, he hit us. I cried so loud that our neighbor could hear.

When I was Bar-Mitsve, my father took me to Tuviah Bzshezhener. He took out of a closet a violin and gave it to me as a present for my Bar-Mitsve. The first lessons were from my father from the book "The King's Methods." Soon after he took me to Leybke Klezmer, who then became my teacher. Leybke Klezmer gave me my first piano lessons and taught me the scales. In his house he had a "Winged Clavier" (Forte-Piano). Once during a lesson he gave me a gift of one of his own compositions. It had the Jewish nuances and spirit. He sat there and wrote it with his shaking hands. Regretfully I lost the music. At weddings and other celebrations, Leybke would play with his son, who was deaf. Everyone wondered how his deaf son was able to become so musical.

In the synagogue my father led his twenty-two-member choir with four instrumentalists. The klezmorim were Leybke Skarzhepitse on first violin, his deaf son on contrabass, Leybke's grandson on flute, and on second violin it would either be Leybke's son-in-law or other grandson. Leybke's grandchildren became known musicians in Warsaw playing light music at cafés. One of the grandsons, Henekh Skarzhepitse, composed for the revue called Black and White staged at the Warsaw theatre Nowósci. The most famous piece from the revue was the fox-trot "Spring Spring."

The second performance that was with choir and orchestra was when a new Toyre had just been written for my father's synagogue. My father had a good relationship with his fellow artists. Leybke used to play his violin at my father's Khanike concerts and other religious presentations, like the dedication of a new building.

When I went for my violin lesson, I carried my violin under my housecoat so no one would know I was learning to play. Later on I went to another teacher who came from Odessa. When he came to Pultusk, he played in the movie theatre with Leybke's daughter, who played the piano. Eventually I went to the music conservatory in Warsaw and studied at the teachers' seminary at the same time. I graduated the conservatory in singing and composition. I was in France fighting in the underground in the winter of 1944 when I heard the terrible news on the radio, broadcast from London, about the murder of the Jews in Poland by the Nazis. I was immediately moved to create my Kol-Nidre for orchestra and choir. I never forgot my years growing up in Pultusk and my father's words: "A man must achieve something in his life."

PULTUSK (ibid.) "Leybke Skarzhepitse," by Raphael Moshe Shakh, pp. 340-41. (Yiddish)

Leybke Klezmer was such a virtuoso that he was offered to play in the Warsaw opera orchestra. But he refused and said, "I won't be able to eat any tsholnt then." When the famous khazn Gershon Sirotta and his daughter visited Pultusk, they were guests of Leybke's. When Menakhem Kipnis [famous musicologist and collector of Yiddish folksong – y.s.] heard Leybke play, he wrote an enthusiastic article in the Warsaw newspaper Haynt about him.

PUKSZIBNICE (P). Sefer Pokshivnitsa (Memorial Book of Koprzywnica). Ed.: E. Erlich. Tel Aviv, Former Residents of Koprzywnica in Israel, 1971. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "A Wedding in Town," by Bluma Gershteyn, pp. 100-02. (Yiddish)

Royanen Marshalik, the town's batkhn, was always hired to entertain at the weddings.

RACHOV-ANNOPOL (P). Rachov-Annopol; Pirkei Edut Ve-zikaron (Rachov-Annopol; Testimony and Remembrance*). Ed.: Shmuel Nitzan. Israel, Rachov/Annopol and Surrounding Region Society, 1978. (Hebrew, English, Yiddish) "A Wedding in Town," by Yekhil Mekler, pp. 369-70. (Yiddish)

The klezmorim were brought from Azsharow for a wedding. It was the custom to play for the scholars in the besmedresh before the ceremony. The musicians refused to play for them, which offended the Talmud scholars. They then threatened to break the klezmorim's violins with the drum. The kapelye played for the young men in the besmedresh.

RACIAZ (P). Galed Le-kehilat Raciaz (Memorial Book of the Community of Racionz*). Ed.: E. Tsoref. Tel Aviv, Former Residents of Raciaz, 1965. (Hebrew, Yiddish, English) "A Wedding in Raciaz," by Avraham Yosef Klayner, pp. 42-3. (Hebrew)

The local kapelye consisted of two Jews and a gentile. The gentile was a very good violinist and the town's violin teacher for all the rich children.

RADOMSKO (P). Sefer Yizkor Le-kehilat Radomsk Ve-ha-seviva (Memorial Book of the Community of Radomsk and Vicinity). Ed.: L.Losh. Tel Aviv, Former Residents of Radomsk…, 1967. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "A Wedding in the Cemetery," by Zev Sobotowski, pp. 154-55.

In the spring of 1916 during World War I there was a typhus epidemic in the town. Finally, after trying everything, the town's rabbi decided to marry an orphan girl to the son of the town's water porter with the wedding ceremony held in the cemetery.

RADOMYSL WIELKI (P). Radomysl Rabati Ve-ha-seviva; Sefer Yizkor (Radomysl Wielki and Neighborhood; Memorial Book*) Eds.: H. Harshoshanim et al. Tel Aviv, Former Residents of Radomysl and Surroundings in Israel, 1965. (Hebrew, Yiddish, English) "My Wedding," by Yosef Margoshes, pp. 461-63. (Yiddish)

The author recounts her wedding festivities. Her father-in-law, a wealthy and generous man, held three wedding feasts: The first was for the poor, the second for the town's officials, and the third was on the wedding day for 250 wealthy friends and family members.

RADZIN (P). Sefer Radzin (The Book of Radzin). Ed.: I. Siegelman. Tel Aviv, Council of Former Residents of Radzin (Podolsky) in Israel, 1957. (Hebrew, Yiddish) "Musicians – A Radziner Motif," by Moshe Apelboym, p. 132. (Yiddish)

An illustration of two Jewish musicians playing the mandolin and violin, by Moshe Apelboym (1886-1931).

RADZYMIN (P). Sefer Zikaron Le-kehilat Radzymin (Le Livre Du Souvenir De La Juive De Radzymin*). Ed.: Gershon Hel. Tel Aviv, The Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora, 1975. (Hebrew, Yiddish, French) "A Wedding in Town!" by Helen Milgrom, pp. 130-31. (Yiddish)

The author remembered traveling from Warsaw to Radzymin to celebrate the finishing of a new Toyre. The town celebrated as the Toyre was led under the khupe, led by klezmorim.

RADZYMIN (ibid.) "Khayim Shepsl Kaluski," pp. 139-40. (Yiddish)

The Poles established a school for Jewish children. Their teacher, Khayim-Shepsl Kaluski, loved music. This love came from his family's klezmer roots. During singing studies he accompanied himself and the children on the violin. His bass voice drowned out all the voices of the children. Eventually, the Polish ministry of education made Khayim-Shepsl leave the community state elementary school because they said he did not have the proper certificate from a teacher's seminary. He died in Treblinka with the rest of the Jews from Radzymin.

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