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Leibish Nebentzahl

Leibish Hacohen Nebentzahl was from Kolaczyce and settled in Jaslo with Polish Independence. He lived in A. Goldstein' house and was a very pious Jew reciting constantly the psalms. He prayed daily at the study center and loved to listen to the torah discussions. He was always happy and content with life. He sold animal skins and I think that he had a son named Eli who was called in his youth Eli Hacohen.

P. Nagler

He was one of the clerks of Niglowic and escaped to Kolomyja in Eastern Galicia with the outbreak of WWII but his traces were lost.

Yehoshua Nutman

He was the son in law of Wolf Wagshall and very quiet. He was a glazier and lived all his life at Ulaszowica.

Yossef Leib Nussbaum

He was one of the more pleasant personalities in the city. He was known as a serious person with a head on his shoulders and was also known as Yossef Libli.

He was one of the old Wilipoler Hassidim that were God fearing and followed the commandments without the need to explain. They did as their parents did.

He was rather small with a large beard and two long side curls that covered most of his face. From the bushy eye brows shone two sharp eyes. He had a pleasant smile and dressed in the traditional manner. A red handkerchief was always in his back pocket. The four fringes of the “talit katan” or small prayer shawl were hanging below the knees and so he walked daily in the streets of the city and frequently visited his customers with whom he negotiated business and wished them good morning.

The city people respected him and I remember an event that occurred in my presence as Yossef Leib Nussbaum was walking he met the mayor of the city, Dr. Willusz.

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Good morning mister Orrzehowski? How are you? Greets him the mayor jovially and how is business today while he continued to walk. Yossef Leib Nussbaum raised his hat and nodded to the mayor as a sign of respect and answered something to the effect that everything is ok But deep inside he knew that the mayor was no great friend of the Jews.

The height of his joy he reached at the eve of the Shabbath, following the immersion in the mikvah and the preparation for the Sabbath. His eyes gleamed at the lights of the Shabbath candles. He packed his little pouch with sniff so that he has for two or three portions that will keep him going during the Shabbath services.

He was very close to the rabbi and one of his close associates. He was always in a hurry to be at the rabbi's table on Shabbath and holidays. Here he received a half a glass of beer that could not be refused.. Then he began singing Shabbath songs that the crowd enjoyed. When he finished singing, he blessed the rabbi, the household and all the present people and sipped the remainder of the beer. He wiped the foam of his face and with a heavy heart bid farewell. He tied his red kerchief around his neck and began to head to the door where he was one of the last people to say Shabbath Shalom.

He was an excellent shofar blower and service leader. He loved to conduct services on Saturdays and Holidays. His service was sincere and pious. Particularly moving were his services during the high holidays when he shed tears and almost talked to the almighty.

He lived all his life in Lehr's house on Kazimierz Street. He reached old age and passed away leaving two sons and a daughter who did not live in Jaslo.

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Chaim Dawid Nussbaum

He was the oldest son of Yossef Leib Nussbaum and a Hassidic Jew who continued his religious studies. He observed with severity all religious instructions and was fanatic on religious matters. He remained in Jaslo following his marriage and lived in Lehr's house next to the Talmud Torah.

He was also a close follower of the rabbi as was his father. The rabbi's words were holy to him as though they came from Mount Sinai. He led the services at the study center. By tradition he led the morning service or “Shaharit” of the high holidays. His voice was a bit weak but he prayed with his heart.

He was a merchant and later became a teacher at the Talmud Torah. He had several sons but only his oldest daughter Tziporah managed to survive WWII and reached Israel where she married a member of “Hapoel Hamizrahi” and settled in Tel Aviv.

Moshe Nussbaum, the second son of Yossef Leib Nussbaum, was known in his youth as Moshale. He was a student at the study center and was considerate erudite in religious literature. He sat and studied the Talmud with a great deal of concentration in order to understand the profundities of the printed word. The page had to be crystal clear before he proceeded to the next page.. He was a sympathetic person but followed the crowd and the time. He sung in the synagogue choir since he had a fine musical voice. He also used to sing Saturday evenings at the third meal the various appropriate songs. His favorite song was “Ein Keelokeinu” that was performed at the rabbi's study center.

He left for Vienna following his marriage and was ritual slaughterer and cantor in that city. He managed to flee Vienna for the USA with the arrival of the Germans. According to rumors he continued these activities in the USA.

Moshe Nibert

He settled in Jaslo in the twenties and was a modern Jew who belonged to the Zionist movement. He was a cattle merchant and a partner of Tzwi Elimelech Stein in the export of cattle. He was known as a charitable person.

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Abish Neiman

His whole face painted a picture of gentility covered by a long yellow beard. His large forehead, shinny bright eyes, and piercing glances made deep penetrations. Dressed in clean and neat clothing, a black walking cane, he used to walk several streets each day in the city. He used to develop bright ideas along these walks and confided them in Pinie Shtrum his long close friend. This was Abish Neiman the son in law of Nahum Shochet.

He was an understanding religious man and familiar with things. His serious approach and positive thinking led to his appointment as an inner member of the Rabbi's court. He became a close confidant of the saintly Bobower Rabbi. He was originally from Bobow where his father was the ritual slaughterer of the community.He was a witness to each word that the Rabbi uttered and became well associated with the Bobower Hassidic court.

When he reached Jaslo he continued his work on behalf of the Bobower Hassidut. It was not an easy job since Jaslo was a modern city but he soon found adherents and continued to expand the influence of the court of Bobow. He together with Pinie Shtrum managed to organize the religious youth under their wing. They organized short and long nature hikes for the youngsters and gained their adherence to Bobow.

As an experienced cantor he was familiar with the latest tunes that came from Bobow and introduced them to Jaslo together with the Hassidism of Bobow. The tunes of Bobow became famous throughout Western Galicia and Jaslo. The music was indeed of a high musical caliber with fine soft tunes and laced with religious fervor created an attractive force. The musical services attracted many religious Jews to Bobow, especially the religious youth that embraced Bobow and was willing to follow the Rabbi at all costs

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Following his marriage he divided his time between popularizing Hassidism of Bobow and torah study. With his father in law he studied the rules pertaining to slaughtering of animals. Subsequently he was appointed assistant cantor in the big synagogue and the ritual slaughterer of the Jewish community in Jaslo.

Elimelech Nirenberg

He was a religious Jew familiar with religious and non religious literature. He was well versed in Jewish theological laws, especially with the “Even Ezra” book. He was readily accepted by the religious scholars in the city.

He settled in Jaslo in the twenties and rented a grocery from the previous owners at the Hess house on Kosciuszko Street. He prayed at the study center opposite the holy ark.

Dow Namer

He was a clerk for many years at the refinery in Niglowic and managed to escape to Russia with the outbreak of WWII where he took ill and died. His wife reached Israel and works as a secretary in the government.



Nathan Segal

He was the son in law of D.Beck and very religious. He received a fine education and was in close touch with the milieu. He was an old member of the Mizrahi and contributed to the establishment of the Mizrahi School and synagogue. He was also active in the community and expressed his ideas. He was a merchant and lived on Florianska Street.

Hanina Sokoler

He lived all his life in Sczenica near Jaslo and was acquainted with religious books. He was a very pleasant person who had long beard that covered his face and his tall erect bearing suggested a patriarchal figure. He had a big farm and also dealt in commerce.

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Naphtali Shmuel Solomon

He was considered one of the first Hassidim in Jaslo. He was a doer and his house was open to ideas of the torah. He was blessed with a deep understanding and the ability to befriend people with his words and money. Still he weighted carefully all his moves. He gave generously charity.

He had a large estate in Koblow-Podzamci in the district of Jaslo where many people were employed. As a merchant of wood and forests he came in contact with local gentry that led to good relations. These contacts did not prevent him from keeping his daily religious appearances.

He had four sons; Benyamin, Dawid, Awraham and Yehiel who received a very religious education.. He also had three daughters who were married to well established and known families, namely Chaim Cohen Englander the son of the judicial rabbi of Frystak, the second son in law was Betzalel ben Wolf Tzimet Halevi from Jaslo and the third was Pinter from the saintly family of Rabbi of Bukowsk.

During the peasant uprisings in the district of Jaslo in1898 that were organized by anti-Semitic priests notably Stoialowski and are known as the “Disturbances of 1898” he suffered greatly and decide to sell the estate. (See chapter 16, 1898 “The torching of the spirit refinery”).

He bought a house on Kosciuszko Street in Jaslo opposite the “The Bank of Oscidonowski” and settled in the city. He passed away at the right old age prior to WWI. His daughter Hancze Englander lived in Tarnow and managed to survive WWII. She reached Palestine with her young son Yehiel and settled in Jerusalem

Pinhas Solomon

(See Wolf Eintziger)

Leib Shmulewicz

He was an enlightened, pleasant and quiet Jew. He was a painter but was well accepted by the community. He was respected and lived on Iglena Street. They had only one son who received a general education.

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Mordechai Hacohen San

He was from Frysztak and the son in law of Tuvia Fabian. He was an honest and considerate man. He bought the “Grand “hotel near the railway station and settled in Jaslo.

He had three sons and two daughters. One of the daughters Sheindil was married to Awigdor Kilig when he later died she continued to manage the hotel. She was a fine and genteel woman who granted charity and sympathy. She and her sons Mendil and Chaim managed the hotel. Chaim San is today in Argentina. The sons were known as quiet and moderate people that gave charity discreetly.

Yaakow San

He was the oldest son of Mordechai San and was a torah student. He had fine manners and a member of Mizrahi. He was a supporter of all the institutions of the movement as well as other social institutions. He was one of the big apartment owners in the city.

He dealt with timber and forests and was one of the larger exporters of wooden building materials. His daughter married Porsher and lives in Argentina.

Nachman San

He was the first son in law of Mordechai San and lived all his life in Frysztak. He moved to Jaslo in the twenties. He was a very religious person and gave his children a very religious and general education. He had two sons and four daughters.

He was a successful timber merchant. His son Tzwi was a member of the young Mizrahi in Jaslo. He was a cultured person with a large torah background. He left for Palestine in the thirties and settled in Tel Aviv where he works for the insurance company “Hasneh”

P. Saphir

(See Dawid Beck)


He was a copper artisan and lived in the Targowica. He was the son in law of Menashe Weinstein. Following his death, his wife rented the kiosk in the market that was empty for years.

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Moshe Eder

He was a well-known individual in the city and very involved. He was a quiet moderate person familiar with the Torah and expressed himself clearly in a voice that was barely audible. He never involved himself with the burning issues of the day but was selected to head many social institutions. He was for many years the beadle at the study center synagogue and one of the leaders of the “Agudat Israel” branch in the city. He was very close to the rabbi and did his bidding. He had a clear conscience and acted accordingly.

He had a store and lately started as a wholesaler and did rather well. He had two sons and a daughter. The oldest son Nachman was a student at the study center and belonged to the youth branch of the Agudat Israel. He remained in Jaslo after his marriage and worked with his father. With the outbreak of WWII, the family managed to reach Russia. According to my information, some members of the family reached the USA.

Dawid Elias

He was an inspirational person and known as a wealthy individual. He had influence in at city hall. He frequently intervened on behalf of the community and himself with the authorities and the police.

In spite of the fact that he was known in the city, he did not to push his weight about. On the contrary, he avoided honorary jobs when offered. He was one of the first worshippers at the big synagogue but most of the time he prayed at the Yad Charutzim synagogue where he felt at home. He was a moderate Hassid and adhered closely to the Hassidic court of Rymanow. He was familiar with the great rabbis and some of them stayed in his house on visiting Jaslo.

He started as a poor worker and saved his pennies to begin a business. He succeeded as a timber, forest merchant, and then branched out to exports. With time, he built a big house with stores on Kazimeierz Street. He also had a house on Targowica Square and several lots in the city

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The residents considered him one of the richest people in the city. (In his old age, he lost most of his assets). For many years, he collected the parking fees for the stands in the market for the city. He also collected the fees for slaughtering chickens and cows on behalf of the community. These leases were sold at auctions by the municipality and the winner received the license. Of course, these licenses provided a nice income.

He had six sons and one daughter. One son left for the USA prior to WWI. Another son named Leibish lived in Przemysl where he was one of the well to do people in the city. He was a timber merchant and owned a sawmill and a flourmill. The youngest son Moniek, a member of the soccer clubs “Maccabi” distanced himself from tradition. He left in the twenties and returned to Jaslo. (According to rumors he survived and lives in Australia)

Shlomo Elias

He was the second son of Dawid Elias and studied at the study center. He was well educated and pious. He prayed at the synagogue and was an excellent torah reader. He wore a shtreimel on Saturdays and Holidays. He also dealt with timber and lived in his father's house. His wife was very active in community social affairs. His only daughter married Yonathan Anisfeld and the couple lives in Ramat Itzhak, Israel.

Abish Elias

He behaved in accordance with the time. He assisted his father in the business. He was the one who organized the Jewish self-defense group in Jaslo to act against the Polish hoodlums during the anti Jewish disturbances following Polish Independence.

Following his marriage, he remained in Jaslo and went into business partnership to open a seltzer bottling plant. His son recently arrived in Israel and lives in Tel Aviv.

The Elias family

I was not familiar with the family for they lived in Podzamcze and were involved in business.

Leibish Emer

He was an old timer in Jaslo and a rich merchant. He also owned several houses. He was a respected individual and presented himself well. He followed the times. His children received a general education. His oldest son managed for many years the

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“Fortuna” bank in his house. He lived many years in Krakow and dealt with ready made clothing. The younger son finished law school and opened an office in Zmigrod. Lately one of the daughters reached Israel and settled in the Petach Tikvah area. One of his sons lives in the USA according to rumors.. The attorney's son married the daughter of Awraham Englard.

Awraham Emer

He was the brother of Leibish Emer and also an old timer in the city. He was a religious merchant. He owned a house on Florianska Street. His son opened a ready to wear store in his house. He liquidated the store after a few years and left the city. He was married to Zeev Damaszek's daughter.

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Tuvia Fabian

He was known in the city as old Tuviale or in Polish as “ dziadek” –grand father. He was born in the village of Odzikon near Korczyna. The village became rather famous due to stories based on the two tall rock outcrops that reach several hundred meters in height. Legend tells us that the peaks kept growing taller and taller; the local inhabitants became frightened and sought help from one of the saintly rabbis in the area. He came to the site and supposedly commanded nature to stop the growth process. Indeed, the picks stopped growing. In addition, an old destroyed Polish castle that belonged to one of the Polish kings was there. I myself saw the place when our class visited the area on a school trip.

Tuvia Fabian loved to tell stories about his youth and was fortunate to meet the old saintly Rabbi Itche of Rymanow who passed away in 1843. He was about one hundered years old when he passed away. His son from the USA once visited him. Rumors had it that he was a very wealthy person in New York and contributed

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greatly to charity. His daughter Sheindel was married to Mordechai San whose father owned the “Grand” hotel

Chaim Feber

He was a pleasant young man. He was the son in law of Wolf Eintziger and had a haberdashery store along May Third Street. Lately he left Jaslo for Tarnow.

Moshe Faust

One of the main suppliers of manufactured goods to the merchants in the city. He was very ambitious and lived in his house on Iglena Street. He followed tradition and had three daughters; the oldest married Yaakow Sheinberg (see previous chapters) and the second married Henoch Plotzker in Sanok (see previous chapters).

Pokoriles, magister

He came from Eastern Galicia and settled in Jaslo in the thirties. He leased the pharmacy “Under the Star” on Kosciuszko Street from the previous owners. He was an enlightened and pleasant person. He supported Zionism and other institutions in Jaslo. With the outbreak of WWII, he managed to reach London where he became ill and died.

Moshe Polaner

He was very modern in his outlook for the time. He was one of the first Jewish religious teachers in the Polish school system. He also kept the Jewish birth records for the Jewish community board. Two of his daughters are in Israel. One works for the medical insurance group called “Kupat Cholim” in Jerusalem and other one is in a kibbutz.

Michael Postiboler

He was an old village resident who followed the Jewish tradition of his fathers. He lived in the village of Postibola near Jaslo and went by the name of the village. No one knew his last name. He used to visit the city on business trips and to sell his dairy products from the farm,

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Dawid Forman

He was a quiet person who made a living by repairing umbrellas and lived on Korlowski Street. Polish hoodlums killed him in the streets of Jaslo during the turbulent year of 1919. They surrounded him while he was going about his business and opened his head with wooden sticks that resulted in his death.

The entire Jewish community in Jaslo went into deep mourning and participated in the huge funeral procession. He was eulogized at the synagogue. The comforting words remained with us for a long time.

P. Forshtehr

He was an excellent shoemaker and a serious person. He was very influential at the Yad Charutzim synagogue. When his sons left Jaslo and settled in Krakow, he followed them.

Yossef Forsher

He was born in Bobowa and his wife was a Stillman. He made a nice appearance and spoke predominantly German, as was the custom amongst the enlightened people during the Imperial Austrian days. He had a shoe polish factory called “Luna” that was successful. The product was popular. He had a son and a daughter both received an academic education. He lived all his life in his one story house on Nowa Street.

(Rumors have reached me to the effect that his wife and son live in Argentina.).

Yekutiel Peterfreund (Petrezil)

He was from Gorlice that he left during WWI for the hamlet became a battleground between the Austrian and Russian armies. He was as a very religious and G-d fearing Jew. He was a traditional service leader at the synagogue and dressed in the style of the rabbis. He was the kashrut supervisor of the salami preparations in Jaslo and sold the products. At first, he lived in Rudi the baker's house and then moved to

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Yehiel Rosner's house in the market square. He lived there for ten years and then left Jaslo.

Yossef Peterfreund

He lived for years in the “sukkah” of the rabbi where he had a room. His wife and daughters sold geese and the fats of the geese. He barely made a living as a tailor but was well liked and very helpful especially to poor and needy people.

He was one of the few Jews in the city who really observed the custom of receiving guests in his home that happened to visit the small sukkah. People that had no place to spend the night found a place in his sukkah that sometimes had as many as ten people. Everybody knew that there is always room at Yossele's. He did not charge and even provided a slice of bread and vegetables.

He derived great pleasure from leading the Minha service on Saturdays and when he reached “Ata Ehad and Shimcha Ehad” or You are one and Your name is unique, he closed his eyes and lifted his head towards heaven as though imploring the almighty with the line “Mi caamcha Israel” or who is like the people of Israel. .

He always interpreted the line from Jeremaiah (sect;14) “ Im Oneinu Anu Bnu” or if we sinned we are still your children and worthy of forgiveness.

He had two sons who became tailors and the younger one left for Palestine in 1937 and settled in Haifa.

Leibish Piar

He was born in Kolbasowa but reached Jaslo at an early stage of development. He lived in the Targowica and was one of the first workers at the alcohol refinery of Itzhak Yehuda Ruble in Subiniow.

He would rise while it was still dark and read the psalms, the “hakle” book, and then head to the synagogue to be among the first worshippers.

He was a Hassid in word and deed. The community entrusted him with the management of the bathouse where the mikva was located. They expected him to keep the place clean, and control the youngsters who tried to swim and carry on.

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Repeatedly he would urge them to leave the place. Other people have to immerse themselves, enough is enough he used to say to the youngsters. A special mention was given to his wife Malche who was the midwife in Jaslo. She was a wise and intelligent woman known by her own private name in town. She continued to work for almost fifty years and delivered the mothers, daughters and their grand children. She was frequently referred to as the midwife. She was fast, handy and loved by the population.

They had five sons and two daughters. The oldest was Awraham who was a Hassid. He was the cantor in Vienna of the “Poilishe Shul” or the Polish synagogue for many years. He sung at the meal songs of Shabbat and holidays amongst the very religious circles. He is now living in Jerusalem (His son Yossef is also a cantor in New York and published a book on the biographies of cantors and their musical creations.).

One of his sons named Benyamin died as a youngster while on a “Lag B'Omer” or 33 days in the Omer field trip excursion with his friends when gentile youngsters attacked them. One of the stones hit Benyamin on the head resulting in a serious head injury that led to his death.

Another son named Itzhak fell in battle while fighting with the Austrian Army in Italy. Two of his sons; Moshe and Yaakow are in the USA.

The daughter named Reisel married Moshe Unger who was very religious and lived in Jaslo. The family left for Vienna with the outbreak of WWI. Two of their sons had nice voices, one of them Benyamin Unger is the cantor of the “ Central” synagogue in North Tel Aviv. The other son is a cantor in Philadelphia, USA. She died with her youngest daughter in the shoa,

The second daughter named Hanci married Eliezer Eichorn and they live in Raanana, in Israel. In the thirties Maltchi and Leibish Piar left Jaslo and settled in Vienna. The Germans deported them to the death camp of Therensdadt where they perished.

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Awraham Findling

The family lived in the village of Zilkow near Jaslo and dealt in commerce. They also had a farm. On Saturdays and Holidays the father and the sons used to stay in Jaslo to pray at the study center. They were of course dressed in the traditional Hassidic manner.

Itzhak Findling

He was born in Gorlice and settled in Jaslo during WWI. He was a religious person and knitted socks and sweaters for a living. His wife sold wigs. They lived all their life in the market and had a few sons. One of them was accused of belonging to the communist party and was sentenced to a few years in jail. He managed to escape from prison and left Poland

Eliezer Finder

He was of small statue, skinny and had a sparse beard on his chin. He lived on Sokolo Street. He was one of the early expeditors of goods in the city but later left Jaslo.

Ephraim Fish

He was a traditional Jew and owned a large bakery in the city at the house of Dawid Elias. His sons were all members of the Zionist youth movements. They were hard working children and assisted their father.

The oldest son left Jaslo prior to WWI for the USA. During the twenties, he visited his parents in Jaslo and shortly later sent them the necessary entrance papers to the USA and the family left Jaslo.

Shmuel Fish

He distinguished himself by his quiet behavior and good-natured manners. He was religious and lived in Hiclowka. In 1914 he was drafted to the Austrian army and

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sent to the Italian front. During the great battles of 1915-1916, he fell and to this day no one knows the exact place of his burial. He left a wife, three sons and three daughters. They all made a living from the grocery in their house. The youngest son survived the war and is presently in Israel

A. Fishbein

Nobody knew his first or last name. He was called “Der einbinder” – or the bookbinder. Indeed his work was very artistic. He lived all his life at the Targowica , barely made a living. He died because of a disease in 1914. His son was also sick during this period and died. One of his daughters owned a haberdashery stand in the market until the outbreak of WWII.

Meir Felderbrand

He was the first Jewish child to be born in Jaslo. He was a moderate person with a nice presentation. He was very active in public affairs and always defended the public. He prayed at the Yad Charutzim synagogue and a loyal friend of the association. He sold animal skins and shoemaker supplies in his store located in Kramer's house.

He had five daughters and two sons who were all members of the Zionist youth movements. One daughter reached Palestine in the thirties and a second daughter reached the country and settled first in Jerusalem and them in Tel Aviv.

Yossef Felderbrand

He was similar to his brother in appearance and had a long beard that covered the face. He was a gentle person that belonged to the regular membership of Yad Charutzim and prayed there regularly.

He lived behind the municipality on top of the hill. He had a haberdashery stand in the market square that was operated mainly by his son Yekil while he worked at odd jobs. He had four sons and four daughters. One of his sons was aboard the ship #147;Patria” that carried illegal Jews to Palestine and drowned near the shores of the destination. He left two young sons in Palestine.

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Henoch Plotzker

One of the big wood merchants and exporter in Jaslo, His brother was the well known rabbi Meir Dan Plotzker, the author of the book “Klei Hemda” who was a leading figure in the Agudath Israel and the chairman of the “Rabbinical Association” in Poland.

He was a distinguished personality, erudite and familiar with the world. He spoke well, had excellent manners and behaved in an aristocratic manner. His trimmed beard reminded one of the beard of Nahum Sokolow to whom he was related.

I still remember the discussions religious circles about the Plotzker brothers namely Rabbi Meir Dan and his brother Henoch Plotzker. One belonged to the Agudah and the other one to the Zionist movement. Their differences were not only political but also in their living styles, dressing, and thinking. Complete opposites in every sense of the wodr. Rabbi Meir Dan Plotzker participate at the wedding of Israel Plotzker the oldest son of Henoch Plotzker but did not stay at the home of the brother instead spent the night at the home of the local rabbi. The house of Henoch Plotzker was too Zionist for the brother. He had two sons and a daughter who received an academic education and continued their studies.

Israel Plotzker, attorney

He was the oldest son of Henoch Plotzker and graduated as one of the youngest and brightest lawyers. He was a very popular person and mingled with the people. He was a Zionist as a youngster and continued these activities. He organized the “Hashomer” youth organization in Jaslo and headed it for many years. He was also very active in communal affairs and participated in many fund drives notably for matzot for Pessah for the poor, and other needy causes.

He married the daughter of Chaim Zilber of Sanok who was wealthy and respected. The latter was also the son in law of Shlomo Berger. The family left Poland with the outbreak of WWII and reached Russia. Three years ago the family arrived in Palestine with their only son. They settled in Jaffa where he received a position in the tax department.

Eliezer Plotzker

He was the second son of Henoch Plotzker and Avery active Zionist since his youthful days. He finished the school for commerce. He was quiet and sensitive.

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He married Moshe Faust's daughter and the family settled in Sanok where he became a wood merchant. His wife and son Dan remained in Poland where they perished in the shoa. He managed to reach Russia and following WWII. Reached Israel where he worked in the accounting office at the ministry of defense. He became ill and passed away in 1953.

Michael Platner

He was a very intelligent and an intellectually gifted Torah scholar. He was from Brzostek and married the daughter of Zeew Wagshall who was a wealthy person and had a big farm in Worzic near Jaslo.

He settled in Jaslo and became a model of conduct and good deeds. He was fearful of G-d. His business venture did not bear fruit and was forced to ask the community to provide him with a job as the bookkeeper of the community. He was also the bookkeeper of Leibish Tzimet.

He had four sons and five daughters. His oldest son was sensitive and educated. He left for Germany with Polish Independence. A group of German bullies attacked him, robbed him and mercilessly beat him. He never recovered and passed away. His second son also lived in Germany. In 1935, He reached Palestine with his family and settled in Petach Tikvah. The third son Reuven lives presently in Bolivia and visited recently Israel. The fourth son Dawid survived the war and settled in Jaffa.

Chaim Flick

He was a traditional Jew as well as a Zionist. He was a moderate person. His appearance and presentation indicated respect and gentility.

He was a merchant and owned land along the road to Kobolow near the dense forest that contained different trees as a well as ancient sycamore trees. He had a large inn where the peasants of the area used to drink.

The Zionists used the forest for their summer camps and group meetings. Various societies met here to launch their fund raising campaigns. He had several sons. His daughter and a son live in the USA.

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P. Pelikan

He held a very high position in the Jaslo judiciary system. He belonged to the assimilationist elements in the city. He kept away from things Jewish. He was a serious and quiet person. Lately his daughter reached Israel and settled in Tel Aviv.

Awraham Feller

He was born in Osiek near Zmigrod and settled in Jaslo in the twenties. He was a modern Jew and devoted to the Zionist cause. He was as a charitable person. He built a special house on Asnika Street where he sold fish and sardines, wholesale and retail.

Moshe Feinchel

He was a very pious and observed strictly the commandments. He was tall and well built. For years, he read the torah at the Yad Charutzim synagogue and he had a powerful voice. He holed merchandise in the city. He managed to reach Russia with the outbreak of the war and died there. He had four daughters and a son. His daughter was the first one in Jaslo to open a photography studio in Stillman's courtyard in the market.

Yehezkel was his son and one of the first pioneers in Jaslo to reach Palestine where he remained for seven years. He returned to Jaslo and married Chaim Wechselbaum's daughter. They settled in Sandz where he acquired a truck. He soon left the city and returned to Jaslo.

He always dreamt of returning one day to Palestine but WWII disrupted the plan and he managed to reach Russia. He was arrested and almost shot but was reprieved at the last moment. His wife and daughter recently arrived I Israel and settled near Ramat Gan.

Israel Penczer

He was modest and observed tradition. He lived in the village Opczi near Koczerow. He was a merchant and had two sons and two daughters. One of the daughters managed to survive WWII and reached Israel where she lives in Tel Aviv.

[Page 241]

P. Fink

He settled in Jaslo in the twenties and was a merchant.

Moshe Fass

He was the brother in law of Hersh Grinspan and they worked together in the messenger business. He was discreet and lived outside the city, after the Ulaszowica Bridge.

A. Fass

He owned a barbershop along Kosciuszko Street. He used to be located along May 3rd Street near the park. He was very polite and well mannered. He was a member of the Zionist movement. His father was one of the old workers at the railroad station of Jaslo.

Yossef Pepfer

He was from Dembice and married the widow Ethel, daughter of Yossef Hacohen Rapaport. With the death of his mother in law Pearl Rapaport, he took over the grocery. He lived in Dawid Elias' house on Kazimierz Street. He prayed at the study center and loved to lead the service.

With the outbreak of the war, he managed to reach Lemberg and hence Russia where he died of starvation.

Yossef Frumowicz

He was a highly respected member of the Jaslo Jewish community. He was a scholar familiar with the bible and Hebrew grammar. He also had a broad knowledge of things and spoke several languages including a fluent and idiomatic Hebrew.

He was an excellent orator that intermingled biblical and torah sayings with every day issues. His speeches were always interesting.

He belonged to the Jewish aristocracy of Jaslo and on occasion published Hebrew and Polish articles in the Zionist press. The items had depth and common sense.

[Page 242]

He adhered to the Zionist movement in his youth and grew with the movement. He was inspired by the ideas of Jewish reawakening and devoted himself totally to the idea of Zionism. To this end, he used all his energies,

jas242.jpg  Yossef Frumowicz
Yossef Frumowicz

fulfilled all the obligations imposed on him by the movement. He represented the movement and defended vehemently its interest's whether it implied running for local community, municipal or national elections. He was one of the major speakers on behalf of the Zionist party in Jaslo. He was elected chairperson of the local Zionist party. He was member of the Polish Zionist committee, member of the local Keren Kayemet and Keren Hayesod boards. He was also very active in selling “shekels” on behalf of the Zionist movement prior to Zionist congresses.

He was a teacher and organized the bible study group. Lately he began to translate “ the Babylonian Talmud” to Hebrew with his commenraries. The section of

[Page 243]

“ Bracjhot” appeared in Warsaw published by the “ Achiver” publisheing house. The work was dotted and had commas and also question marks

He was an agent for the insurance company “ Pheonix “ in Vienna but lately opened a store for lasies clothing.on Kosciuszko Street. Two of his sons received a general education. He had the good fortune to see his sons and daughter Naomi, settle in Palestine. He unfortunately was caught by the Germans in one of their actions in Jaslo and shot.

Lipa Proper

He was one of the old timber merchants and highly respected in the city. He was an easygoing person who did not look for attention but remained within the circle of Zionist friends. Prior to his settling in Jaslo he owned a farm, a flour and a sawmill near Biecz.

He followed the spirit of the time. He had four daughters and one son who received a general education and were members of the Zionist youth movement. He was one of the wealthy people in the city. He lived in his own house of five stories that was the tallest building along Kosciuszko Street.

Chaim Lipa Friedman

He recorded for the municipality all Jewish births in the city. He was a modern looking person and lived all his live at the Targowica. He had several sons and daughters who received a secular education. His son Moshe was one of the soccer players of Maccabi. When the father passed away, his oldest daughter continued the registration of Jewish children. The youngest son reached lately Israel and settled in Haifa.

H. Friedman

He was the son in law of Moshe Feinchel and worked at various jobs. He belonged to the Zionist movement in Jaslo. His wife continued to run the photography studio.

[Page 244]

Dawid Friedrich

He settled in Jaslo during WWI when the Gorlice area was the battleground between the Austrian ans Russian armies. He was a very religious and G-d fearing. He was the regular mussaf or second part of the Morning Prayer leader at the study center of Rabbi Mandil.

He was a grain merchant and lived all his life at the Targowica. He had two sons who received a very religious education. The younger one was a tailor apprentice at Yonale and the son in law of Ben Tzwi Freund.

Lipa Prizner

He settled in Jaslo following Polish Independence and opened a cleaning store for hats at Seinwel's basement on Iglena Street. He was far from religion and adhered to the left, as was the case with workers. He was good natured and helped people. His hand was always open for charity.

He became seriously ill and remained bed ridden for several months. Suddenly he got better and left his bed. He suddenly returned to the faith and began to attend morning and evening services at the study center. He dressed in black and the fringes were hanging down from under his jacket. He grew a beard and side curls. He ended the prayers by reciting the psalms and joined the mishnayot group at the study center. He also attended various other lectures and listened to the stories about the famous rabbis and their deeds.

Yeruham Frei

He was very modest and avoided all contact with communal affairs. He feared the slightest public activity. He was an honest and fair man that could be imitated . He was always neatly dressed and had a pleasant walk. He spoke little and worked as an accountant at the spirit distillery.

[Page 245]

He was an old friend of the Rabbi Mandil and always prayed at his study center where he read the torah in a very peasant manner.

His son in law Moshale Reich, a serious torah student and well read. He was an intelligent person and served in the Austrian Army as an officer. He received a medal for distinguished military service. Until 1914, he had a n inn in Hiclowka opposite the house of Nahum Miller, the slaughterer. Following WWI, he settled in Przemysl where he opened a leather store. His son Motel was a good Talmudic student and was ordained rabbi. He was also an excellent violin musician. He was a devoted Hassid and loved to be near the rabbis.

Shevah Frei

He was the only son of of Yerucham Frei. He was a tall Hassid who studied diligently the Talmud. He was sensitive as his father and was also a devotee of Rabbi Mandil and prayed at his study center. He had a small grocery and dairy store at Tzimet's house on Iglena Sterret.

Elimelech Freund

He was a modest man and a non-talker. He instructed yeshiva students and was clean dressed. He was a good-natured person and avoided gossip. He kept his distance from community affairs. He was a follower of Rabbi Mandil and prayed at his study center,

jas245.jpg  Elimelech Freund and his family
Elimelech Freund and his family

[Page 246]

He lived on Karmelicka Street and had a leather and shoe store. He was well off. His wife was Chaya a native of Dembice. Her maiden name was Taub. They had six daughters and three managed to reach Palestine. The oldest Miriam was married to Dawid Just( Tzutzkenbaum) and they left for Palestine in the thirties and live in Tel Aviv. The Third daughter Tzipora was a member of the Mizrahi daughters group in Jaslo and left for Palestine in 1933 when she married Meir Shilat (see previous chapters). The fourth daughter married LI.Grossman, from a Hassidic family, presently a builder and they live in Tel Aviv. The second daughter Esther married the son of Chaim Zilber. The two youngest daughters Bat Sheva and Riwkah shared the fate of the Jewish community of Jaslo,

Ben Tzion Freund

He was the brother in law of Elimelech Frei and quiet as his brother. He was religious and kept his distance from public activities. He prayed at the study center. He had a shoe store in the market square and had two daughters. One of them married Dawid Friedrich's son

Zinwel Frish

He was the son in law of Abba Hollander and a Hassidic Jew. He was familiar with the Talmud and prayed at the study center of the Rabbi. He was a member of the Agudath Israel and owned a store that sold crystal earthenware and glass on Kosciuszko Street,

Yossef Pearlberger

He was a genteel torah student and moderate in his opinions. He was the son in law of Leib Tzimet and was a wholesaler of haberdashery and writing materials in the market. His sons received a religious education in accordance with the Bobowa tradition. He himself leaned to the Agudath Israel party and prayed at the study center of the rabbi.

Pearlbergerg family

This family settled in the thirties in Jaslo and rented the store from Man Eintziger.

Yaakow Freund

His house was a pleasant mix of torah and gentility in Jaslo. He was born in Gorlice and married to Ulaszowica, the center of the first Jewish settlers in Jaslo.

[Page 247]

Here they found their way to make a living. Yaakow Freund was a gifted undertaker and had the determination to complete undertaken ventures. He opened the first pub in Ulaszowica that belonged to the judicial district of Koblow and maintained the liquor distillery in Jaslo. It took a great deal of effort to obtain the liquor license in Krakow and later in Vienna and still more effort to build the refinery adjoining the noble family of Rigers of Griowic. The later fought the factory but lost in the end.

(The estate was later acquired by count Roczinski) The distillery was one of the biggest in Galicia.

He was a very busy man yet found time to devote to organize Jewish institutions in the community. Due to his intervention, the community received permission to build the mikvah that was previously denied to Chaim Steinhaus. He was at heart a Hassid by his deeds and gave a great deal of charity. He was familiar with the religious figures as well as with the needy. He assisted secretly needy people. His place of residence was a minor fortified palace. It was always humming with people going and coming with many requests on their minds.

He was admired and respected. He led his life along the river Wisloka until one day it was attacked by anti-Semitic mobs that were enraged by the agitator and hate spreader, priest Stoilowsky. He was a fervent Jew hater and wanted to be elected to the chamber of representatives in Vienna on behalf of the peasant party in the Jaslo district.

During the period of 1898, there were anti Jewish outbursts and a mob of enraged peasants led by the farmer Jaworski attacked the home of Yaakow Freund. First they encircled the refinery and threw atones at the place. They then threw lit torches into the area and the fire spread through the refinery. The mayor of Jaslo did not permit the fire brigade to extinguish the fire (see chapter of events of 1898). Unfortunately, the insurance policy of the place had lapsed two weeks ago and the owner was unable to renew the policy due to a tragic event. Thus, the entire refinery estimated at 80,000 reinish went down the drain.

[Page 248]

Due to the great commotion of the fire, the family forgot about the youngest daughter aged 6 who was sleeping in one of the rooms of the house. Yaakow Freund grabbed a ladder and entered the house through the roof. He reached the child that was already choking of smoke inhalation. He managed to save the daughter but she was barely breathing and it took some time for the doctor to restore her breathing.

(She lives presently with her husband Awraham Gelt from Jaroslaw and their family in Tel Aviv).

We can associate the rescue of the child with the rescue of the young Yoel Salomon who hid in Yaakow Freund's house. The latter refused to hand him over to the enraged mob that was chasing him from his home in Koblow.

He was very embittered when he appealed to the Emperor of Austria for damages and was replied in the negative. He tried to recover some of his losses but the event was too much for him. He became ill and passed away.

He left two sons Itzhak and Dawid. The first one left for Palestine via Berlin. The second one resided in Jaslo until the outbreak of WWII. He was a Talmudic scholar and had eight daughters who married very religious husbands. Some of them lived in Jaslo. These are the names of his son in laws; Awraham Shtier (he left for the USA. In the twenties), Chaim Shaul Orshitzzer, Yudah Meir Apfel-Horowitz who lived in Vienna, Menndel Shentzer, Chaim Fuhrer in Israel, Hersh Eder, Awraham Gelt from Jaroslaw. The later was a Rymanower Hassid who was very active in the Agudath Israel and represented the party at the community council of Jaroslaw. He reached Palestine where he lives in Tel Aviv.

[Page 249]

One of his granddaughters (the daughter of Itzhak Freund) is married to Rabbi Arieh Paris who is the head of the Yeshiva Tel Aviv named for Rabbi Ahrenson of Tel Aviv. One of his grandsons Menahem Freund, the son of Itzhak Freund, is one of the well to do people in Jerusalem and married his son to the daughter of the chief Rabbi of Tel Aviv, Rabbi Unterman.

The second son of Awraham Freund was known as a charitable person and lives in Ahuza on the Carmel in Haifa. He sells car parts along King Street near the port of Haifa.

The second daughter Fanie is married to Noah Lewin, a community leader and secretary of the Afula area council. He was the son of Rabbi Lewisn who was the religious judge of Afula.

Israelke Freund

He was the first son in law of Mordechai Netzler. He was familiar with books and worldly affairs. He had a grocery and a paper store along Dzieckiego Street next to the high school and this is where he lived. He had a son and daughter. Moshe Meir was his son and he studied at the study center and acquired a general education. He was a member of the Agudath Israel. He married the daughter of the rabbi of Bilitz and lived in his father's house in Jaslo until the outbreak of WWII. He managed to escape the Germans but perished along the road. (His mother in law, the wife of Rabbi Shtern was the granddaughter of SH.B. Tzimet )

Wolf Franzbalau

He was a quiet person and one of the first Jewish settlers in the city. He was a merchant and owned a haberdashery store in the market square. He liquidated his business and took over the management of the bathhouse on behalf of the community prior to WWI. When he passed away, he left three daughters and two sons one of them Yaakow left for Germany.

Nathan Franzblau

He was the second son of Wolf Franzblau and was modern in outlook and leaned to the Zionist movement. He had a kiosk where he sold chocolate fruits and seltzer water along Kosciuszko Street. He was doing very well and lived in the house of Emer and Kornfiedl on Kazimierz Street. His oldest daughter was married to Chaim Ben Reuven Shilat

[Page 250]

Itzak Franzblau

He was an active community leader between the artisans and a member of Yad Charutzim. He was affected by the modern trends and was elected by the artisans to he municipality of Jaslo. He lived all his life on Florianska Street and was an excellent tailor. He became ill at the prime of his life and soon passed away. He left a wife and young children. One of his daughters managed to reach Palestine as a pioneer and settled at kibbutz Mizra.

Israel Frazblau

He was the brother of Itzhak Franzblau and was a successful painter. He lived all his life on Florianska Street. The father of both sons lived for some years in Niglowic where he had some minor position at the refinery.

Shulem Frankel

He was an enlightened Jew and very involved. He wore a shtreimel and silk clothes on Saturdays as did the the Hassidim. He sold tobacco and cigarettes at the house of Steinhaus in the market. He had a nice income. Following his discharge from the Army after WWI there was no tobacco and no business. He sold the place to Yoel Margolies.

He had five sons and the oldest received a religious education but the others received a general education. The youngest Yehoshua finished high school and continued his studies. One of his sons left for Germany and later reached Palestine in the thirties. He lived for some time in Tel Aviv but presently resides in Haifa.

Menachem Peretz

He was the son in law of Shulem Hiller from Topolini and was very religious. He was a good natured Hassid as well as merchant. He was drafted to the Austrian Army in the WWI but suddenly took ill. The disease terminated his life and he left a wife and sons.

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