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[Pages 155-156]

Three Proficiency Tests

By Daniel Ben-Nahum (Prochovnik)

Translated by Judy Grossman

Daniel Ben-Nahum: Everyone had to take a test in the three “steps”. The tests concentrated in particular on the Hashomer commandments, scouting, camping skills, Jewish history, the Yishuv (Jewish settlements) in Eretz Yisrael and the Histadrut (Labor Union).

A “Shomer” (member of Hashomer Hatzair) who passed the third step, and after a personal examination in the educational group, was permitted to wear the Hashomer uniform with the badge, and after a public pledge in a festive ceremony, during which he was dressed in the Hashomer tie, he was permitted to salute.

People who had passed the second step also received subject badges on the pocket of their shirt, and they were allowed to be counselors.

The oldest group was tested in the first step, where they were also examined in philosophy and socialism. They wore a different color shirt (gray, not green), wore the Hashomer Hatzair pin, and were eligible to join Hechalutz and go to hachshara[1].

The public pledge in its first version was: “I hereby publicly pledge and swear that I will fulfill my obligations to my people and my country, will help people and will obey the rules of the scouts.”


The Oldest Group Wearing the Hashomer Pin

“To Reuven Milun from Beinish Yudelowitz before my immigration to Eretz Yisrael from South Africa (2.2.1939)”

Standing on the right: Beinish Yudelowitz.

Seated in the middle: Motele Slep (son of Yudel and Rochel-Gitel)




  1. The Zionist movements had centers where young people trained for working and living together communally in kibbutz in Eretz Yisrael (Palestine). These training centers were called “kibbutz hachshara” (or “hachshara“) and each one had its own name. The training was frequently held on a farm, but sometimes also in the cities: “Kibbutz Ironi” (“urban kibbutz”). Return

[Page 156]

The Shekel Campaign

Translated by Judy Grossman


Report on the “Shekel Project

(Courtesy of Attorney Avraham Tori)

Daniel Ben-Nahum:

The “shekels” were distributed by all the Zionist parties and movements. Only people who had shekels were eligible to vote for the Zionist Congress, and the amount of shekels distributed in each country determined the number of delegates it could send to the Congress. One of the activities of a Hashomer Hatzair branch was to distribute the shekels. Most of the delegates to the Zionist Congresses from Lithuania came from the labor-settlement bloc [i.e. those whose purpose was to establish kibbutzim in Eretz Yisrael].



The “shekel” purchased by Dov Caspi from Dusiat  


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