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[Page 329]

Yosef Ben Ami of blessed memory

by Hanna Ben Ami

Translated by Eti Horovitz

Yosef was one of the people of the Second Immigration. He came to Israel shortly before the First World War, and as most of the pioneer immigrants of these days he fight the battle of the Hebrew worker for employment, and had many experiences.

Yosef was a man of deed with creative intelligence. He was qualified for many tasks and had a good reputation of being proficient of all branches of farming.

When the First World War began we lived in Beer Yaacov. The engine of the water well was broken and because of the war it was impossible to find a professional to fix it. And even if a professional was found, there was nothing to pay him with. Also the stone coals could not have been found. What did Yosef do? He cut the trees of our small Eucalyptus grove and with his own hands made coals out of the trees.

In 1921 we went with the first settlers to Nahalal. Yosef, who was skilled in construction, became the right hand of the chief engineer, helping building the cowsheds that were built even before the houses. Years later he built the school and the community center in Nahalal. He also made the synagogue of Nahala, planning it from top to bottom. He served there as Gabai until he died.

As mentioned, Yosef was very resourceful. He invented a method of building hen houses on a limited area, and guided the village members how to build their hen houses according to his method that was efficient and inexpensive. He also invented a new model of incubator that was accepted by almost every collective agricultural labor settlements.

At his initiation and under his guidance, the creeks and channels that caused the rain flooding the fields were straightened. This action contributed significantly to the quality of the fields and their readiness for agricultural processing. He also initiated the idea that the waste of the cities will not be burned, but will be made into fertilizer for the agricultural fields.

This was his way all his life in this country: Laborious, diligent, resourceful, and with a lot of understanding of labor and agriculture. Contributed significantly to the establishment of his village and to the collective agriculture labor of the entire country.

May his memory be blessed.

[Page 330]

Michael Steinberg

by Y. Kan-Tor

Translated by Eti Horovitz

Michael Steinberg was an innocent, righteous and honest man. He was born in Dubossar in 1876. He was drawn to the trade of Blacksmith from early childhood. In those days the young trainees were not so fortunate. The craftsmen were exploiting them for house chores that were irrelevant to the profession they had come to learn. It is no wonder then that only a few of the boys lasted long enough to learn the profession properly. But not Michael Steinberg. Thanks to his diligence, his patience and his talent, he became highly professional and was famous all around the area as an artist-blacksmith.

In that period, smithery was not considered a highly valued profession, and blacksmiths were ranked at a low stage on the social scale. However, Michael the Blacksmith was different. His innocence, his integrity and his kindness acquired him good and loyal friends among all layers of society, among Jews and among those who were not Jewish allies. Furthermore, his profession was not an obstacle when he came of age. Masia, daughter of a respectable family in Dubossar fell in love with him and married him. Together they built an excellent home.

When my family had to leave our village and moved to Dubossar, we came to live in the home of Michael the Blacksmith. My parents were delighted living together with the pleasant couple Michael and Masia.

Michael was twenty-five years old when he left Dubossar and moved to Ribnitze, about fifty kilometers from our town. Long after they moved, friends and acquaintances were speaking about them affectionately and respectfully. I remember that even the peasants from the surrounding area used to ask about Michael and were sorry to hear that he left. Michael acquired many friends in Ribnitze also, and was valued in the Jewish Community as well as in the non-Jewish one.

In 1925, Michael and Masia emigrated to Israel following their four sons. Our home in Rishon L'Zion was their first stop. By the next morning after his arrival, Michael made plans for arranging a workshop in the yard where we lived. He said and he did. On his first Shabbat in Israel, all the immigrants from Dubossar and Ribnitze gathered to welcome Michael and Masia. It was an encounter full of events. The people of Rishon L'Zion, our neighbors, could not understand this great honor for the new immigrant, knowing he intended to be just a blacksmith. However, his ability to capture people's hearts solved this riddle rapidly. Not many days passed until Michael became well known as a great craftsman as well as a good, honest man and he acquired quite a reputation. Michael was a gracious man. He honored his wife and cherished her. He educated his sons to love labor and was extremely happy to live in Israel with his entire family.

Since the age of thirteen the hammer and anvil were his loyal companions. “Working is our Life” was not only a slogan for him but the essence of his life. When his wife passed away his hold on the hammer was loosened, meaning the fountain of his existence dried out. And indeed, a short while after her death, he followed her. He was 75 when he died. Michael and Masia – beloved and pleasant, were not separated in their lives and in their deaths.

In honor of their memory.

[Page 333]

Moishe Faerman, z”l

by D. L. Granovsky

Translated by Sarah Faerman

Like thunder on a bright summer day, we received the devastating news that Moishe Faerman is no longer among the living. It is difficult to believe; the mind cannot accept it. Just the other day, August 5, 1964, I met with him and lively and happy, he shared his impressions of the World Zionist conference that was held in Bet Berl He spoke with great enthusiasm about the country which he hadn't seen for three years since his last visit to Israel when he was a delegate of the Winnipeg Labour Zionist movement to the twenty-fifth World Zionist Congress. The next day, on August 6th, we accompanied him to the airport in Lod and bid our farewells with the hope that soon he would come back and settle in Israel. On August 7th, a Friday, upon his arrival home, he managed to deliver a report on the conference that very evening to his comrades in the Labour Zionist movement. Two days later, on Sunday August 9th, he was no longer among the living.

Our sages, z”l say: “Whosoever sheds tears over an honest man, these tears are counted by the Almighty and saved.” This saying was made to measure for Moishe Faerman. He was a man of great character, pure of spirit, a source of goodness, love and friendship and willing to help every person. He was a good and loyal friend and he served society with great dedication. During his whole life, he faithfully served the Labour Zionist movement in Israel and in the diaspora.

His father died when he was still a child and he came to Dubossar with his mother and a younger brother. From then on, for the following 55 years, we were bound together in a deep friendhship that was not broken until the day he died. His death is a great loss for the Jewish community in Canada, for the Labour Zionist movement and for the Dubossar landsmen wherever they live. For me personally, however, Moishe's death is a double loss and a deeper pain. Since our “cheder” school days he was my best and most beloved friend and I am still shocked from this great blow.

From the early days of his youth, Moishe linked his fate with the Labour Zionist movement and at the age of twenty, in the years of 1918-1919, when the pogroms were raging in the Ukraine, he was one of the initiators and pioneers of the first Jewish kvutza (collective farm) in South Russia which would serve as a training ground for working the land in Eretz Yisrael. Later, when he emigrated to Canada, he worked once again on the land. He joined the Jewish Montefiore Colony in Saskatchewan, continuing the path he had taken in Russia, with the intention that it would lead to settling in Eretz Yisrael.

In Canada, Moishe was soon recognized as an honest and involved community activist. After a hard day of work, he would pick up his pen and write articles for the local newspapers relating to a variety of issues – working on the land, Zionism and the Poalei Zion (Jewish workers) movement. He was a devoted Zionist activist, a worker and propogandist for the Jewish National Fund, Keren Hayesod and the Histadrut Campaign (institutions and organizations in and for Israel) as well as being involved in cultural activities. He was also chairman of the Farband (Jewish National Workers' Federation) in his city. In his last years, he was executive secretary of the Talmud Torah school in Winnipeg.

After World War 2, in spite of his heavy load of activities, he took on a new task. The great catastrophe had torn apart many families. Moishe searched out addresses and invested much of his efforts into uniting family members, often aiding them materially in their difficult situation.

During his last visit to Israel, thinking seriously of settling in Israel, he said to me while we were parting at the airport at Lod: “Who knows when and if we will see each other again?” He had an intuition that his time was near. We both shed a tear and quietly took our leave of one another.

Moishe died on foreign soil. He did not realize the dream of his youth. At the age of sixty-five, Moishe was torn away from us.

May his name be honoured.

[Page 335]

Moishe Faerman z”l

by Noah Wittman

Translated by Sarah Faerman

Moishe Faerman arrived in Winnipeg in 1921 at the age of 22 years, with considerable experience in Zionist activities in both his home town of Dubossar and in Odessa. He had been a member of the Central Committee of the Odessa Poalei Zion (Zionist Workers). He came to Winnipeg with an intense Chalutzic (pioneering) fervor and in the first few months that he was here, before he had even settled on the land, he already founded a Polaei Zion organization and soon after that, a Jewish Culture Society. Within one year he became one of the most active members of the aforementioned Poalei Zion. Deep in his heart however, this was not the most important thing in his life. He was a Chalutz through and through and his goal was to start the pioneering life even while in Canada. In Western Canada, he farmed in two of the Jewish farming colonies – the Hirsch Colony in Southern Saskatchewan and in the Montefiore Colony in Alberta – as well as farming on his own. In 1935, he and his family left for Eretz Yisrael where they remained for two years.

On his return to Canada he worked for several years as a storekeeper in the country and later in Winnipeg where he was offered the important postion of Executive Director of the Labour Zionist Organization in Winnipeg. From then on he devoted all his efforts into activities on behalf of Israel and cultural programming in the city. He spent 8 years at this position and for the last ten years he held the position of Executive Secretary of Winnipeg's well known Hebrew school, the Talmud Torah with a student body of 700 children. The work provided him with a steady income but his thoughts and soul were bound up with Eretz Yisrael. He remained active in the Labour Zionist movement to the last minute. He had the honour of being chosen as one of the Canadian delegates to the World Zionist Congress that took place in Israel, July 1964. His daughter, Batya, has lived in Israel for 12 years and is well settled on the land with her fine family. It was Moishe's plan to move in the near future to Israel. Suddenly, two days after his return from the Conference, on Sunday, August 9, 1964, he was unexpectedly torn away from us.

May his name be honoured.

[Page 337]

Baruch Spivak, z”l

Translated by Eti Horovitz

Baruch was born in Dubossar to his parents, Abraham and Dobsha Spivak, on the first day of Hanukah 1921. At the age of three, he came to Eretz Yisrael with his parents. He spent the first years of his childhood in Nahalal and when his parents were among the first to settle in the Hefer Valley, he was one of the first children of Kfar Vitkin. Baruch was the oldest child in the village, and mostly was lonely due to the lack of suitable company of his age. This fact and the difficulties the people of the village experienced as the first pioneers and occupiers of Wadi Howarat, made a mark on Baruch's tender and delicate soul, causing his face to express a seriousness incompatible with his young age.

Because he was the oldest child of Kfar Vitkin, he had the privilege of being the one to draw the raffle tickets in the main event in the village. This raffle was for the assignment of fields for the village members. The committee in charge of the raffle worked hard all day and finished when it was almost midnight. Then, someone suggested that the oldest child in the village should draw the notes from the ballot box. Baruch's father, Abraham, went to wake him up and before wiping the sleep from his eyes, he carried him to the ballot box. With his hands shaking and a smile on his face, he stood on the bench and announced each number drawn out of the ballot box. Thus, the members of Kfar Vitkin received their fields from his hands.

After graduating from elementary school in the village, he continued his studies at the agricultural high school Kaduri, majoring in Agriculture. He thought it was the logical way for a village boy in preparation for his future life.

Baruch was modest and withdrawn. When the Second World War started and the young settlers were called to go to battle against the enemy of the Jewish people, Baruch was among the first who complied with this obligation and tug at the Jewish conscience. He served in the British army for four years in the Hebrew Brigade, and endeared himself to his companions because of his kindness, his generosity, and his willingness to always lend a hand to a pal. Even in the army, he did not forget his origins and was active among the organizers of soldiers for settlement.

During his army service he got married and looked forward to the end of the war, so he could go back to his village as an independent settler. In the last year of his army service, he was infected with a disease that the doctors could not diagnose. He carried his pain silently and heroically with the belief that he would overcome the disease. When he finally went back to the village, he had many plans for his future. He went to the hospital for examinations intending to return to his village within a few days to start building his farm. However, destiny was cruel with him. He went into the hospital but did not get well. The malignant disease, which had struck him during his army service, ended his life when he was only twenty-three years old.

Baruch passed away on sixteenth of Elul, 1945, and was laid to rest in his village – Kfar Vitkin.

[Page 338]

Miriam Ben Ami, z”l

(Daughter of Beryl Dudnik – The Melamed)

by Y. Kan-Tor

Translated by Eti Horovitz

Miriam was one of the first people of the Third Immigration and came to Eretz Yisrael in 1921. She was beautiful and pleasant and had a heart of gold. She lived in Israel almost forty years (passed away on 1960) and none of these years were easy. Unfortunately, her only son, who was so gifted and talented that people predicted greatness, fell ill during childhood and became disabled. Miriam worked hard all of her life, beyond her abilities, in order to be able to handle the therapy for her son. Despite her difficulties, Miriam knew how to hide her sorrow from strangers. She had a heart-warming smile and was very kind. She had a reputation among the people of our town and others as one who was willing to assist friends as well as strangers. Her door was open for anyone in need and her heart to anyone in pain.

Her home was modest, but no one ever felt unwanted or a burden in it. Whoever came to her home, could not leave without having a meal and if anyone ever needed a place to sleep – her home was never too small.

Her face never showed that she had suffered from continuous poverty. She always relied on herself and never asked for help, even in her most difficult times.

Miriam was a woman of valor, a pioneer and a devoted friend. She has been and now she is gone.

[Page 340]

Dr. Krasnovitz, z”l

Translated by Sarah Faerman

Dr. Krasnovitz was a physician with a vast medical knowledge and experience. He was friendly with all and was much loved by the people. He was also the crown-appointed “Rabbiner” (non-orthodox rabbi) and many official community documents passed through his hands. In spite of the fact that he was a “Rabbiner”, he was far from devout. He was also not nationalistic (Jewish nationalism) but he did many favours for Jews using his influence with the ruling circles. He was one of their crowd, eating and socializing with them. His unique position as friend of those with power was utilized to benefit not only individuals but the community as a whole.

Dr. Altman, z”l

by Y. Dunayevsky, z”l

Translated by Sarah Faerman

Dr. Altman was not born in our town. He came from Kishinev, from a poor family. His father was a tailor - one who mended patches. Thanks to the fact that his father had been a “soldier of Nikolai”, he was able to get into university in spite of the quota system. While still a student in the Gymnasia (high school) and later in university, he would find time for Jewish studies, including the holy books.

Dr. Altman was an exceptionally solitary individual. He had no friends, belonged to no organizations and did not involve himself in community affairs. Aside from visiting his patients to check on their progress, he was not seen in the streets. Also, his outlook on life was singular. He was fanatically nationalistic (Jewish nationalism) and religious. He expressed his fanaticism in his own unique way: Mankind was compared to a huge army, organized into regiments, brigades and platoons. In the same way that each division is recognized by its distinctive uniform, so also is Mankind divided into different ethnic groups. And, in the same way that a soldier in the military cannot move to a different division and change his uniform – because it is tight or confining – as this would undermine the whole, thus also, a folk cannot take off its uniform, i.e. his uniqueness. The Jewish religion is the uniform of our folk and as long as we do not have a national-religious Jewish judicial body with the proper authority to carry out the changes that the times demand, every Jew is obligated, as a soldier in the Jewish corps to protect his uniform. It is our national duty to guard our Jewish religion, otherwise we will not survive among the nations.

Dr. Altman was somewhat of an “oddball” but he was a loyal soldier in his division and to his folk. he was, alas, not long with us for he died during his prime years.

May his memory be honoured.

[Page 342]

Hershl Zionist

by Yosef Visoky (Ram)

Translated by Sarah Faerman

All of his friends and acquaintances knew him by the name “Hershl Zionist”. A quiet man was Hershl and modest, but with a warm Jewish heart. He made his living as a porter. During the cold, winter days when there was little work to be had because of the rain and snow, Hershl, unlike the other porters who frequented the taverns to get drunk and play cards, would make his way to the Tzeirei Tzion (Young Zion) organization. There, amongst the Zionist youth he would quench his thirsty soul and find rest for his weary body.

Hershl came from the lowest economic strata of society and from early childhood was no stranger to heavy physical labour. It is no wonder that he had almost no schooling at all. He was, however, blessed with a warm and sensitive heart and the spirit that reigned at the Tzeirei Tzion lectures that he listened to so attentively, planted in him a strong love of Eretz Yisrael and a deep belief in the fulfillment of Zionist goals.

With wholehearted zeal, he would apply himself to any and every Zionist task that was requested of him and he would carry this out faithfully and with diligence. If a speaker arrived in town and needed help with his arrangements, Hershl would untertake this assignment; if the Zionist youth planned an event, Hershl would do all of the heavy work even when it entailed missing a day's work and the income thereof; if there ever was a good deed to be done on behalf of the Zionists, he never avoided it. Knowing of his tight financial situation, we often wanted to pay him for a day's work but he positively refused saying: “This is holy work and that is my pay.”

During his whole life, his heart yearned to fulfill his dream and settle in Eretz Yisrael. With the strength of this belief and hope, he overcame much suffering in the oppressive exile. Unfortunately luck did not light his way and he was murdered by the Nazi beasts who shattered his life and his dreams.

May these words serve as monument and memory of the good hearted, innocent devotee of Zion – Hershl – who did not live to tread on its soil.

[Page 344]

Zelig The Dyer

by Y. Dunayevsky, z”l

Translated by Sarah Faerman

It was during the dawn of Zionist activity in Russia, which was in part legal and mostly illegal. The Zionist activities were carried out from five different locations. One of these was Kishinev (40 kilometres away) under the leadership of Dr. Bernstein-Cohen. Dubossar, with a very active Zionist organization was under the jurisdiction of Kishinev. Among those who frequented the Zionist events in Dubossar, was a simple Jew – Zelig the Dyer. Why he was called “the Dyer” I do not know for as far as I remember, he was a small wheat merchant. This Zelig was well known in Dubossar. He was a dear man and in his heart there was a great love for Eretz Yisrael.

One day, Zelig came to me and said: “I would like to request something from you. I want to be active in our organization but I am a simple person and can't see myself contributing in any way to the Zionist effort except, perhaps, like a beadle, be available to perform any task that needs to be done. I am prepared to do any work or carry out any assignment you would like me to do. With my whole heart, I would like to contribute my share, no matter what, for our Zionist goals.” I was happy to fulfill his request and since that day Zelig would faithfully apply himself to any task that was assigned to him.

Years flew by. I went to live in Odessa and for years I neither saw Zelig nor heard from him. One morning, when I was sitting in my office, the door opened and in walked Zelig. This time he was all spiffed up, his hair was combed neatly and his face was beaming.

– “What good news do you have?” I asked him.
– “I came to bid you farewell and also to receive your blessing.”
– “Where are you going, Zelig?”
– “What do you mean, where am I going!” answered Zelig, Where does a Jew go? To Eretz Yisrael!”
– “Are you going alone?”
– “No. We are all going – the old and young – Me, my wife and my five sons.”

I was surprised. Zelig understood my bewilderment and added: “Why are you surprised? I didn't sit down to make any great calculations. One fine morning, I just got up, sold my meager belongings, bid farewell to my town and that's that… I'm leaving for Eretz Yisrael… and if you will ask me:”What about travel expenses? Bah!! That doesn't worry me. What, will you and the other Zionists allow the ship to sail away and allow Zelig and his family to be left behind in Odessa?”

Zalman did not err in his reasoning. He was not left behind in Odessa. Some time later, I received regards informing me that Zelig and his family had arrived safely in Eretz Yisrael. They were now more or less settled in and he was happy to have actualized his love of Zion.

[Page 345]

David Pochis, z”l

by Yeshayahu Kan-Tor

Translated by Eti Horovitz

One Shabbat, upon my arrival to Eretz Yisrael in the early twenties, I visited an immigrant from Yagorlik, David Pochis, who had come with the Second Immigration and who was a member of Ein Ganim. I came to his home for two reasons. One was to visit someone who came from the same area as I, and the second was to have an agriculture lesson from him, since he was a guide of agriculture and practical labor.

He lived by the principles of the “Cooperative Settlement” even before these were accepted as a way of life.

He had an orchard of 10 square kilometers and there he did everything that was necessary by himself: the hoeing at the end of the fruit picking, pruning, digging holes, watering, etc. When the time for fruit picking came he did all the labour himself – he picked the fruits and brought them to his packinghouse; He sorted the fruits, wrapped them, prepared the boxes, and after packing, brought them to the packing house. In addition to the orchard, he had a cow, a goat and a henhouse with eight hens that laid eggs.

He took care of all of them himself, including the selling of the produce. That way he complied with the principle of “Self-Labor” – the first element of the “Cooperative Settlement”.

He used to help to whoever asked him – sometimes with loans, and some by collaterals. All pioneers needed help. More than once he paid from his own money, loans that vouched for and protected those that could not honor their commitment. “If they are not paying”, he would say, “ they probably cannot pay “Yet, he never received the same assistance even in his most difficult times. Then everybody he had helped forgot him. He was a giver and not a receiver.

By that, he followed the principle of mutual assistance – the second element of the “Cooperative Settlement”.

David Pochis was not a man of ideology. He did not write principles. He carved them from his heart and engraved them with a shovel and a hoe upon his land. Because of that, the principles by which he lived his life were part of his being. In his work and in his way of life he molded his character – a character of a Hebrew farmer who works his land, a man of truth and integrity.

He was an innocent and honest man, humble and moderate, and after he passed away, no one bothered to commemorate him. May these few paragraphs remain as a modest memorial candle for the life and deeds of a person who shaped a generation of builders and self-actualizers who worked for his country and the idea of renewal with all his heart and not in order to be rewarded. May his memory be blessed.

[Page 347]

Yitzchak Pochis, z”l

Translated by Eti Horovitz

Yitzchak Pochis was born in 1925 to his parents, David and Chaya, who were among the founders of Ein Ganim. He studied in the Ein Ganim Elementary School and continued his studies in Ehad-Ha'am High School in Petach Tikva. He served two years as a guard and in 1943 went to study Education in the Levinsky Teachers College. In 1944 he graduated from College and was hired as a teacher in a Night School for Working Youth in Petach Tikva, and as an instructor in the local playgrounds. He moved to Jerusalem, completed his studies in The Hebrew University and continued working in the Jerusalem Schools for Working Youth.

He was active in the “Haganah” from the age of 14 and achieved the rank of Commander. He was one of the founders of the magazine “Hashalom” issued in memory of Shalom Shtreit z”l, for poetry of youth.

He was a poet himself and wrote many songs with great talent. On 28th of Kislev (11.12.1947) he led a convoy that went to bring supplies to the warriors in Kefar Etzion on Mount Hebron. On their way, Arab rioters attacked them. Yitzhak fought heroically and lost his life in this battle.

An Individual from the Ranks

by Yitzchak Puchis, z”l

For the memory of a friend who died in battle

Young trees of the homeland,
lower your heads to the ground.
Dear trees of the homeland
your height has been cut off.

Be silence, do not move. The green avenues -
the vile cutter is in your borders!
A shameful hand conspired against purity
Waved an ax at a martyr. -

It will dry-off, this soiled hand
the deep pain will not be healed

Be silence, friends! He is gone
He will never return here;
Look, in the rising darkness
the spark of his great legacy is still burning.

[Page 348]

Tzvi Hirsch Tulchinsky, z”l

by D. L. Granovsky

Translated by Sarah Faerman

On the fourteenth of December, 1964, while driving in his car, Hershl Tulchinsky (Harry Toole) died suddenly at the age of 65 years. His sudden death was a painful blow in Winnipeg especially in his large circle of family and friends where Harry was much loved.

He was Moishe Faerman's step-brother, both of the same age and from the the age of 5 years, they were raised in Dubossar. Both absorbed in cheder the love of yiddishkeit, the Jewish folk and Eretz Yisrael.

In 1922 he emigrated to Canada with his parents and together with his brother Moishe, settled on the land in Saskatchewan and Alberta. Later, upon moving to Winnipeg, Harry threw himself into commercial enterprises where he was very successful and became a respected business man.

All the years of his life, Harry remained a loyal Zionist, active in the national Farband (Workers' Federation in Israel) and donated to all Jewish causes with an open hand. In his last years, he was planning to move to Israel. Unfortunately his death cut down his productive life leaving his many friends and family wrapped in grief.

A dear, warm hearted, quiet man was Tzvi Tulchinsky and everyone who came in contact with him, loved him.

May his memory be honoured.

[Page 350]

Mendl Zeltzer, z”l

by Y. Kantor

Translated by Sarah Faerman

Although Mendl Zeltzer was a big tobacco merchant, he was not wealthy. In his day to day routine, he presented himself as an affluent person, giving to charity with a generous hand. If any needy person approached him, he would never leave empty handed.

Mendl had a sweet, pleasant voice and it was a pleasure to hear him sing. He was therefore a guest at every poor wedding and with his singing would liven up the festivities and make the bride and groom, with their families, very happy. He was admired as a Baal Tefila (leader of prayers in shul) and synagogues would vie to have him daven (pray) at their shuls. Mendl, however, would never accept a fee for singing in a shul. On the contrary, he would turn down offers from the large, popular shuls and would pray during the high holidays at a shul that was experiencing financial hardships in order to help them out with his participation in the communal prayers.

His daughters, God forbid, did not marry without a very substantial dowry. Nevertheless – before going to the chupa (wedding canopy), the groom knew that the next day he would have to return this dowry to his father-in-law who had borrowed this sum from a friend. As far as the world knew, Mendl Zeltzer had provided generous dowries for his daughters.

In his old age, he became partially paralyzed and it was difficult for him to speak without a stammer. With great effort, he would go out in the street and with his last strength, he endeavoured to present himself with a positive spirit. Every person he met, he would ask:”Have you by any chance seen Mendl Zeltzer?” He laughed at his own fate.

That was Mendl Zeltzer. Even in his worst days, his spirit was not broken.

May his memory be honoured.

[Page 351]

Kalman Levenstein, z”l

Translated by Sarah Faerman

Kalman Levenstein emigrated to Canada from Russia in 1920. His first years were in Montreal and later he settled in Winnipeg where he remained for the rest of his life. All his years, he was active in the Poalei Zion (Zionist Workers' Party), an executive member of the Peretz-Folk School, affiliated with the National Workers' Farband, the Canadian Jewish Congress and other institutions as well. Wherever he invested his time and efforts, he worked thoroughly and with devotion. Modest and unassuming, he was loved by everyone. On the 9th day of September, 1963, he was torn away from his family and friends.

We mourn his loss.

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