Des..., Bethlen, Magyarlapos,
Retteg, Nagyilonda and vicinity
(Dej, Romania)

47°09'/ 23°52'

Translation of
Dés..., Bethlen, Magyarlápos,
Retteg, Nagyilonda és környéke

Editor: Zoltán Singer

Published in Tel Aviv 1969-70


Our sincere appreciation to Yael Singer, Zoltan Singer's granddaughter,
for permission to put this material on the JewishGen web site.

Our sincere appreciation to Yad Vashem
for the submission of the necrology for placement on the JewishGen web site.



Project Coordinator

Martha Sampson


This is a translation of: Dés..., Bethlen, Magyarlápos, Retteg, Nagyilonda és környéke
(Des..., Bethlen, Magyarlapos, Retteg, Nagyilonda and vicinity),
Editor: Zoltán Singer, Published by: Dés és Vidékérol Elszámazottak Landsmannschaftja
[Former Residents of Des], Tel Aviv 1969-70 (Hu 683 pages, 2 volumes)

Note: The original book can be seen online at the NY Public Library site: Dej

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Translated by Yocheved Klausner

[Pages 281-284]
Introduction Zoltán Singer 7
Ner Tamid [a memorial candle] Simon Avineri (Weinstein) 11
Foreword (English and Hungarian) Prof. R. L. Braham 13
The Jews of Dej and surroundings, their life and their destruction Zoltan Singer 17
Ner Tamid [a memorial candle] Avraham Keren 19
Foreword Lázár Hegyesi 21
The Dej branch of the Paneth rabbis dynasty 30
I. Rabbi Menachem Mendel Paneth   31
II. Rabbi Mose [Moshe] Paneth   33
III. Rabbi Jechezkel Paneth   36
IV. Rabbi Jakov Elimelech Paneth   37
The community and its institutions until the deportation 40
The Community basic rules and regulations, 1922 edition (faximile)   41
Chevra Kadisha [the burial society]   43
Chevra Kadisha basic rules and regulations, 1857 edition, cover page (faximile)   44
The caftan lawsuit   49
Changes in the community rules, 1891 edition   53
The Community schools   54
Rosh Hashana greetings of the Jerusalem Kolel Ahavat Zion   61
The Transylvania Orthodox Congress in Dej   76
The 1922 Congress, article in the Uj Kelet newspaper (faximile)   76
Machzikei Torah [“the supporters of the Torah” - probably a study group]   80
Talmud Torah - Chevra Tiferet Bachurim   81
The Poalei Tzedek organization   82
The Family Tree [ Megilat Yachasim] of the Heller-Kahana family in his own handwriting (faximile) Rabbi Yehezkel Paneth 86
Rabbi Jakob Elimelech in Palestine   88
The shoemakers' synagogue   90
The head of the religious court   91
The 1942 appeal of the Community   96
The community religious officers   99
Ritual slaughterers and supervisors   101
The Community general management   104
Synagogues and prayer houses: Talmud Torah, Machzikei Torah, Young men's Bet Hamidrash, R'Naftali Horowitz, R'Moshe Fülöp,
The Zionists' synagogue, Rottenberg, the Bélahegy synagogue, Bujdosi Hirsch, the slaughterhouse synagogue, Hersch-Domokos, the Désanka synagogue
Yeshivas [Schools for advanced Torah and Talmud learning]   109
Heders [Torah schools for young children]   111
Special figures in the Jewish street   114
The social and cultural organizations and institutions 119
The Jewish women's charity organizations   119
The Jewish craftsmen self-aid organization   124
The Jewish bank   125
Orphan care   127
The Linat Tzedek sleeping facilities for the poor   128
A Kosher military kitchen   128
Matan Beseter charity fund   129
“Meva Szandikot”, a charity organization for the aid of poor families in organizing the brit mila (circumcision) of the newborn   129
O. S. [a Jewish health organization]   129
OMZSA [the Hungarian Jewish relief organization]   129
The cultural life of the Dej Jewry: institutions, publications, productions etc. 131
The Jewish social circles   131
Jewish personalities in Dej   136
“The Hungarian Jews at the Millenium” memorial album 1896 (faximile) Dr. Náthán Friedländer 137
Dr. Friedlander's patriotic artile on the 1848 revolution, in the "Allgemeine Jiddische Zeitung” (faximile)   138
Economic and political life 159
The well-to-do Jews in the Szolnok-Doboka county   160
Jewish industry and commerce   161
Jewish trade and crafts in the Dej marketplace and neighboring streets   164
The political life   168
The Jews in Dej in the First World War   169
The Dej Jewish soldiers in the “Golden Album” of the Hungarian Jewish soldiers   170
The empire after the changes   177
The number of Jews in the Jewish communities of Szolnok-Doboka county, in the years 1857 - 1886 - 1891 - 1930 - 1944 - 1946   178
The establishment and activities of the Zionist organizations until the deportation 187
The establishment of the Dej local group of the Jewish National Organization [Zs. N. Sz.]   187
The first edition of Chayim Chadashim, the first Hebrew journal in Transylvania   189
The original request to authorize the opening of a Hebrew-learning course and its approval in 1919 (faximile)   190
The Kolozsvar [Cluj] chief rabbi Moshe Glazner on a visit to Dej (1920)   194
The list of members at the first Hungarian Zionist conference (faximile)   197
The inauguration of the first Hebrew kindergarten in Dej (1921)   199
The Barisszia organization   200
The Aviva organization   201
“Hebrew exams at the Aviva organization in Dej” - an article in the Uj Kelet newspaper (faximile)   205
WIZO   209
The election of the local officers of the Jewish National Organization [Zs. N. Sz.] 1928   211
The Beitar organization   212
The election of the local officers of the Jewish National Organization [Zs. N. Sz.] 1931   215
The Keren Avraham fund   216
Excerpts from the Temesvar (Timisoara) weekly Uj-Kor (1934)   218
Excerpts from the Dej newspaper Uj-Kor (1935)   219
Excerpts from the Dej newspaper Uj-Kor (1936)   223
Hapo'el Hamizrachi organization   226
Tze'irei & Tze'irot Mizrachi   229
Benei Akiva   229
Hapo'el Hadati   230
Torah Umelacha Atzma'i   231
Hashomer Hatza'ir   231
Benei Avoda   232
Hanoar Hazioni   235
Ha'oved Hazioni   235
Dror Habonim   235
The election of the local officers of the Jewish National Organization [Zs. N. Sz.] 1936   236
Maccabi   237
The election of the local officers of the Jewish National Organization [Zs. N. Sz.] 1937   237
Excerpts from the Dej newspaper Uj Kor (1937)   239
Excerpts from the Temesvár (Timişoara) newspaper Uj Kor (1938)   242
The last election of the local officers of the Jewish National Organization [Zs. N. Sz.] 1941   244
The history of the 110/34 forced-labor unit 245
Bethlen   246
Somkerék   247
Gomel   251
Staryoskol   253
Male-Bikovo   255
Novo-Uspenka   257
Pieti-Lepka   259
Beograd   264
Krasnoceska   267
Dorosics   269
Korosteni   272
Berdicsev   273
Yizkor 276
List of dead of the century   277
Sándor Majer, the benefactor of the century   279
[Pages 681-683]
The Jews of Bethlen and surroundings, their life and their destruction Dr. Andor Fried 289
Ner Tamid [a memorial candle] Mordechai Lichtenstein 291
Foreword Miksa Fried 293
Introduction   296
Description of the place   297
Documents of Jewish history   299
The Bethlen rabbis   301
The institutions and the leaders of the community   307
The Bethlen Jewish soldiers   309
The way to the Jewish national awakening   316
The Zionist youth   320
The activity of the Zionist women   322
Jewish movements and the shift towards left-wing movements   322
The dramatic changes in the life of the Bethlen Jewry   323
Tribute to Some of the Larger Townships that Belonged to Bethlen District   327
Ispánmezö [Spermezeu, Romania]   327
Somkerék   329
Apanagyfalu   330
Várkudu   331
The Jews of Magyarlápos [Tîrgu Lăpuş, Romania] and surroundings, their life and their destruction Géza Nemes 333
Ner Tamid [a memorial candle] Rabbi Asher Pollak 335
Preface Karl Lázár 337
First Jewish Settlers in the community   339
The rabbis of Magyarlápos - The Jewish Community from its Creation Until Deportation   341
The Jewish Community of Magyarlápos and its Associations   344
The Chevra Kadisha [burial siciety]   348
The Ritual Bath   350
The Talmud-Torah   350
Jewish soldiers of Magyarlápos   352
Community Associations and Institutions in Magyarlápos   355
Gemilat Cheszed   356
Poale Cedek   356
Women's Charitable Association   357
The Economic and Political Situation of Magyarlápos   358
Activities of the Magyarlápos Zionist Organization   361
Ghettoization and Deportation   364
The Jews of Retteg and surroundings, their life and their destruction Alexander Mátyás 367
Ner Tamid [a memorial candle]/td> Mendel Farkas 369
Foreword Dr. Izrael Legmann 371
Introduction: The first Jewish residents   373
Rabbis and Yeshivot   375
The community institutions   376
The Jewish soldiers of Retteg   379
Mohalim (circumcisers), melamdim (teachers) and synagogue attendants   380
Social institutions   381
The zionist life, Aliya and cultural activity   382
Economic, commercial and social activity   386
The ghetto and deportation   388
The surroundings   390
The Jews of Nagylonda and surroundings, their life and their destruction Dr. Alexander Friedman 391
Ner Tamid [a memorial candle] Moshe Herschkovits 393
Foreword Cvi [Zvi] Hecht 395
The Jewish settlement in Nagylonda   397
The community and its institutions   402
Personalities   403
The Ghetto and the deportation   406
The Holocaust Zoltán Singer 409
The Ghetto and the deportation. 19 March 1944   411
The yellow band, the yellow star   415
The list of the deportees   418
The Ghetto   421
The Ghetto of the Bungur forest   426
“The Mint”   433
Escapes from the Ghetto   435
Map of the Ghetto   436
From Bungur to Auschwitz   446
Auschwitz   451
Yizkor   461
“El Male Rahamim” and the deportation dates   462
Martyrs of the town Dej   463
Martyrs of the Dej surroundings   519
[Dej memorial pages]   525
Martyrs of Bethlen   543
Martyrs of the Bethlen surroundings   549
Martyrs of Magyarlápos and surroundings   557
Martyrs of the Retteg village   571
Martyrs of Retteg surroundings   575
Martyrs of the Nagyilonda village   579
Martyrs of Nagyilonda surroundings martyrs   583
The communities after the liberation   591
The arrival of Russian units   593
Exhuming the dead   594
The JOINT   599
The Jewish democratic groups   599
Memorials to the deportees   602
Rebuilding the Jewish economy   606
Restoring the Zionist movements   608
Rebuilding the Jewish communities   611
Rosh Hashana [New Year] 5728 (1967)   614
Bethlen   616
Magyarlápos   619
Retteg   622
Nagyilonda   624
Words of farewell   626
19th century born, who survived and were liberated from the Auschwitz hell   629
Des and its Surrounding Region in Israel 633
The memorial committee in Haifa   635
The 19th memorial service   638
Present Leadership of Des and its Surrounding Region's Landsmannschaft   641
The memorial book   644
The first issue of the Dej and surroundings newspaper   645
The second issue of the Dej and surroundings newspaper   648
Pictures taken on the occasion of the 22nd Azkara   653
Pictures taken on the occasion of the 25th Azkara   656
Our dead martyrs 659
Jicchak [Yitzhak] Buchbinder   661
Mordechai Hirsch   662
Yehuda Rados   663
Israel Czikk   664
Arje Glozer   665
Jicchak [Yitzhak] Godel   666
Cvia [Zvia] Siló   667
Dov Hochstadt   668
The Jewish spirit of Dej is alive in Israel 669
Epilogue   673
The last pages of the memorial book   675
Bibliography   680

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