Danzig Jewry 1840-1943:
Integration, Struggle, Rescue

(Gdańsk, Poland)

54°21' / 18°40'

Translation of
Yehude Dantsig 1840-1943: hit'arut, ma'avak, hatsalah

by Eliyahu Stern

Published 1983 in Tel Aviv, Israel by
Beit Lohamei HaGetaot (Ghetto Fighters' House) and
HaKibbutz HaMeuhad (United Kibbutz Movement)



Project Coordinator


Our sincere appreciation to the Ghetto Fighters' House
for permission to put this material on the JewishGen website.

This is a translation from: Yehude Dantsig 1840-1943: hit'arut, ma'avak, hatsalah,
(Danzig Jewry 1840-1943: Integration, Struggle, Rescue) by Eliyahu Stern,
published 1983 in Tel Aviv by Beit Lohamei HaGetaot and HaKibbutz HaMeuhad

This material is made available by JewishGen, Inc. and the Yizkor Book Project for the purpose of
fulfilling our mission of disseminating information about the Holocaust and destroyed Jewish communities.
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Translated by Tamar Amit,
with support from Bryan Knoblauch and Logan Kleinwaks

First Portal: Up to the Onset of WWI
Chapter A: The Beginning of Jewish Settlement in Danzig 13
Chapter B: The Danzig Community – The “Liberal” Community
The unification of the five communities, 1883 / The hope for full integration / The unforeseen challenge: Anti-Semitism / In the circles of society and culture
Chapter C: The Influx of Immigrants from Russia
The threat of expulsion / Israel responsible for one another
Chapter D: The Struggle Between the Zionists and the Liberals
The fist steps of Zionism / The image of Danzig's Zionist movement / Changes in the Liberal Jewry / The banning of the Zionists / The struggle for the youths' opinions
Chapter E: The Attempt to Limit the Voting Rights of the Community Organizations of Eastern Jewry and Zionists
In German communities / The Liberal initiative in Danzig
Second Portal: During the First World War
Chapter A: The Danzig Jewry in the German Patriotic Camp 51
Chapter B: In a Confrontation with Indictment 53
Chapter C: The Jews from the “East” Wish for Russia's Downfall 55
Chapter D: The Hope of Freedom and Equality for the Six Million Russian Jews 57
Chapter E: The “Committee for the East” In Danzig 60
Chapter F: The Pogroms in Poland as an Assisting Factor for German Propaganda 62
Chapter G: A Hostile Polish Response to the German-Jewish Cooperation 68
Chapter H: The Jews in the Area of Dispute Between Germany and Poland 70
Chapter I: The Days of the Versailles Convention
The Liberals side with Germany / The Zionists strive for the status of an autonomous minority
Third Portal: In the Free City (November 1920 – May 1933)
Chapter A: The City, Its International Status and Political Regime 85
Chapter B: The Participation of Jews in the Government
The roles of the Zionist Dr. Kurt Nawratzki / The two ministerial position carriers
Chapter C: The Creation of the Community
Statistical data / The German Jews – “Miserable Love” of Germany / The Russian Jews as refugees of the revolution / The artisans from Poland / The religious life
Chapter D: The Struggle for the Right to Settle and Become Citizens in the City 110
Chapter E: Danzig as a Destination and Transit Station for Thousands of Refugees of Pogroms and Revolutions
The spontaneous help / The Committee for Immigrants – A political factor / Organizations for charity and support / Initiatives among Polish refugees
Chapter F: The Struggle Against Anti-Semitism
The local character of the hate of Israel / Local initiatives and independent tools / Cooperation with the Reich's organizations / Blood Libel / Social Anti-Semitism / The publicity efforts of the Community committee / The police and the Jews act to restrain the Nazis, 1931 / Help to the Central Committee in the Reich / The Community committee coordinates positions with the Zionists / On the eve of the Nazis gaining control: Relying on the League of Nations
Fourth Portal: In the Free City – The Political and Social Organizations
Chapter A: The Jewish-German Organizations
The association for Liberal Jewry / The central committee of Danzig citizens of the Jewish Faith / The pact of Jewish soldiers at the front
Chapter B: The Jewish-German Youth “Kameraden” – The Wanderers' Pact / “The young Jewish Pact” 155
Chapter C: The Zionist Unions
The roof organization: structure and activity / Danzig as a host to international conventions / The “Working Country of Israel” movement / The revisionists
Chapter D: Zionist Youth Organizations
Blaues Weiß, Young Jehuda, and the Bonim [The Builders] Pact: Zionism, scouting and socialism / Pact of the Olim: A pioneer realization movement / influence on the pioneering movement of Germany / HaKhalutz [The Pioneer]: Agricultural training and Aliya / Beitar: Haapala [illegal immigration] in the influence of the Maximalistic group in Israel
Fifth Portal: In the Free City – The Community and its Organizations
Chapter A: The Legal Base and the Organizational Structure 185
Chapter B: The Structure of the Budget 187
Chapter C: Education and Culture 190
Chapter D: The East-European Rabbi Dr. Jacob Meier Segalovitc: Conflict with the Jewish-German Environment 192
Chapter E: The Liberal Rabbi Dr. Iwan Gruen: Judaism and German Patriotism 196
Chapter F: The Political Struggles in the Community
The Zionist Opposition / Inter-party agreements, Running for elections, Preparation for a separation in the community / The Zionist Demands: Right of women to vote, A Jewish school, Additional jurisdiction in the social areas
Sixth Portal: In the Days of Nazi Rule (May 1933 – November 1937)
Chapter A: The Background on the Jewish War for Existence
The failure of Rauschning / The helplessness of the League of Nations / The confusion and search of a way among Germany's Jews
Chapter B: A Time of Emergency in the Community
The paritatic [patriotic?] management / Legal procedures, relying on World Jewry, a plea to the League of Nations / Support of the needy / Community Tax / Schools / The economic-professional organizations
Chapter C: The Zionist Camp – Expansion and Vast Activity. The Tragic Gap Between the Desire for Aliya and the Options
The Club for working Israel / HaBonim [The Builders] Zionist Youth / HaOved [The worker] / The Revisionists / Youth Committee. Bar-Kokhva
Chapter D: Trends Among the Liberals
Getting closer to Zionism / An allegiance of German Nationalism / Accepting the necessity to emigrate
Chapter E: “Culture Union” – A Model of Jewish Renaissance 253
Chapter F: Yiddish Culture as a Factor in Spiritual Awakening 258
Chapter G: Awareness of the Uniqueness and the General-Jewish Mission 260
Chapter H: The Last Attempt to Uphold the Liberal Character of the Community 262
Seventh Portal: Scroll of Rescue, Expulsion and Annihilation
Chapter A: The Political and International Circumstances 267
Chapter B: The Riots of October 1937 and Their Consequences 270
Chapter C: A Combination of Anti-Semitic Regulations and Terror 274
Chapter D: The Emigration Frenzy, Help for the Needy and Hope of Continued Jewish Existence in Danzig 276
Chapter E: Anti-Jewish Legislation 280
Chapter F: An Agreement with the Senate for the Emigration of All of Danzig's Jews 283
Chapter G: Polish Jews Fear a Precedent 287
Chapter H: The Troubled Voyage of the Illegal Immigrant Ship “Astir” 289
Chapter I: The Summer Months of 1939 295
Chapter J: After Annexation to the Reich
The threat of murder and deportation / The community committee prevents deportation and finds paths of rescue / The affairs of the Patria and Mauritius / The annihilation of the remainder
Summary 303
Remarks 307
Abbreviations 326
Sources 327
Index 335

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