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[Pages 193-196]

Bukoviner of the Past

Translated by Jerome Silverbush

In the following history, many Bukoviner of the past will be described for our mind's eye. We saw them as politicians, industrialists, merchants, athletes, as men of intellect and the pen, as helpers and those in need of help, in need and death, but the majority of the creators remain unnamed in spite of the fact that they were the ones whose life gave history meaning and content. To tell all their stories would be impossible. Only a few can be described in this essay. That this didn't take place in a larger framework is not our responsibility. Not all questionnaires which we have sent out for years were filled in and our public requests for photographs and biographies or other useful contributions were not always responded to. Therefore, the stories of many deserving men and women cannot be told.

We would like to thank all those who have helped us to complete this project by submitting suitable material.

The publishers

Altmann, Jakob, Dr.; Came to Czernowitz in 1918, friend of Elieser Steinbarg, Jakob Sternberg, Mosche Altmann and Schlomo Lerner; his home was the meeting place of artists and intellectuals; medical doctor by profession and calling; a gentle and amiable man; died on November 11, 1960 in New York. Widow Mrs. Mania Altmann, the daughter of poet and director Vera Hacken.

Altmann, Leiser (Elieser) (1867-1951); many year president of Jewish Community in Sadagura; emigrated in 1935 to Eretz Israel where he was active as a businessman; left assets in his will to religious institutions, especially Jeschiwoth; buried in the cemetery of Sichron Meir (Bnai-Brak).

Amster, Heinrich, Dr. (1874-1957); well know medical doctor; former chief doctor in the Fürth Sanitarium in Vienna; later active in the State Hospital in Czernowitz; during the First World War hospital commandant and as such decorated several times; died in Vienna, brother Ludwig A. lived in Vienna.

Baltinester, Jerome, Engineer; Member of the Vienna Kadima; Lumber industrialist; vice president of Maccabi in Czernowitz; enthusiastic Zionist; deported with his family to Siberia where he perished in 1942.

Berall, Hero; his family originated from Siret; son of Doliu Berall; former director of the firm Material Technology in Czernowitz; clever, respectable and well loved; lived in Israel and finally in Vienna; died 1961 on a business trip to Munich. His wife, the daughter of the Czernowitz textile magnate Zimand (Paris) lives in Tel-Aviv.

Berler, Samuel (1878-1954); born in Nepolokoutz; distinguished merchant; cattle and meat exporter; vice president of the meat dealer syndicate in Czernowitz; lives since 1947 with his son, Engineer Willy Berler in Brussels where he died.

Bianowiez, Hermann (1870-1943); Jeweler in Czernowitz; lay judge; certified appraiser; member of chamber of commerce; leading member of the singing club Hasamir; master of ceremonies in Rotary Club; member of Jewish community's[1] governing body during the time under Romanian rule; member of Sfatul negustoresc (businessmen's organization; advisor to the Romanian Finance Ministry when the customs duties were set for jewelry.

On July 7, 1941 he and his wife together his youngest daughter Anny and her husband Salo Friedmann were deported to Siberia. There he went blind and died on March 13, 1943. Three of his daughters live in Israel; Sidonie married to a lawyer from Suceava, Salomovici lives in Hafia, Hedwig, widow of Dr. Fischl Siegel (Kimpolung) and Grete, wife of the jeweler Mosche (Maniu) Morgenstern who lives in Tel-Aviv.

Bitter, Wolf, Dr.; (1903-1961; leading director of the General engineering and Technical Supplies Ltd. since 1948; well known philanthropist and brilliant lawyer; died in Tel-Aviv.

Blum, Josef; Estate owner; member of Parliament. Builder of the nursing home in Czernowitz; active in the political life of the city and a highly respected person; his daughter Cäcilie Blum worked as a professor of German literature in a Chinese university.

Boral, Nathan; leading personality of Bukovina orthodoxy; outstandingly active in the Misrachi Movement; emigrated in 1950 to Israel; died in Israel.

Bibring, Edward, Dr.; (1895-1959); son of a high official in the justice system of Czernowitz; brother of Dr. Sigmung Bibring (Mexico); 1913 philosophy student in Czernowitz; prisoner of war during World War I in Siberia; after the war studied medicine in Vienna; married the medicine student Grete Lehner; both doctors, later leader of the Psychoanalytical Teaching Institute under Professor Freud; fled to London together with Freud; he and his wife received professorial appointments in Boston in 1941. His wife worked at Harvard University; he died in Boston.

Brandmarker, Markus; (1871-1957); active in the Vienna forwarding firm Josef J. Leinkauf; in 1930 founded a forwarding firm in Czernowitz; distinguished himself through kindness and honesty; died in Tel-Aviv.

Braun, Moritz (1884-1943); From an old Czernowitz family; was know throughout the city; wife and son live in Israel.

Brenner, Ephraim, Dr.; (1883-1937); studied in Czernowitz; professor at the State Gymnasium III; inspector (school) for a period of time; founded in Czernowitz the Jewish book store Aurora; member of the Orient lodge of B'nai Brith; Hebrew scholar; for many years directed the Matriculation Department of the Israel K.G., Czernowitz; wife Paula Brenner ran the book store until the Russian occupation (1940). His son Dr. H. Brenner lives in Ramat Gan.

Brück, Leo, Dr.; (1874-1956) Chief Finance Minister in Czernowitz; archetype of an honest, capable and industrious intellectual in Bukovina. Two sons, one an engineer and the other, Dr. Ottor Brück-Barkai, formerly lawyer in Czernowitz, presently official in the Israeli Justice Ministry in Jerusalem. Died in Kfar Ono.

Covier, Marco, Dr.; (1878-1956; adroit attorney; active as journalist; lived since 1918 in Vienna; changed his profession to restaurateur and bought the café Produktenbörse in Vienna; emigrated to Eretz Israel in 1938 where he remained 10 years; returned to Vienna and died there.

Denker, Nachman, Dr.; (1897-1953); grew up during the First World War in Suceava; studied at the law faculty in Czernowitz and there received his doctor's degree in law; after opening his law office married Hutka Zentner in 1925; Dr. Denker distinguished himself through his great sense of duty, honesty and unending kindness; he belonged to many commissions of Zionist organizations, was for some time the chairman of the welfare committee of the Jewish Community, last president of Safa Iwria. In Eretz Israel since 1944; founder and first president of Chug Olej Bukovina in Haifa where he was active until his death; died 1953 in Israel.

Deutsch, Wilhelm; a fine and endearing man; succumbed to a malicious illness in Minneapolis in 1961; widow Rosina, nee König and daughter Ditha live in the USA, brother Dr. Oskar Deutsch and Sister Adele Goldstein live in Tel-Aviv; sister Josefine in Wellington, New Zealand.

Dollar, Norbert, Dr.; doctor (gynecologist) for 25 years in Radauti; deported in 1941; became infected while treating typhus patients and died there as victim of his profession. His widow lives in Haifa.

Dupler, Efraim; (1866-1948); religion teacher; for a time leader of the Israelite elementary school in Czernowitz; admired as Hebraist; editor and employee of Hebrew, Jewish and German periodicals; died in Bacau (Romania). His son Abraham Dupler lives in Rischon le Zion (Israel).

Eidinger, Nathan (1879-1945); industrialist; founder of the East Grain and Spirits Central; in First World War, declined decoration by the Kaiser (barony); demanded support from Foreign Minister Czernin in the struggle to obtain equal rights for Jews at the Bucharest peace conference in 1917 and negotiated in Brest-Litovsk with the Russian peace delegation about the rights of Russian Jews; arranged for the reception of Dr. Hantkes by Foreign Minster Czernin (1918) to discuss the issuing of an “East German” declaration similar to the Balfour Declaration; in 1935 in Lucerne chosen as member of the Council of the Jewish Agency; during his stay in Vichy interned by the Nazis and first released in 1944; great philanthropist and promoter of many social institutions in Austria, Bukovina and Romania; brilliantly active in the care of orphans. His widow, Berta Eidinger and daughter Dary live in Tel-Aviv.

Eisenberg, Simche (1898-1948); textile industrialist; part owner of the textile factory Hercules in Czernowitz; vice president and long time member of the Executive of the Bukovina Zionist state organization; supremely active in KH [Jewish National Fund]; helpful to the point of self-sacrifice; died in Bucharest; son, Dr. Heini Eisenberg works as a scientist in the Weizmann institute in Rehovot, [Israel] and his daughter Erika married to Oisermann, lives in Kfar Shmaryahu in Israel.

Ellenbogen, Josef, Dr. (1880-1960); born in Suceava; studied in Czernowitz and Vienna; lawyer in Czernowitz and later in Vienna; after the Nazis marched in he fled to London where he died; former member of Humanitas in Czernowitz; Zionist; active as an author; brother Maximilian Ellenbogen lived in Beer-Sheva.

Falikmann, Berthold; member of Hasmonäa; member of Massada in Czernowitz; respectable, loyal and honest; writer of a French language book, “L'Arbitrage dans la Societe des Nations” which appeared in 1932; died in Siberia.

Finger, Ephraim Wilhelm (1881-1942; engineer for underground construction and bridge building; studied in Czernowitz; deported to Riga in 1942 where he died; former chief engineer of the Austrian railroad system; long time representative of the synagogues in Essen; founder and chairman of the Jewish Hand Worker Organization; Social Democrat; active in charitable causes.

Finger Izchak (1900-1953; born in Czernowitz; studied dentistry; lived for a while in Belgium; emigrated to Eretz Israel in 1934; widow Etty, nee Grüssgott, lives in Jerusalem. Three sons fought in Israel's War of Liberation. One died a hero's death and the other two changed their name to Barak after the founding of the state.

Fritz, Samuel (172-1945); Son of Baruch; strict religious upbringing; worldly education (Polish and German); later, student of Dr. Bloch in Floridsdorf near Vienna; an enthusiastic Zionist since the appearance of Herzl; lived in Kotzman; kept up contact with members of the Bukovina and the Austrian parliaments used his influence to further the interests of numerous petitioners; during the war was a refugee in Vienna; director of the EastBank branch in Kotzman, where he founded a Hebrew kindergarten; president of the KG and officer of city government in Kotzman; went to Israel in 1944 and died in Tel-Aviv.

Garl (Grünberg), Josef, engineer; member of Emunah; studied in Czernowitz and Jerusalem; initiated an action in Eretz Israel to rescue those aliyah candidates who remained in Bukovina; official in the technical division of the airport Lud; owner of an electrical consulting firm in Tel-Aviv, died in Israel in March 1959.

Gaster, Leib (1896-1942; born in Waschkoutz; zion. Askan; deported to Transnistrien; tied of typhus in Kopaigorod near Moghilew; widow Edith lives in Kibutz Awiad in upper Galilee (Israel); son and daughter also live in Israel.

Geller, Schamal, Engineer (1878-1960); studied in Vienna, Civil Engineer; engineer for structures and tunnels in Kutz, Storozynetz and since 1920 in Czernowitz; involved in carrying out agrarian reform in Romania; member of Misrachi; participated in the founding of the apprentice school (Perez) by the Joint; in Israel since 1951; in 1957 when he was 75 years old, he still worked as a road construction engineer; died in Tel-Aviv in 1960; sons Siegfried and Markus (president of HOB Jaffa Bath Jam) live in Tel-Aviv; daughter Miriam (married name Soar) works as a teacher and her husband as a school director; the second daughter Anna (married to Dr. Bernstein) works as a chemist at Kupat Cholim in Tel-Aviv.

Goldfeld, Schaje; long time president of Safa Iwria; founded the first Hebrew kindergarten in Czernowitz in 1912 and the school for education of Hebrew kindergarten teachers; untiringly active in the fight for the “Hebrewization” of Jewish youth; popular speaker and leading Zionist.

Goldstein, Heinrich (1876-1959); privy counselor; came from Suceava; state court councilor in Suceava; during the First World War examining magistrate and district attorney in Vienna; finally OLGR and senate chairman in Vienna.

Gottesmann, Samuel; Son of the industrialist Leibisch Gottesmann, died at age of 34 murdered by the Nazis.

Grabscheid, Gustav, Dr. (1870-1923); military doctor of the XI Ulan Regiment in New Juckia; later police doctor, railroad doctor and district doctor in Czernowitz until his death; gave great sums for Zionist fund; helpful and charitable. Son Erich Grabscheid lives in Kiriat Frostig (Israel), daughter Heddy married to the director of the Children's Opera in San Francisco, Norbert Gingold.

Granierer, Efraim, Dr; since his student days a Zionist and outstandingly active in general Jewish causes; lawyer for many years in Sadagura; president of the organization of former Sadagura residents in Tel-Aviv; died on May 11, 1958 in Israel.

Grauer, Heinrich, Dr. (1895-1960); generally beloved, very conscientious lawyer in Czernowitz; died in Tel-Aviv. His widow Mrs. Dr. Fritzi Grauer lives in Tel Aviv (Israel).

Greif, Markus; mayor of Putilla; district councilman; fled during the First World War to Vienna; never returned to Romanian Bukovina; victim of the Nazis; died together with his wife in Theresienstadt concentration camp.

Gutherz, Carl, Dr.; (1883-1942); began career with district court located in Zastawna; later transferred to Czernowitz where he advanced to the position of government councilor; after his retirement he became gerent and later president of the Jewish Community in Czernowitz; sent in 1941 to Siberia from where he didn't return; widow lives in Tel-Aviv.

Haller, Georg (1876-1948); for many years official of the Czernowitz legal system; active in a leading position in the child protection organization which he founded; was also one of the founders of the B'nai B'rith lodge; lived since 1944 in Eretz Israel; experienced the founding of the state; died in Tel-Aviv; widow and son live in Israel.

Heitner, Aron (Adolf); (1875-1951); vice mayor in Sadagura; member of Jewish self government (councilor) in Czernowitz; helpful and good organizer; died in Bucharest; his widow lives in Vienna. A son, wholesaler Max Heitner died in Vienna, his son Abraham lives in Tel-Aviv; a daughter lives in New York and one in Siberia.

Hessing, Eduard; member of Hebronia; professor in Czernowitz; good Zionist; died in Sydney 1960.

Horowitz, Nathan; president and supporter of the Jewish Child Protective Home; wife Josefine dedicated her life to social work.

Jurmann, Jakob, Dr.; studied in Czernowitz, Vienna and Cologne; repeatedly decorated in World War I; in 1918 active in Lemberg Self Protection against Ukrainian program bands; in leading position in Anitta Müller's assistance work in Vienna; active in the care of Jewish children in Holland; leader of various refugee camps; since 1934 in Eretz Israel where he started as a construction worker; owner of a meschek in Kiryat Ono; died suddenly 1961; widow lives in Kiryat Ono; two daughters live in Israel.

Katz, Leo; born in Siret, lived in Switzerland, Mexico and Vienna; wrote novels in the Yiddish language with social backgrounds whose stage was Bukovina and the bordering territories; died in Vienna.

Kaufmann, Moses; born in Novosielitza; owner of the forwarding firm Alliance; died 1939 in Czernowitz; his wife Hilde, nee Weinbach and his two sons Norbert and Josef Kaufmann are respected businessmen in Caracas (Venezuela).

Kern, Hermann; estate owner and businessman; came from Old Romania; member of the Orient lodge of the J.O. B'nai B'rith; grain wholesaler; died in Tel-Aviv.

Kessler, David, Dr. (1866-1944); rabbi; came from an orthodox family; gymnasium in Radauti; university and rabbinical seminar in Vienna; 1900-1913 rabbi of the Maehrisch Jewish Community in Gewitsch; after moving to Czernowitz (1913) upper secondary school religion teacher; during the war at Sophie gymnasium in Vienna and later at State Gymnasium III in Czernowitz; after leaving government service member of the Czernowitz rabbinate; his sons are alls physicians; Dr. Josef works at the Rockefeller Institute in Lima, the second Dr. Arthur and the third Dr. Julius Kessler, ophthalmologists in New York; the fourth, Dr. Leo, biologist in Bucharest died during the Second World War in Bucharest.

Kiesler, Heinrich, Dr.; Attorney in Czernowitz; long time president of the Bukovina Lawyers' Association; city councilman and K.V. in Czernowitz; father-in-law of the former mayor of Storozynetz, pharmacist Philipp Füllenbaum; died in Czernowitz (1915).

Klinger, Klara; came from a family that remained true to tradition; raised in Czernowitz, since her youth sentimental, thirsty for knowledge, music loving , enthusiastic, ready to help and charitably active to the point of self sacrifice; fiery Zionist; in 1906 founded the Jewish national women's and girl's organization Deborah in Czernowitz which in 1924 became the Wizo; delegate to several Zionist congresses; leader of the Jewish orphanage in Czernowitz; member of the Jewish self government in Czernowitz; visited Eretz Israel for the first time in 1929; permanently in Israel from 1944 until her death in 1957 in Tel-Aviv.

Klüger, Karl, studied at gymnasium, studied law at the university in Czernowitz: worked with Dr. Philipp Menczel; founded the Czernowitz Tagblatt [daily newspaper] in 1903; helped to found Hasmonäa; chief editor of the Czernowitz Tagblatt after Dr. Menczel retired; during the First World War entrusted by the Vienna State Department with a special mission in Stockholm and Copenhagen; 1919 leader of the Joint action for the rebuilding in Bukovina; member and president of the lodge Orient of the order B'nai B'rith in Czernowitz; author of the novel The Eleventh Commandment; member of the Romanian Senate; vice mayor of Czernowitz; died 1943 in Bucharest.

König, Leon (1869-1944); in 1887 opened a paper business on Ringplatz in Czernowitz; one of the founders of the printing shop Austria; helpful; member of Chamber of Commerce; President of the Merchant's Board; vice president of the Book Keepers Organization; member of the City Council for some time; awarded the Romanian orders of “Meritul commercial” and Coroana Romaniei;” as Zionist one of the founders of the sports club Maccabi; lodge brother of Fraternite; deported to Central Asia by the Russians; son Adolf König sportsman and Zionist lives in Tel-Aviv; daughter Rosa lives in Minneapolis and daughter Blanca in Los Angeles.

Kraft, Jakob; member of the lodge B.B.; owner of the large mill in Hadikfalva; died in Tel-Aviv.

Krauthammer, Otto, Dr.; (1888-1955); senior consulting doctor in Jewish Hospital in Czernowitz; a kindhearted man; Brothers Dr. Jaques Krauthammer, industrialist in Mexico and Albert Krauthammer, textile industrialist in Israel; widow lives in Israel.

Lehr, Noah; industrialist in Czernowitz; paid with own means for addition to Jewish Hospital in Czernowitz; long time member of Jewish self government (Kultugemeinde); father of the industrialist Siegmund Lehr and father-in-law of the attorney Dr. Hermann Goldberg, the farmer Max Kula and the judge Dr. Jakob Rubel; died in Vienna; buried in Czernowitz.

Lessner, Siegmund, Dr.; (1905-1941); middle school in Czernowitz; studied business in Florenz where he received his doctorate; Zionist; member of Emunah in Czernowitz; meritorious secretary of the Chamber of Commerce in Czernowitz; deported by the Russians in 1941; shot in Winnitza.

Lodner, Pinkas (1865-1957); owner of the decoration awarded to him by the Belgian king, the “golden palm with the crown;” lived with his son Max Lodner in Arion (Belgium).

Mader, David (1857-1928); the first Jewish gymnasium professor in Bukovina; worked in Radauti and Czernowitz; one of the founders of the Chowewe Zion movement; effective teacher of many generations; father of lawyer Leo Mader who lives in Tel-Aviv.

Melech, Israel (1865-1953); Cantor in Czernowitz; worked at the old Choir School; founder of a prayer house in Giwat Alija (Jaffa); died in Israel.

Menczer Markus, Dr.; religious education; studied law in Czernowitz; leader of the Jewish self government; during the Russian years worked in a factory for children's toys; deported to Siberia where he died miserably.

Neuberger, Zeno, Dr.; formerly lawyer in Czernowitz; son of physician Siegmund Neuberger; after his aliyah a railroad official in Israel; died as a young man in 1955 in Haifa; his widow Mrs. Irma nee Hildebrand lives in Israel.

Niederhoffer, Adolf, Dr.; member of the Zephirah; changed from the profession of lawyer to that of a journalist; was chief editor of the Allgemeinen Zeitung [Universal Newspaper] in Czernowitz; after living for several years in Bucharest Dr. Niederhoffer emigrated to Israel; moved to Argentina where his live came to an end in 1961.

Preschl, Abraham; member of the Jewish national academic association Heatid; founded and senior manager of the cardboard box factory Carto; part owner of the second largest artistic lithographic printing business Artografia; part owner of the textile business Vartex; took part in almost all Zionistic campaigns; along with his wife Lotti and his little daughter Helga shot to death by the Nazis in Transbug.

Ramier, Alfred, Dr.; (1870-1958); excellent psychiatrist and musician; untiringly active until his last breath; patron of artistic talent in Czernowitz and the wide world; collected works of music with exemplary zeal; comprehensive library; died suddenly of a heart attack in Suceava.

Reifer, Manfred, Dr.; studied in Czernowitz; one of the most active members of the Emunah; since earliest youth ambitious and a leader in the Zionist youth movement; gymnasium teacher in Czernowitz; director of KH [Jewish National Fund]; active in literature, especially in the area of Jewish historical research; during First World War prisoner of war in Siberia and returned in 1917 in a prisoner exchange. founder of the Historical Society in Czernowitz; president of Massada; inspiring speaker in political rallies; highly active member of the Peoples' Council movement in Czernowitz; member of the Romanian parliament; founder of the Bukovina Landmannschaft [organization of people from same city or country] in connection with the Irgun “Merkas Olej Europa;” worked together with the leading figures of Zionist Movement; rich correspondence; influential politician; died in 1953 in Tel-Aviv; his only son Theodor Gideon born in Czernowitz died on February 28, 1943 fulfilling his duties as a soldier; his only daughter Ditha is married to the well known businessman Dr. David Jaglom and lives in London; his widow Mrs Janka, nee Engler lives in Tel-Aviv.

Reiber, Paul, Dr.; (1868-1943); Attorney, aesthete, unusually willing to help others; during the First World War district attorney for the military justice system; respected even by his opponents.

Roll, Mathias; (1872-1954); studied in Vienna; in 1900 assumed leadership of the Galician Merkur Bank branch in Czernowitz which later became the Banca Commerciala; valued commerce expert; publicist; member of the Czernowitz Chamber of Commerce; vice president of the Czernowitz Grain and Securities Exchange; member of the Social Democratic Party and in this capacity for a period member of the Jewish self government in Czernowitz; since 1947 with a son in London where he died; his son, Attorney Dr. Joseph Roll interested in literature and active as a journalist, a patron of art, lived in Israel; died in Vienna while traveling through in 1957.

Rachmuth, Chaim ben Jehuda Arie; born 1874 in Siret; councilor and president of Jewish self government in Gurahumora; active member of the Zionist movement; since 1951 in Ber Jakob; died 1954 in Tel-Aviv.

Rosner, Bernhard; owner of the knitwear factory Texta in Czernowitz; respected supporter of charities; interested in politics; lost his life on the Struma.

Rosner, Littmann; born 1855 in Kisselitze near Uscie Puttilla; member of the managing board of Poale Zion in Czernowitz; one of the founders of the workers' kitchen Poale Zion; especially active in the children's vacation camp in Wizenka founded by the Jewish School Organization; representative of Poale Zion to Joint; endangered his life by sheltering Jewish families who fled from Poland in his home in Czernowitz; supported those deported to Transnistrien with money and food; died 1944 in Czernowitz.

Rosner, Meir Dr.; (1881-1921); son of prosperous merchants in Dorna-Watra; studied in Czernowitz; one of the most active members of Poale Zion; organized together with Locker, Rothziegel, Sokal and Steinmetz the first youth groups and worker associations; then continued his work in Vienna; worked together with Mendl Singer, Adler-Rudel in the party-executive and was one of the editors of the newspaper Jewish Worker; in Czernowitz editor of the party organ Freiheit [Freedom]; leader of the left wing of Poale Zion.

Rössler, Emil; came from a respected family in Itzkany; middle school in Suceava, later merchant in Czernowitz; was member of Massada in Czernowitz emigrated to South America where he died.

Rubasch, Stefan; interested in literature, artistically gifted; in Czernowitz founder of an amateur theater; reciter, author; finally official in Tel-Aviv; died there on August 29, 1958.

Schächter, Izle; well known and loved in Jewish quarter of Czernowitz; ritual slaughterer and mohel; in orthodox circles valued as prayer leader; died 1958 in Tel-Aviv.

Schächter (Amitai), Oskar; came from an orthodox family that lived in Kolomea; went early to Haskalah; ardent and inspiring Zionist; loved by all; member of the Zionist party council in Czernowitz; died at age of 76 in 1959 in Haifa.

Schärf (Gilboa), Abraham (1885-1955); member of Zephirah in Czernowitz; as a Zionist, ready to fight and true to the principals; during the First World War, officer in the field court; attorney in Gurahumora; member of the B'nai B'rith lodge; dedicated himself in Eretz Israel to building up the land; died in Tel-Aviv; left behind wife, daughter and a son who lived in France as a well known doctor;

Schärf, Zwi, Dr.; formerly a lawyer in Bukovina; good Zionist; finally official of the Sochnut in Tel-Aviv; active member of the Progressive Party; one of the founders of the “Chug Olej Bukovina” in Tel-Aviv; died on November 17, 1955 in Tel-Aviv.

Schieber, Wilhelm, Dr.; born 1875 in Gurahumora; Mag d. Pharmacy; studied in Czernowitz; assistant at the university in Czernowitz, later director of the Vienna Pharmaceutical Association Laboratory and director of the chemical and pharmaceutical factory, Philipp Röder; started many independent undertakings; in 1928 acquired the largest and most beautiful fruit farm in Vöslau (Austria); invented a copper and nickel welding technique; died 1942 in the Theresienstadt concentration camp.

Schmidt, Josef (1904-1942); son of a lease holder of an estate; elementary school in Czernowitz; in 1916 fled with his family to Slovakia where he learned to play the violin; returned home where he was a singer in the temple choir which was directed by Choir Director Josef Tofstein (murdered by the Nazis in July, 1941); afterwards he traveled to his uncle in Berlin for further education; military service as violin player and drummer in Radauti; 1928 cantor during the High Holidays in Czernowitz; 1929, concerts in Antwerp and Amsterdam; on the trip home, resounding success before a radio commission in Berlin; further triumphal successes followed; the Vosisch newspaper called him the “new Caruso;” concerts in England, Berlin, Vienna, Brussels, Zurich; in 1932 he made his first film, “Love Express;” 1933, the worldwide success “ A Song Goes Around the World;” after the Nazi party came into power he still gave concerts in Poland, Romania, Switzerland Belgium, Holland, France and England; he lived until 1938 in Vienna; further films: “When You Are Young the World Belongs to You,” A Star Falls From Heaven,” “Seven Happy Days,” records for His Master's Voice; radio, etc; celebrated everywhere as a singing phenomenon; called to the Royal Opera in Brussels in 1938; had to flee from Hitler's gangsters to Switzerland where he died in an internment camp on November 16, 1942; two brothers live in Israel; biographies by Dr. Karl Ritter, Karl and Gerhard Nowotny.

Schnee, Jaques, Dr. (1887-1943) studied in Czernowitz; long time city councilman and vice president of the Chamber of Commerce; honorary president of the Czernowitz Commercial and Book Keeper organization; Member of Hasmonäa; decorated as officer in the First World War; owner of the manufactured items store Lauterback & Schnee; deported to Siberia in 1941 where his life ended; was member of the Rotary Club and the B'nai B'rith lodge Orient in Czernowitz.

Schwarz, Samuel: respected merchant in Czernowitz; successfully occupied himself with the outfitting of the Talmud Torah of which he was president for many years; well known philanthropist and leading member of various religious and social institutions; died 1927 in Czernowitz; son Isidor Schwartz zealously carried on refugee relief in Bucharest, lives in Tel-Aviv.

Seidmann, Karl, Dr.; (1882-1949); middle school and university studies in Czernowitz; since 1905 employed by the state of Bukovina; 1918 became leader of the Primary District Team in Czernowitz; awarded with the Golden Merit Cross on the ribbon of the Badge of Courage for outstanding service before the enemy; in 1918 called to serve in the Interior Ministry; one year later active in the Nourishment Office of the Minestirial Council. chief of the Commercial-Political Department; state commissioner in the Food Import position; in 1922 left state service; director of Artmann & C. A.G. (branch of Central Bank); 1938 in the Palestinian Civilian branch of the British army; 1946 accredited representative of the east Federal Government in Tel-Aviv; 1947 reactivated and called to service by the east Government in the Ministerial Council; died in Vienna December 2, 1949.

Sokal Siegmund, Dr. attorney; a conscientious man and a good Zionist; died in the ghetto in Czernowitz in 1941; his widow, Mrs. Fanny Sokal, nee Schwarz lives with her daughter, Mrs. Hilde Bulow in Quito Ecuador. The son Josef Sokal took part in the Israeli War of Independence and is an officer in the Israeli army.

Sosczyn, Josef. Dr.; director of the Roentgen Institute of the Donolo Hospital in Haifa; leading radiologist; noble and helpful; died in Tel-Aviv in 1961.

Spektor, Pinchas (Pinie) (1872-1951); composer, director and cantor; composed already at the age of 14; for 19 years cantor in the Ukraine; 1903 cantor and composer at the court of the Great Rabbi of Bojan; 1919 carried out same office in Leipzig; 1929 chief cantor at the choir school in Czernowitz, where he preformed his most beautiful pieces for the public with great success; died in Czernowitz.

Summer, Wolf; merchant and industrialist, made extreme efforts to help those deported to Transnistrien by sending money, clothing and medicine, protector of the poor; died in a traffic accident on October 20, 1956 in Israel.

Stein, Josef: born in Waschkoutz (1866-1954); well known follower of the Wiznitzer Rabinical Dynasty; for many years bailiff of the prayer house of Reb Chaim Czernowitzer; was especially distinguished by placing orphan children under the protection of the Rabbi of Portugal who was known as the Seculener Rav; emigrated to Eretz Israel in 1950 where his life ended; on his grave stone in Zichron Meir (Bne Brak) the following inscription (in Hebrew) is written; “Grandson of the Holy Rabbi Baruch from Kasev of Blessed Memory.” 

Stein, Oskar (Jehoschua); (1885-1960); born in Davideni, district Storozynetz; lumber exporter; stemmed from a respected land owning family; lived in Czernowitz and after the war in Bucharest; since 1950 in Tel Aviv where he left this life.

Tannenbaum, Wilhelm; (1870-1923); among the most well liked people in the business, cultural and religious life of Bukovina. He was the director of the life insurance society North Star, had a wide ranging knowledge of Judaism and as a member of the Jewish Community Council and as a many year member of the managing committee of the Czernowitz temple contributed to the Jewish life of Czernowitz; member of many humanitarian organizations; silently supported charities; he was married to Rachella, nee Eltes; his son, attorney Dr. Julius Tannenbaum lives in Brussels and his daughter, Dr. Gisela Tannenbaum lives in Paris.

Tauber, Leiser; (1879-1958); descended from a respected rabbinical family in Radauti; as a youth studied to become a rabbi; later turned to business; a follower of the Chowewe Zion Movement, then one of the founders of the Misrachi Movement; fought for the spread of the Zionist ideal; politically active during the People's Council Movement; deported to Transnistrien; survived and emigrated to Israel where his life ended.

Taubes, Löbl, (1863-1933); followed his family tree back to Raschi and Israel Baal Schem Tov; together with the writer Dr. J. Silberbusch published the Jewish People's Newspaper, later the People's Friend of which he was the general editor; fought for the recognition of the Jewish nationality and for the use of Yiddish as an every day language; was delegate to the first State Zionist Conference in Lemberg (1891); itinerant speaker; spread Zionism in city and state; in 1896 founded the weekly paper Haam; moved to Czernowitz in 1904 where he edited the Jewish Weekly Newspaper; presided together with Dr. Nathan Birnbaum over the Czernowitz language conference (1908); fellow worker of Prof. Dr. Kellner in the People's Council; wrote about Jewish names and Talmudic elements in Jewish proverbs (1927); published in Vienna together with Chaim Bloch the Jewish Yearbook for Austria; His sons Dr. David and Dr. Israel Taubes both active Zionists live in Tel-Aviv.

Teitler, Leo; (1907-1941); born in Sadagura; attorney and translator; was active as a Zionist; section leader of the Maccabi; died in Berschad (Transnistrien) on December 5, 1941.

Teutler, Marcus; (1883-1945); worked at the Bukovina Savings Bank in Czernowitz where he rose to director for 30 years; helpful and a long time Zionist; widow, daughter and son live in Tel-Aviv.

Ungar-Wohl Salmea, Dr. (1903-1932); Daughter of the saw mill director of the Gelber brother's factory; Elias Wohl; sister of the short lived poet Kubi Wohl earned her Doctor of Medicine in Italy; brilliantly active in the field of psychoanalysis and psychiatry died at the early age of 29.

Wassermann, Alter; long year president of the Zionist organization in Radauti; after his return from Transnistrien chairman of the Zionist Central Organization in Radauti; helpful and of firm character; died in 1956 in Hadar Josef (Israel).

Weisselberger, von Salo Dr.; (1869-1930; born in Draczynetz; son of the estate owner Joel Weisselbergr and Jente, nee Rosenzweig; state court councilor; member of parliament, mayor of Czernowitz ; deported on June 1, 1915 to Siberia; 1916 exchanged for the Cardinal of Lemberg; senator in Romanian parliament; died in Vienna.

Wender, Hermann, (1874-1956); graduate building engineer in Czernowitz; in 1905 built the State Theater following the plans of the Vienna architectural firm Fellner and Hellmer; engineering first lieutenant in First World War; built in Spratzern near St. Pölten one of the largest prisoner of war camps of the war; 1935-1936 in Tel-Aviv builder of the Dizengoff Plaza and the Dizengoff Street; in 1951 emigrated to Israel; builder of 600 homes in Bne Brak; died in Nathania on May 9, 1956 at the age of 82.

Werber, Bruno, Dr.; (1886-1956); formerly lawyer in Czernowitz; “old man” of Hasmonäa; in Israel worked tirelessly to get damages for the Bukovina Jews who were persecuted by the Nazis; died suddenly in Tel Aviv.

Wildmann, Salomon; lumber industrialist and saw mill owner; distinguished by his charitable work; good Zionist; brother of the B'nai B'rith Orient lodge; died 1942 in Czernowitz.

Wiznitzer, Josef; born 1879; religious upbringing; dedicated himself to farming and industry; joined the People's Council movement led by Prof. Dr. Keller; a delegate at the 13th Zionist Congress; long time member of the Zionist State Organization of Bukovina serving in both the Party Council and in the Executive Council; chairman of the Jedidej Hechaluz; 1931 entered in the Golden Book of the K. K. L.; city councilman and member of Chamber of Commerce in Czernowitz; in 1940 went to Israel where he founded the diamond polishing company Ewen Chen in Natania.

Zehnwirth, Isak; Zionist since his youth; 1919-1924 chairman of the Zionist local committee inKrosno; came in1924 to Czernowitz as director of the large company Continentala; worked zealously for the National Fund; in 1929 entered in the Golden Book of the K. K. L. Member of the executive committee of Zionist State Organization of Bukovina; patron of Hanoar Hazioni; extraordinarily helpful; during the time in the ghetto founder of a People's Kitchen; in 1948 emigrated with his family to Israel where he was active in the service of the construction firm Amidar; died in April 1957 in Petach Tikva.

Translator's Note:

  1. Jewish Self Government: Under Austrian rule in Bukovina the Jews enjoyed a certain form of self government. The community and the governing body were both as the Kultusgemeinde which literally means “religious community.” There were various officers such as president, vice president, secretary, an executive committee, etc. This body was in charge of selecting the rabbi, the ritual slaughter, teachers, providing services and institutions like the nursing home, the orphanage, the hospital, the ritual bath, baking matzo, social assistance, etc. It was also responsible for collecting taxes to pay for these services and to give to the Austrian government. Return

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