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Chapter III

The Brichah in Poland


Poland's old and new borders, 1945


The territorial changes of Poland immediately after World War II were very extensive. In 1945, after the defeat of Nazi Germany, Polish borders were redrawn in accordance with the decisions made by the Allies at the Potsdam Conference at the insistence of the Soviet Union. The prewar eastern Polish territories of Kresy, which the Red Army had invaded in 1939, were permanently annexed by the USSR, and most of their Polish inhabitants expelled. Today, these territories are part of sovereign Belarus, Ukraine and Lithuania.

The Government of the Republic of Poland in Exile, also known as the Polish government–in–exile, headquartered in London, refused to recognize the new Polish borders and began a steady opposition campaign within Poland to the changes. Joseph Stalin was determined to change the borders and since Soviet troops controlled the areas, the changes were immediately implemented. Stalin obtained full agreement from the provisional government of Poland, and with his approval, Wanda Wasilewska, a native of Krakow, became the head of the newly formed Związek Patriotów Polskich (“Society of Polish Patriots”), a Soviet–created provisional government that was to control Poland. In 1944, she also became the Deputy Chief of the Polish Committee of National Liberation (PKWN), another Soviet sponsored provisional government that opposed the Polish government–in–exile headed by Stanislaw Mikolajczyk. These entities fought each other for international recognition as the legal government


Wanda Wasilewska


of Poland. The London exile government had the support of the Western powers and the Polish population at large while Wasilewska had the support of the Soviet Union and the Polish Communist Party. The latter decided to bring into the Polish government known non–communist ministers to boost its international standing, notably Emil Sommerstein.


Dr. Emil Sommerstein, a minister in the temporary Polish government and the Chairman of the Central Committee of Jews in Poland


Dr. Emil Sommerstein, born in the village of Chleszczewa near Lwow, was an attorney but devoted himself to Zionism and politics. Sommerstein was elected to the Polish Senate, serving as a deputy from 1922 to 1927 and again from 1929 to 1934. He was also a member of several important parliamentary commissions. In 1939 Sommerstein was arrested by the Soviet authorities, underwent severe interrogations and was sent from gulag to gulag. Suddenly, he was released from prison, flown to Moscow, shaved, showered, dressed and appointed as a member of the provisional Polish cabinet, the first Polish Jew to hold such office in Poland. Stalin was determined to control Poland since he needed a bridge between the Soviet Union and East Germany where his army was stationed. He decided to rehabilitate well–known Polish political figures[1]. There were a few other Polish non–communists in the cabinet, but the majority were Communist Party members or communist sympathizers answerable to Moscow.

Sommerstein was familiar with Soviet political tactics and knew full well that he was being used for propaganda purposes. He decided to play along and try to obtain as many benefits as possible for Jewish Shoah survivors. He was instrumental in the creation of the Provisional Central Committee of Polish Jews in October 1944 under the umbrella of the PKWN. The name of the Jewish organization was soon altered to the Central Committee of Polish Jews, also referred to as the Central Committee of Jews in Poland and abbreviated CKŻP (Polish: Centralny Komitet Żydów w Polsce, Yiddish: צענטראל קאמיטעט פון די יידן אין פוילן Centraler Komitet fun di Jidn in Pojln). A state–sponsored political representation of Jews in Poland, it was established on November 12, 1944. The Central Committee established Jewish community centers throughout liberated Poland and assisted Jewish Shoah survivors in resuming their lives in Poland. It legally represented all CKŻP–registered Polish Jews in their dealings with the new government and its agencies. Initially, a Provisional Committee of Polish Jews (Tymczasowy Komitet Żydów Polskich) was convened in Lublin, chaired by Emil Sommerstein, with Michał Shuldenfrei as Vice Chairman. Shuldenfrei, a Polish lawyer, was an active Bund leader and a member of the Polish Parliament after the war.

In February 1945, the Committee was reorganized in Warsaw as the Central Committee of Jews in Poland. Its presidium included an uneasy coalition of Jewish representatives who defined themselves as Communist, Bundist, Left and Right Poalei Tzion, Iḥud, He–Ḥaluts, Ha–Shomer ha–Tzair, the Union of Jewish Partisans, and the Jewish Fighting Organization. Sommerstein remained the chairman, with Marek Bitter, Adolf Berman (President 1946–1949) and Szlomo Herszenhorn his deputies, and Paweł Zelicki as Secretary General. The CKŻP integrated local Jewish committees into a new multilevel hierarchy consisting of local, district, provincial and central echelons. It also appointed supervisors for local Jewish committees. The Committee created an Education Department headed by Szlomo Herszenhorn, an active Bundist educator who established the first Jewish orphanage in liberated Poland.

The Jewish Shoah survivors were shadows of themselves.[2] They were afraid of everything. Their families murdered, their homes gone, they faced the hostile street alone. Sommerstein felt that the Jews needed a spiritual or religious uplift to get back on their feet. He insisted that the Polish government appoint a Chief Chaplain of the Polish Army to meet the spiritual needs of the Jewish soldier.[3] There were about 13,000 registered Jewish soldiers in the Polish Army while some Jewish soldiers passed themselves off as Poles.[4] The Chaplain would become the spiritual head of the Jewish community in Poland. Sommerstein contacted Dr. Rabbi David Kahane in Lwow and asked him to come to Lublin where the Soviet backed Polish government was headquartered.


Rabbi Dr. Major David Kahane in his military uniform (with his family)


Dr. Rabbi David Kahane was at the time one of the few rabbis in Poland to have survived while hiding during the Shoah.[5] Rabbi Kahane later became Chief Rabbi of the Israeli Air Force and then Chief Rabbi of Buenos Aires, Argentina. He was born March 15, 1902 in the village of Grzymalow in the Tarnopol region of Eastern Galicia.[6] He was ordained as a rabbi in 1929 in Vienna where he also received his Ph.D. After his studies, Kahane settled in Lwow (Lemberg), Poland, and became the rabbi of the Sistoska synagogue.[7] He held that position until the Nazi invasion of Poland in September 1939.

In his memoir “Lwow Ghetto Diary,” Rabbi Kahane describes how he survived the war by playing cat and mouse with the Nazi troops searching the city for Jews.[8] At one point, Kahane describes how he scurried out from behind a place he was hiding and ran while Nazi soldiers shot at him. But Kahane was soon captured, and moved with the other Jews of Lwow to the ghetto built by the Nazis. Eventually he was deported from the ghetto and wound up in the Janowska labor camp outside the city of Lwow.[9] Janowska was also a transit camp. From there Jews unfit to work were sent to the death camp of Belzec. According to Rabbi Kahane, conditions in the camp were so horrible they defied description. Kahane escaped the Janowska camp and pleaded for refuge in the palace of Lwow's Ukrainian Metropolitan Archbishop Andreas Sheptytsky. During the war Sheptytsky harbored hundreds of Jews in his residence and in Greek Catholic monasteries. He also issued the now famous pastoral letter, “Thou Shalt Not Kill” to protest Nazi atrocities.

By the end of World War II, over one and a half million innocent Jewish children had been slaughtered by the Nazis. But some Jewish children survived because parents rushed to neighbors and friends, even to the local priests, monasteries and convents, begging shelter for the children. If possible, parents trekked to peasant farmers they knew in the Polish countryside and paid to have the children hidden. Reportedly, some parents tossed their children over walls the Nazis had built around Jewish ghettos in hopes the children would be picked up by a passing tender–hearted Pole.

According to later testimony by Rabbi Kahane, the Jewish religious establishment of the city debated whether it was permissible to hide Jewish children in Christian institutions. Kahane said most of the rabbis were in favor of the move, “believing that, if the children survived, someone would remove them from the convents and return them to the fold.” Several rabbis, however, believed it preferable for the children to die with the rest of their families and their people rather than be placed in a convent. Rabbi Kahane disagreed, believing the highest duty of a Jew was to save the children's lives. He arranged with the Archbishop to place his own daughter in a convent. She survived the Shoah, as did Kahane's wife, who was admitted to a Uniate institution under orders of Archbishop Sheptytsky. The Archbishop also issued orders to the Uniate convents of the Studite order in Eastern Galicia to accept Jewish children and hide them. Mother General Josefa–Helena Witer, head of the Convents of the Uniate Studite Order in Eastern Galicia, personally greeted Jewish children and distributed them among her institutions, ensuring their safety. Archbishop Sheptytsky died in 1944 and is buried in St. George's Cathedral in Lwow.

Kahane's experience led him to a deep understanding of the complexities the Jewish community faced following the war. Having survived with his family due to the good offices of the Christian community, he respected any Christian family or institution that harbored Jews during the Nazi terrorist rule. With the liberation, Lwow became Soviet territory and Rabbi Kahane began the uphill battle of reviving the decimated Jewish community.

One day Kahane was surprised to receive an invitation to come to Lublin to meet Emil Sommerstein, head of the temporary Central Organization of Polish Jews in liberated Poland, and a member of the Soviet–sponsored Polish government.[10] Sommerstein had convinced the government of the need to establish a Jewish chaplaincy in the Polish Army. When Kahane arrived, Sommerstein took him to meet the Polish Minister of Defense, General Rola–Zymierski, who offered Kahane the job of Chief Military Chaplain of the Polish Army, with the rank of Major (later promoted to Colonel). The Rabbi thanked the Polish Minister but insisted that he be given permission to revitalize the destroyed Jewish religious communities in liberated Poland. His request was granted and he appointed Chaplain Aaron Becker to organize the Association of Jewish Religious Community Centers (AJRCC).

The CKŻP received money allocations from the Polish government to be distributed to the Jewish survivors in Poland to get them started. The CKŻP also began to publish a Yiddish newspaper entitled “Dos Naye Leben” or the New Life. The number of Jewish survivors in Poland increased by the day. Of the over three million Jews who were living in Poland when the Nazis invaded on September 1, 1939, only 10,000 Jews remained in liberated Poland in January 1945, according to Anna Cichopek–Gajraj in “Beyond Violence.”[11] By June 1945 that number had jumped to 68,500. The increase was due to surviving Jews who had returned to Poland from the camps and the forests, and demobilized Polish Jewish soldiers. By the end of 1945, the number of Jews in Poland would reach 81,593.[12]

The Polish Jewish population would also increase with the expulsion of Polish citizens from the areas that the Soviet Union annexed. The Soviet authorities forced many Poles and Polish institutions to move to Poland. Many Polish Jews, including Eliezer Lidkowsky and Abba Kovner, left the Soviet Union and arrived in Poland. By January 1946 the number of Jews in Poland increased to 106,492 with the discharge of Jewish soldiers from the Polish and Soviet armies. By June 1946, the number of Jews in post–war Poland peaked at 240, 489.[13] By 1948 the Polish repatriation commission had repatriated 175,000 Jews who had spent the war years in the Soviet Union. The majority of these repatriated Jews were sent to the new areas that Poland received in the post–war settlement. Non–Jewish Poles were also sent to the new areas. The Polish government insisted on settling Poles in the new areas to take the place of the Germans who were expelled from these areas.

The members of the Central Committee were mostly unknown to the Jewish survivors of Poland with some exceptions, such as Sommerstein and Shuldenfrei. Sommerstein decided to popularize the Committee and added two famous members who would later become a family, Antek or Itzhak Zuckerman and Zivia Lubetkin. Both were young leaders who had fought the Germans and were well known names among the Jews.


Yitzhak Zuckerman, Polish hero also known as Yitzhak Cukierman and Antek Zuckerman


Yitzhak Zuckerman was born in 1915 in Warsaw, Poland. He was a hero of Jewish resistance to the Nazis in World War II and one of the few survivors of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Zuckerman was active in a federation of young Zionist organizations, Hehalutz, and was an early advocate of armed resistance to Nazi depredations against the Jews. He was quick to interpret the first mass executions of Jews as the beginning of a systematic program of annihilation. Perceiving the full scope of Nazi plans and realizing that the Jews had nothing left to lose, in March 1942 Zuckerman represented Hehalutz at a meeting of Zionist groups and urged the creation and arming of a defense organization. Others feared that resistance would provoke the Nazis to greater violence. But on July 28, soon after the first trainload of 5,000 Jews had left the Warsaw ghetto to be gassed at the death camp of Treblinka, Jewish leaders accepted his view and created the Jewish Fighting Organization (Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa or ŻOB) under the leadership of Mordechai Anielewicz. Zuckerman became one of his three co–commanders and also helped lead a political affiliate founded at the same time, the Jewish National Committee (Żydowski Komitet Narodowy). Zuckerman fought in the Polish uprising of 1944 in Warsaw and survived the war.

Zivia Lubetkin was also invited to join the Central Committee. She was born in Byeten near Slonim on November 9, 1914.


Zivia Lubetkin


She joined the Labor Zionist Movement at an early age. In her late teens she joined the Zionist youth movement, Dror, and in 1938 became a member of its Executive Council. After Nazi Germany and later the Soviet Union invaded Poland in September 1939 she made a perilous journey from the Soviet occupied part of the country to Warsaw to join the underground (ŻOB). She fought in the Polish uprising in Warsaw in 1944 and survived the war.


David Guzik


The CKŻP tried to cope with the needs of the Jewish Shoah survivors as well as with the Jews who were repatriated from the Soviet Union but the funds available from the Polish government were limited. David Guzik, a prewar official of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) in Poland emerged from hiding and took matters into his own hands.[14] Throughout the war he had been active raising money for the Jewish ghetto of Warsaw and later for the Jewish revolt in Warsaw. Following the war he assumed the post of Director of JDC in Poland. Guzik was well connected and keenly aware of the problems that Jews faced in liberated Poland. He organized an extensive system of welfare assistance to the surviving Jewish communities in Poland. He gave aid to Jewish old age homes and orphanages and organized an extensive operation to bring food, medicines and money that was so desperately needed by Polish Jews. He died tragically in a plane accident on March 5, 1946 in Prague.

The Jewish pre–war organizations began to reappear in cities that had Jewish populations, particularly Zionist youth organizations such as Hashomer HaHatzair, Hehalutz, Betar and Bnei Akiva. A big debate began among Polish Zionists about their future: Should they stay in Poland or go to Palestine? Lidkowsky and Kovner participated in the debates and urged all Zionists to make aliyah, that is, emigrate to Palestine. They even met with Sommerstein and urged him to support their cause.[15] The meeting did not produce positive results since Sommerstein was a general Zionist who preferred that Zionists decide for themselves what to do. He himself saw the possibility of a revitalized Jewish community in Poland that would continue to live and forge ahead despite the Shoah. He was a Zionist but could stay in Poland just like a French Zionist could stay in France. Sommerstein had to

be cautious because he did not want to antagonize the Polish government who supported his activities and the organizations that dealt with helping Jewish Shoah survivors. He also had to be diplomatic around members of the Central Committee who were mostly communists and Bundist and vehemently opposed to Zionism.

Sommerstein did not commit himself to Lidkowsky and Kovner's ideas. The Brichah activists had not come to Poland to settle down, but wanted action. They decided to leave Lublin, then the center of Polish government activities, and move to the quiet provincial city of Krakow where there was less police supervision. Kovner was well respected by the Brichah membership but wanted the younger members to assume leadership.


Mordechai Rosman


Kovner recommended that Mordechai Rosman assume the running of the Brichah in Poland. Rosman was a partisan who had fought in the war with Kovner.

Meanwhile, the road to Bucharest remained closed and a new route had to be found for the refugees. Kovner sent a team headed by Ze'ev Rabinowitz, better known as “Velvele,” to explore the possibility of a new route to Romania. The team left Lublin and headed to Krosno, or Sanok, Poland, where they crossed the Carpathian Mountains to reach Humenne, Czechoslovakia and then on to Chust in Ukraine, and then to Baia Mare and Bucharest in Romania. The team reached Moshe Auerbach in Bucharest and a new path was created for Jews wanting to go to Palestine.


Map of the new route to Bucharest


Ze'ev Rabinowitz returned to Krakow and reported to Mordechai Rosman and Abba Kovner, who at this point was head of the Brichah organization in Europe. Preparations were immediately made to establish safe places stacked with food and clothing along the road, to sustain the refugees during their climb over the Carpathian Mountains. A Brichah team was sent to the city of Krosno to organize the necessary preparations. Groups of Polish Jewish refugees soon started to arrive in Krosno where they were briefed about the trip and provided with food bought on the black market. The refugees were also provided with the necessary forged papers that were printed in Krakow.


The Krakow Brichah office produced a multitude of official stamps and documents that were used
by the Brichah transports to ship Jews from place to place.


Members of the executive office of the Brichah in Poland
Seated from left to right: Tuvia Hacohen, Yochanan Cohen, Isser Ben–Zvi, and Netzer Alexander
Second row standing from left to right: Gershon Lev, David Weinshelbaum, Israel Hershkowitz, David Meller
Third row standing left to right: Shlomo Brandt, Nachum Blumenkrantz and Misha Krawtchik


Groups of Jews began to arrive in Bucharest but there was no exit from Romania. The port of Constanta was closed to private shipping since the Soviet and Romanian military fleets were in control.. Besides, it was almost impossible to rent or buy boats since British agents were everywhere and used their influence to torpedo shipping deals. Meanwhile, more Polish Jews arrived in Bucharest and were joined by the Shoah survivors from the Transnistria camps. The Jewish Agency and the Romanian office of the JDC worked hard to support them. But the situation in Romania was getting out of hand. The reception centers were overflowing and there was no solution in sight.

Kovner arrived in Romania to assess the situation. There was no possibility that the port of Constanta would be viable. He saw two possible routes, through Yugoslavia and Hungary. He sent one of his lieutenants, Mula Ben Haim, with some men to Belgrade. They reached the city and made inquiries regarding transportation to Palestine. Ben Haim then sent Pinhas Zeitag, known as “Pinieh the Yellow,” to the city of Split, Yugoslavia (present day Croatia) near the Italian border. He reached the city on May 13, 1945, five days after the end of the war[16]. The Jewish Brigade had a big base at Treviso not far from Split. The Brigade was a Jewish fighting force, mainly from Palestine, formed in 1944 under the auspices of the British Army. With the war over, the soldiers were free to take day trips into the area and met Zeitag on one of the outings. They were eager to help the effort. The Brigade became the key link that would open the route from Romania to Italy and establish contact between the East European Brichah and Palestinian Jewry. The route was difficult but effective, starting in Arad–Timisoara, Romania, then to Belgrade and Zagreb, Yugoslavia and then to Trieste, Italy.

Rosman was ordered to leave Poland and move to Budapest where he would try to open another route to Italy from Romania. Budapest had a well–organized Zionist community with active Zionist youth groups who helped the many Jewish refugees in the city. Joel Palgi, a Palestinian Jewish parachutist helped organize the Jewish community and especially the Zionist movements. Rosman began to contact people and offices to get the necessary papers to create a new refugee route. He established a route that began in Romania and headed to Budapest, Hungary, then to Graz, Austria, and to Italy. The Jewish transports rolled across Europe to Italy where they hoped to sail to Palestine. The numbers were still small but the Brichah managed to establish an effective organization that would soon play a very important role in Jewish history.


The Brichah established two routes out of Romania. One started in Romania headed to Belgrade, Serbia then Zagreb, Croatia, then Italy. The second route also started in Romania and headed to Budapest, Hungary, then to Graz, Austria and finally to Italy. Both routes were long and difficult but gave the Brichah a way to transport many Jews out of Romania.


Crossing points of the Brichah at Krosno and Sanok, Poland to Slovakia, Subcarpathia and Romania.


Events in Poland soon overtook all plans and decisions, namely the Kielce pogrom. Under the pretext that a Christian child was kidnapped by Jews for ritual purposes, the Poles attacked the surviving Jews of Kielce. The fact that Polish security and police forces joined the mob sent alarm warnings to all Jews of Poland. Fear gripped the surviving Polish Jews that were mostly sitting on their suitcases not sure whether to stay in Poland or go west. The pogrom of July 4, 1946 settled the issue. Polish Jews headed for the Czech–Polish and Polish–German borders en masse.

Starting July 1945, about 4,600 Jews left Poland and crossed illegally to Czechoslovakia, in August, 9,875 left, September, 6,745 left, October, 9,760, November 5,200 and in December, 2050 Jews left. The stream became stronger and in May of 1946, 3,052 Polish Jews entered Czechoslovakia. By June the number had jumped to 8,000. After the pogrom in Kielce, the tide turned to a tsunami. Nineteen thousand Jews left Poland in July; 35,346 in August; and 12,379 in September of 1946. During 5 months, 77,700 Polish Jews crossed the border at Nachod in Czechoslovakia, one of several major crossing points that included Kladzko, Walbrzych, Wroclaw, Krosno and Sanok. According to American Joint records, it is estimated that 90,000 Jews left Poland in 1946.

As mentioned before, the old Brichah road via Czernowitz was closed with the arrest of the Brichah leaders. A new route had to be established to Romania. The Brichah leader, Abba Kovner, ordered 3 of his assistants to explore a new route that led to Romania[17]. He selected Velvele Rabinowitz from Wilno as head of the group and sent them to Krosno, across the Carpathian Mountains to Humenne, Slovakia, Chust in Subcarpathia and Sato Mare in Romania. The group reached Bucharest and met Moshe Auerbach, Romanian Brichah Chief. Rabinowitz returned to Krakow, Poland and reported to the Brichah that the route was now open for Polish Jews to head to Romania and eventually to Palestine. Mordechai Rosman head of the Polish Brichah decided to open permanent bases for Jews, crossing the border at Rzeszow





A group of Polish Brichah agents, including Moshe Meiri,
known as Ben (right bottom row), head of Krosno Brichah station


and at Tarnow in Galicia. From there small groups would proceed to Krosno or Sanok where they would rest and then proceed cross the border to Slovakia where the Slovakian Brichah would take over. Ben proceeded to Krosno and organized a base where the Brichah brought small groups of Jews that were about to cross the Carpathian Mountains. They had to rest, stock up on food and prepare for as long trip over the mountains. The Krosno station grew in importance as the number of Jewish refugees increased, but became less important as the crossing points shifted west due to the Constanta port facilities being closed to the Brichah. Instead of Romania, the refugees were now sent to Czechoslovakia, then Germany and Austria where they entered DP camps mainly in the American zones. Jews continued to live in the big cities like Krakow, Warsaw, Lodz, and Wroclaw. But the Polish countryside slowly became clear of Jews.


Brichah agents in Krosno; from right to left; Sarah Pressman, Lena Hemel, Stefan Grajek, Vi Feishter and a police official. The city of Krosno was located near the Polish–Czechoslovakian (presently Slovakian) border. The Brichah would bring groups of Jews that wanted to go to Palestine. In Krosno they received their final directions and instructions.


With the liberation of the city of Krosno, some Jewish survivors began to appear, amongst them Salek Berger, a native of Krosno, who survived the war in Eastern Ukraine and with the liberation of the area was drafted into the Polish Army. He fought the Germans and was discharged at the end of the war. He returned to Krosno but decided not to stay in the city. Berger joined the local Brichah and led transports of Jews across the Polish–Czech border in the area of Krosno where he knew the paths. The work was difficult, dangerous and illegal.

The members of the organization were ex–partisans, camp survivors, discharged soldiers from the Jewish brigade and discharged soldiers from the Polish and Russian armies like Berger himself. He remained with the organization for some time and then was replaced by another volunteer. Berger was sent to one of the DP camps in Italy where he remained for several years. He eventually reached the US.

The Brichah was very active escorting thousands of Jews across the Czech–Polish borders. Entire Polish regions became devoid of Jews. The repatriation of Polish citizens from the Soviet Union slowed to a trickle.

The number of Jews crossing the borders decreased steadily as the number of Jews declined drastically in Poland. With the end of the Spychalski–Zuckerman agreement, the Polish government closed all borders but continued to grant exit visas to Jews wanting to leave the country. The Polish Brichah organization slowly dismantled their operations and closed the Krosno office. The Brichah left Poland and shifted all its energies to Austria, Germany and Italy.

The large number of people indicates the extensive operations of the Brichah in Poland.


Last name First name Code name Gender Country of
APPFEL Zacharia   M Poland
APPFELHOLTZ Chaim   M Poland
AWIROW Itzhak Pasha M Poland
BAUER Arieh   M Poland
BEN–ZVI Iaaer Shimon M Poland
BIATOS Feliks   M Poland
BOXER Zvi   M Poland
BRANDT Shlomo Jozek M Poland
BRAT Hanke   F Poland
BRAT Zvi   M Poland
BRONEK   Stettin   Poland
CARMI Itzhak   M Poland
CHMIELNIK Chaim   M Poland
COHEN Yochanan Gideon   Poland
DAVID   Stettin   Poland
DIAMANT Sarah   F Poland
DOLEK   Stettin   Poland
DOLEK     M Poland
DORA   Stettin   Poland
DOVELAH   Kattowice   Poland
DWORKIN Yerachmiel   M Poland
ENGLANDER   Jozek M Poland
ERNA Yaacov   M Poland
FREILICHMAN Yossef   M Poland
GEITER Menashe   M Poland
GELIBTER Bronek   M Poland
GELLER Martin   M Poland
GELLER Liuba   F Poland
GITTELMAN Shimshon   M Poland
GLIGSBERG Sarah   F Poland
GOLDSTEIN Shlomo   M Poland
GRAYEK Stephan   M Poland
GRAYEK Shulem Stefan M Poland
GRINGROSS Shenia   M Poland
GRISHA   Stettin M Poland
GROSS Nechemia   M Poland
GROSSMAN Shoshana   F Poland
HACOHEN Rachel   F Poland
HACOHEN Tuvia   M Poland
HALB   Walbrzych   Poland
HALPERIN Yossef   M Poland
HALPERT Eliezer   M  
HELLER Awraham   M Poland
HEMEL Lena   F Poland
HERSHKOWITZ Israel   M Poland
ISRAEL   Stettin   Poland
JAFFA   Krakow   Poland
JEDINOWITZ Ephraim   M Poland
JOHANES Dov   M Poland
JOSEPH   Klatzko   Poland
KALMAN   Stettin   Poland
KAMINSKY Dov   M Poland
KASPI Avraham   M Poland
KIHEN Shlomo   M Poland
KLEIMAN Julek   M Poland
KOPLOWITZ Yehuda   M Poland
KRAWTCHIK Misha   M Poland
KREIZER Itzhak   M Poland
KRIKON Zv   M Poland
KROCHMAL Maks   M Poland
KROLITZKI Shoshana   M Poland
KROLITZKI Chaim   M Poland
KROLOWSKI Israel   M Poland
LASKER Peretz   M Poland
LAZAR Chaim   M Poland
LEV Fima   M Poland
LEV Gershon   M Poland
LITVAK   Katowice   Poland
LUST Ephraim   M Poland
MAIMON Yehusa Poldi M Poland
MANKOTA Yehusa   M Poland
MANN Shlomo   M Poland
MEIRFELD Chaim   M Poland
MEIRI Moshe Ben M Poland
MELETZ Mitek   M Poland
MELLER Yossef   M Poland
MELLER David   M Poland
MENDEL   Krosno M Poland
MITTELMAN Max Mietek M Poland
MOSHE   Klacko   Poland
MOSHE   Stettin M Poland
NAHUM   Krakow   Poland
NATHAN   Zbonshin   Poland
NEIMAN Mordechai   M Poland
NETZER Zvi Alexander M Poland
NISSAN Mordechai   M Poland
NISSENBLAT Hanah   M Poland
OICHENWALD Janek   M Poland
OLIWITZKI Zvi Heniek M Poland
ORLINSKI Riszek   M Poland
OZICHOWSKI Nahum   M Poland
PERLMUTTER Yehoshua   M Poland
PHIL Jozek   M Poland
PIPI   Stettin   Poland
PODHORTZER Shlomo   M Poland
PRESSMAN Sarah   F Poland
RABINOWITZ Reuven   M Poland
RAKOWER Shalom   M Poland
RAPAPPORT Monia   M Poland
REITZES Buria   M Poland
REZNIK Nissan   M Poland
RIM Poldek   M Poland
ROSA   Stettin   Poland
ROZA     M Poland
ROZMAN Mordechai   M Poland
RUBINSTEIN Eliezer   M Poland
RUCHMAN Pasha   M Rumania
RUDELNIK Israel   M Poland
SADEH Avraham   M Poland
SARA   Stettin   Poland
SCHECHTER Bracha   F Poland
SCHECHTER Yossef   M Poland
SCHIFF David Dudek M Poland
SCHOCHET Nach Jingi M Poland
SCHOCHET Zalman   M Poland
SCHWARTZ Yaacov   M Poland
SEGAL Pessah   M Poland
SHALOM   Stettin   Poland
SHARON   Vienna   Austria
SHARON Menachem   M Poland
SHAUL   Krakow   Poland
SHELET Mark   M Poland
SHENKMAN Kuba   M Poland
SHENOON Avinoam   M Poland
SHIMONOW   Krakow   Poland
SHTILER Arieh   M Poland
SONIA   Rzeszow   Poland
STASHEK Stief   M Poland
TCHATCHKES Fishel   M Poland
TEITELBAUM David   M Poland
WALDMAN A   M Poland
WARSZAWCIK Hasia   F Poland
WEISSMAN Nachman   M Poland
WEIZER David   M Poland
WERMAN Munia   M Poland
WINTZELBERG Karol   M Poland
WOLBERSTEIN Moshe   M Poland
YAFAH   Krakow   Poland
YEHOSHUA     M Poland
ZAGMIROWSKI Tanchum   M Poland
ZEIDEL Hillel   M Poland
ZIMAN Rosa   F  
ZOHAR–ZLOTO Zvi   M Poland
ZUCKERMAN Antek   M Poland
ZVI   Krakow   Poland


  1. Bauer, Flight, p24 Return
  2. Anna Cichopek–Gajraj. Beyond Violence. Cambridge University Press, 2014. p.35 Return
  3. David Kahane, Rabbi. After the Deluge, Jerusalem, 1981. pp, 10–14. Hebrew Return
  4. Cichopek–Gajraj. Violence. p. 44 Return
  5. William , Leibner, Mass Exit Transport of Jewish Children from Poland, Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 2010 Return
  6. David Kahane, Rabbi. After the Deluge, Jerusalem, Israel 1981 pp, 12–14 Return
  7. Ibid, pp .12–14 Return
  8. David Kahane, Rabbi. Lwow Ghetto Diary. Jerusalem, 1978, p.87 Return
  9. Ibid, p.125 Return
  10. Kahane, Deluge, pp12–14 Return
  11. Cichopek–Gajraj, Violence, p.44 Return
  12. Ibid., Violence, p.44 Return
  13. Ibid., Violence, p.44 Return
  14. William. Leibner, Zabrze–Hindenburg–Zabrze Yizkor Book. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, pp.50–54 Return
  15. Bauer, Flight, p.19 Return
  16. Bauer, Flight, p.41 Return
  17. Bauer, Flight, p. 119 Return


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