Sam Marcus -- New York
These lines are written particularly for the younger generation for those who once lived in Boiberke and who now live abroad and understand neither Hebrew nor Yiddish and will, therefore, not know what this book is all about. But it is in their interest and for their benefit that they should know. This book not only commemorates our kinfolk who were all so inhumanly killed by the Nazis, but it also reveals what happened in Europe in the twentieth century, in the years 1939-1943. Not only did a European nation degenerate into a barbaric state to become cannibals and massacre a whole people, but also sons of many other nations gave a hand to it and in certain cases were even worse than the Germans. The world knew about all that and did nothing to prevent or to stop it.
You should know all this and see to it that nothing of the kind ever happens again anywhere. You should also know about that town called Boiberke how it looked prior to World War II -- and make acquaintance with the background and ways of life of your parents and grandparents in their old little town. This might lead to a greater mutual understanding.
Your parents or grandparents came from a small town in eastern Galicia called Boiberke, very near (18 miles) Lemberg (Lvov), the capital of Galicia.
Jews lived in Boiberke for hundreds of years, almost from its very inception. It was surrounded by beautiful scenery of colorful fields and forests. Prior to World War I the peoples, Poles Ukrainians and Jews nicely convived [sic] and life was pleasant and easy. All studied in the same school. The language of instruction was Polish, but from the third grade all studied Ukrainian and German as well. Jewish children studied prayers Bible and Talmud in the afternoons and evenings at the Heder.
The First World War
The outbreak of World War I in August 1914 brought an abrupt end to this idyllic life. Early in September Boiberke was invaded by the Russian army. The town was first looted and then in great part burned down to the ground. Whoever could, fled panic-stricken before the Cossaks reached the town, but many remained and suffered humiliation, hunger, and privation. The Russians did not like the Jewish [sic] and treated them as Austrian spies, and limitations were imposed on their movements. Furthermore, before the Russians were forced out by the reinforced Austro-German army, they dragged away as hostages to Russia all the male Jewish population, old and young, whoever they could get hold of.
The fight around the town left scores of decaying bodies of dead soldiers lying for days in the fields. Because of this and because of hunger and lack of shelter an epidemic, first dysentry [sic], then typhoid, and finally cholera broke out, and hundreds lost their lives. There was no help. There were no physicians no medicines and no food.
It did not take long time for things to become normal again. Refugees started coming back from Vienna, Budapest and Prague. Life almost began pulsating again in Boiberke. Youngsters went back to school. A youth organization Hashomer Hatsair was formed by Arieh Allweil, who had then returned from Vienna; Most Jewish boys and girls belong to the many kevutzoth [groups] of the Hashomer Hatsair. We studied Hebrew, we learned Jewish history we studied Jewish songs and took hikes. We joined Hechalutz and prepared for aliyah to Eretz Israel.
In 1918 peace came to us almost suddenly. But in our corners fighting started again, this time between Poles and Ukrainians, both of whom claimed ownership and sovereignty of the country. At the beginning the Ukrainians took over. They treated the Jews fairly. They gave us permission to organize a militia for self defence and even supplied us with rifles and machine guns. We were proud to wear a blue-white armband with the Magen-David [Star of David], while patrolling the streets of Boiberke. For a short time we enjoyed a kind of Jewish autonomy.
The Ukrainian rule came very soon to an end and after fierce fighting the Poles took over and we became overnight Polish citizens, after having been Austrian citizens most of our lives and Ukrainian citizens in the interim.
The good days did not last long. In 1920 the Russians came back as the Red army. Again we had to suffer hunger and privation because there was no chance to earn a living or a possibility of getting any food.
Before long the Poles came back. We were regarded as second degree citizens. Jews were pushed out from their positions. For the youth there was no future in Poland. Our people emigrated wherever they could, to America, to Canada, to South Africa, to South America and, of course to Eretz Israel, then Palestine. The Chalutz movement flourished. The best part of the youth left, thus impovering [sic] our ranks. For those remaining, Eretz [The Land of Israel] was a reason to exist, something to work for.
Antisemitism was increasing steadily over Poland. Jews encountered discrimination everywhere. They could get no jobs in Government or in private industry. All doors were closed to them, regardless of ability or qualifications for the job. It is most noteworthy that we had very talented people. You should know that the people of Boiberke had fine men and woman [sic] with high aspirations, with wonderful ideas and ideals. Some were fine scholars other were good teachers and many others were particularly capable, talented in abstract studies such as mathematics and philosophy.
The slogan of the non jewish population was: Jews go to Palestine. Jewish shopkeepers and tradesman were assessed with such extrordinarily high taxes that they had to sell out in order to pay the taxes. On the other hand they were boycotted by the National Polish organizations.
In spite of all this, our people were a benevolent society. They always helped each other out and never did anyone starve, or go into bankruptcy. There were Gemiluth Hassadim (Benevolence) and money lending societies, so that a poor man could continue to make a living. No needy person was ever turned away and no one would ever remain without means to prepare Shabes [the Sabbath]. One did not know a Friday Evening Meal without having a stranger (Oreah) at the table to share it.
The Jewish youth were badly hit. They were barred by means of a numerus clausus, from the Universities. Those admitted were not allowed to sit on the same benches with their Polish fellow students. Fighting was a daily occurrence between Polish and Jewish students and many Jewish youth had to seek admission to colleges abroad. Very few could avail themselves of this. The situation became hopeless and Jewish youth was desperate.
They established their own organizations and their own sports clubs. They knew that there was no future for Jewish youth in Poland but there was no place to go. All the countries closed their boundaries and would not let them in.
Their fate was sealed with the arrival of the Germans at the outbreak of World War II. Jewish Boiberke, where our ancestors had lived for centuries, was utterly destroyed by the greatest devastation any people ever suffered. Jewish Boiberke does not exist anymore.
Boiberke itself still exists but the Jewish community there exists no longer. It is gone. A great culture has been buried for ever. There is a pain and bitterness in our hearts which never can be healed.
There is no forgiving. One cannot forgive the cold-blooded murder of parents, brothers, sisters, relatives and friends. There is no vengeance for the murder of a small child. Such a vengeance- vengeance for the blood of a small child? Even the Satan has not created it!
We shall always remember those who died as martyrs for Kiddush Hashem (Sanctification of God's name). Let the young generation remember and see to it that this never happens again.
There is no consolation. The only comfort be found in the hope that out of this monstrous holocaust there will emerge a new world which will fight against man's inhumanity towards man and the future generations will never know hate and brutality.
In the Days of the Exodus the Children of Israel crossed the sea dryshod, and in due course they found themselves attacked by Amalek. In our own times Amalek stole furtively about our people in Europe, snatching whatever he might steal like a jackal; while the ghettoes festered and the furnaces smoked. When the Nazi Moloch had been brought low, Amalek went on circling about the Jews, trying to prevent them from crossing the sea once again to our land. And yet the seas were crossed. The redeemed reached their own shores, and sing the Lord a new song. They came from shame and rapine, from death camps and gas chambers. They came back from very death, from all that Egypt and Amalek, the Germans and their assistants, had done to them.
By Dr. N. M. Gelber
Translated from the Yiddish by Julius Haber
Boiberke was of the oldest towns in Eastern Galicia. It was a large village until 1469. On May 17th of that year, Kazhimiezh Yagelonsky, to whom the village belonged, changed it into a town. This took place at the same time as several other nearby villages were also turned into towns, among them Komarne, Alesk and Gologure.
In order to assist the growth of the new town Boiberke was permitted to have two large fairs each year which lasted for several days, and also to have a market day every Tuesday.
The jurisdiction of the town was in the hands of the Mayor, who received 1,324 zlotys yearly for his services. The Mayor held his position for life and when he could no longer carry on his functions, he left his office to his heirs, not necessarily male. At one time, Anna Hinca succeeded her father as Mayor of Boiberke.
At that time in Poland, it was unusual for a Mayor to hold his post for life. In addition to Boiberke, the towns of Brody, Mikolayov, Gliniany, Grudek and Shtchezetz, also had the same kind of law allowing the electing or appointing of the Mayor for life. This arrangement lasted as late as 1765. In the documents of the courts of that time, the office of the Mayor was listed as the Advocatus.
Boiberke was first recognized with the official status of a city or town in 1469. Thanks to the yearly fairs, the town made swift progress, so much so, that nearby Lemberg complained that Boiberke competed with her in business.
In these early years Boiberke was overrun by the Turks, as well as other nations, who burned many houses in the town. As a result the inhabitants could not pay their taxes and in 7414 [sic] [should read 1474], the King, Kazimiezh, had to forego all taxes for a period of ten years.
In 1502, Boiberke was again invaded by the Turks, and once more most of the houses were burned. This was repeated in 1518-19 and this time King Alexander had to forego taxes for eight years.
In the second half of the 16th century the town was leased to Stanislaw Wenglensky. Since the town still suffered from invasions, the new King, Zigmunt August, also had to forego collecting taxes.
In 1569 The King permitted the establishment of a second fair(Yarid) each year and the market day was changed from Tuesdays to Saturdays.
On April 18, 1643 King Wladislaw IV presented half of Boiberke, as well as all the village around, to the Nobleman, Stanislaw Kowalsky, as a gift for his entire life. In 1649 Jan Kazimiezh, the new King, freed Boiberke from all taxes, as the town was suffering from an invasion by the Cossacks. Under such circumstances the town could not grow and make progress. Most of the inhabitants were farmers, but there were also textile merchants, as well as shoemakers, bakers, butchers and blacksmiths.
All these businesses belonged to the Mayor, who in turn leased them to the merchants and trades people. In addition, he also had in his possession the taverns and the beer brewery, which brought him a substantial income.
As of the year 1765, the net income to the Mayor was 1324 zlotys and the expenses to keep up his office, 346 zlotys.
In 1687, the Saymek, or Congress in Warsaw, advised the deputies from Boiberke and Yanow that the townships could again forego all taxes, since the townships had suffered from fires which had destroyed all their houses.
In order again to help Boiberke to better its economic conditions, King August III permitted the town to have four fairs each year instead of two. Each fair lasted for several days, and the benefit to Boiberke was considerable.
In 1773 Boiberke, along with all of Galicia, was annexed by Austria. In the early years Boiberke belonged to the Zlotchower district; later the town was made part of the Berzianer District.
In 1780 the Austrian government liquidated all taxes the town owed to the previous government (Polish), and Boiberke had to be sold to Kazimiezh Krashinsky.
In the elections to the Parliament of Vienna, the town of Boiberke was included in the election district with the cities of Chodorow, Bolechow, Kalush, Doline, and Rozniatow. In the election to the Landtag (state Assembly) Boiberke, Chodorow and all the villages around the town elected one representative.
On the initiative of Hipolite Tchaikowsky, the owner of the large estate, Weisses Hoff, textile factories were established in Boiberke in the second half of the nineteenth century. This gave the town a main business which was also useful for export purposes.
The district of Boiberke at that time included 95 settlements, 81 villages and several small towns, among them Brozdowitz, Strelisk, Chodorow, Mikolayev, and Wibranowka.
According to the new law of 1868, the town had a committee of 24 members: Ten Roman Catholics (Poles), six Greek Catholics (Ruthenians) and eight Jews. These proportions remained constant all through the Austrian reign. In 1890 there were 4,939 inhabitants and 704 houses in Boiberke. In 1910 the population was already 5,628. But at the first census after Poland became a sovereign state, after World War I, Boiberke had a population of only 4,391.
The Jewish Community In Boiberke
When the town was founded in 1469, there weren't any Jews in Boiberke but as the new town, with its annual fair (Yarid) became known throughout Europe, many Jewish merchants found their way there. The only Jewish community in that area was in Lemberg (Lwow).
It was known that there were Jews in Boiberke in the 16th century and that they organized a Jewish Community. This Community was attached to the much larger Community of Lemberg.
The first documents in which the Jewish Community of Boiberke was mentioned was dated the 17th of December 1625. In that document from the Sejm (or Congress) of Poland, of which Boiberke was a part, it is noted that since the city and other nearby towns had been burned, they should all forego taxes for five years.
The four fairs during the year helped Boiberke to better its economy.
In 1717 the Boiberker Jewish community paid 473 zlotys in taxes. But the Jews there were not pleased with the method for portioning taxes to the community, and they complained to the authorities. An order was subsequently issued by the authorities stating that the Jews of the surrounding area should gather and decide how the taxes were to be levied. No one should have to pay more than his fair share.
It is of interest to note that the leader of the Jewish community held his post only for one month; each month another individual was named. In addition there were Gabbis who occupied themselves with other responsibilities of the town.
Once a year elections were held not without the Rabbi; his presence was required. Nine persons were elected and they were to choose among themselves five electors who in turn chose the paid communal workers of the town.
The Boiberker Jewish community grew very satisfactorily, so much so, that the Vice Finance Minister, Yezhi Pshendowsky, issued a circular on November 24, 1722 declaring that all leaders of the Jewish Communities were to gather in Boiberke on June 10, 1723, to discuss the taxes which these town had to pay and to settle all disputes among the Jewish communities.
In 1755 there again were complaints to the authorities that the taxes were not levied justly and the government ordered that a final meeting should take place in Boiberke to make adjustments.
At the national census in 1765, Boiberke, together with the other small towns and villages, had 840 Jewish adults and 68 children over one year of age. The taxes which these Jews paid to the treasury was 1680 zlotys. The Jews of Boiberke had 71 houses and the Christians had 219 houses.
According to the census, the Jews of Boiberke were engaged in such trades as the operation of the beer brewery, small stores, import-export, as well as crafts. In these years the Sejm (Congress) in Warsaw ordered the Jews not to trade in horses, oxen, skins, hides, or wine.
Among the Rabbis of the period of whom there is some knowledge, an outstanding figure was Rabbi Simche ben Yaacov, who was Rabbi in Boiberke in the second part of the 18th century. His father was Rabbi in Lemberg.
In the early years several agitators of the Shabbethai Zevi movement, including Moishe Kaminer of Zholkew, Elisha Shor of Rohatin, and Fishel of Zlotchow, travelled [sic] among the towns of Eastern Galicia in behalf of their cause. Thus visiting Boiberke, where they expected to get followers. But it is not know if they succeeded in gaining even one follower for their movement in Boiberke.
The followers of Shabbethai Zevi movement in later years joined the new Frankists movement, which sought to convert Jews to Christianity. After the famous debate which took place in Lemberg in 1759, the Frankists visited many towns in Galicia and converted a number of Jews to Christianity, but we do not find that any Jew of Boiberke was converted. In Lemberg itself, more than 500 Jews were converted in a short time.
Under The Austrian Regime
In the early years of Austrian sovereignty, Boiberke was attached to the District of Lemberg, and after 1780, Boiberke belonged to the Berzianer District.
Drastic changes in the Jewish communities took place after the Austrian Queen, Maria Theresa, issued the Judenordnung. In each community a committee of six Jews was established, however, their rights were few. They had to issue rules in accord with the demands of the Austrian government.
One of these rules was the imposition of taxes on Sabbath candles. Eligibility to vote was based on the payment of taxes. The head of a family who had paid for a year before the election for 10 candles for the Sabbath, could read and write in German, and had a good name, had the right to vote for candidates for the Parliament of Vienna and for the Landtag (Assembly) in Lemberg.
Every Jew, both man and woman, was compelled to pay the candle tax, except those who were farmers, soldiers, widow of soldiers and also other widows. Unmarried men and women, as well as store clerks and servants, did not have to pay candle taxes.
According to the figures of 1806, every family of Galicia paid the follow tax each year;
|On Kosher meat||15 Florins||or $6.00|
|On Sabbath candles||6 Florins||or $2.40|
|Tolerant Tax||2 Florins||or $.80|
|Extra Tax||5 Florins||or $2.00|
|or a total of||$11.20|
This amount was paid annually by each family of Boiberke.
In July 1773 a rare case occurred in Boiberke in connection with the marriage taxes.
A Boiberke inkeeper's [sic] 14 year old son was married to a 12 year girl. Since the pair were not of legal age, they could not, according to the law, be prosecuted. However, their parents were prosecuted and paid a large fine. This should have warned the Jewish community about paying all taxes, even if they considered them to be unjust. Nevertheless, there were other Jewish families in similar cases who still tried to avoid paying the unjust taxes. In 1778 an employee named Simon Sokolsky sent word to the government that there were in Boiberke 12 such weddings of minors that the head of the Jewish community had not reported. He also informed the authorities that the head of the Jewish community hadn't reported the correct number of Jews in the national census. The informer sent his report direct to Vienna with the result that the Jewish community of Boiberke had to pay a heavy penalty.
After Poland was liquidated, the Austrian government began to collect the taxes which the Jewish Communities of Galicia still owed to Poland and among them, Boiberke, owed as much as 126 Florins.
In addition to all these taxes, the Jewish communities had to buy war bonds for the war of 1794-1799. Another edict was issued that every Jew who was nine months behind in payment of taxes should be expelled from Galicia. This went so far that in 1789, the district commissioner of Berzian, of which Boiberke was a part, issued a decree to expel 1,050 Jews, many of them from Boiberke.
In 1791 there was a census among the Jewish population of the Berzianer district, which showed that there were 11,766 Jews. Of these Jews 1,780 were engaged in small business and trades, 486 among them in Boiberke.
In 1804 a tourist by the name of Mr. Rohrer visited Boiberke and he reported that Boiberke impressed him as a real Jewish town. He stated that with the exception of a few rich individuals, all the Jews of Boiberke were quite poor.
While the tourist was in the hotel, the hotel keeper told him that he himself exported to Danzig 2,000 pieces of material for making sacks (manufactured in Boiberke), and that he made a profit of 30 kreitzer (12 cents) on each piece of material.
The textile industry put a good many Jews in Boiberke on a fairly sound economic basis. Within a short time, the entire textile trade was owned by the Jews.
In 1782 public schools for Jewish children were established, but when the authorities became convinced that the Jews would not send their children, in fear that they would not live up to the strict Jewish tradition in secular schools, Jewish communities were directed on the 27th of May, 1786, to organize their own schools. The Jews did not obey the order of the authorities, and the Jewish leaders were held responsible that the Jewish children up to the age of 13 must attend school or be taught privately.
Every Jewish community, Boiberke included, had to have public schools for their children, and the authorities issued an order not to permit anyone to marry unless they could declare in sworn statement that they had learned the German language (the language of Austria) which was taught in these schools.
In 1787 the government appointed a director for the entire Jewish school system. His name was Hertz Homberg, a former pupil of Moses Mendelson.
In 1788 a school for-boys was organized in Boiberke whose teacher was Aaron Herf. He received 150 zlotys a year as his salary.
Emperor Joseph II, instituted reforms, among which was a decree that the Jews in Galicia begin farming, and a year later the first Jewish farm-colony was founded.
According to the plans, the Berzian District was supposed to get 69 families for the new farm scheme, of which eight families were to come from Boiberke. Until the end of 1793 the Berzianer District lived up to the decree and had the required families on the farm; from Berzian there were 10 families, Kozowe 5, Podhaice 9, Burshtin 7, Chodorow 3, Rozdol 5, Strelisk 4, Premishlan 6, Rohatin 12, and Boiberke 8 families.
For the next ten years, until 1803, these families built farms on 49 parcels. They included 98 men, 83 women, 91 boys and 80 girls, up to the age of 18. The colonies had 66 houses, 66 barns, 124 horses, 88 oxen, 147 cows and 66 pieces of farm equipment.
The 8 families of Boiberke consisted of 11 men, 11 women, 17 boys and 12 girls up to the age of 18. They were settled on four parcels of land and had eight houses, eight stalls, 11 pieces of farm equipment, 17 horses and 16 cows.
In 1818 a moderately wealthy Jew, Eliahu Ben Shlomo, of the city of Stanislaw in Eastern Galicia, organized a Free Loan Fund to lend money without interest to the needy Jews of his town. His entire capital was 600 florins ($240.00). He began a campaign to organize such societies throughout many of the towns in that area of Galicia. Poor Jews who did not have any collateral to put up received a loan of three florins, but they had to provide two signatures of Jews of means in their locality. Whoever paid the weekly intallements [sic] on time could borrow up to 18 florins.
Eliahu Burshtein was the first to visit Boiberke and hold mass meetings to organize such Free Loan Societies.
In 1849 a Jew from Eretz Israel, by the name of Israel Abramowitch, came to Boiberke to collect money for the Jewish settlements in Eretz Israel. Since several other such emissaries had taken money from the towns of Galicia for Israel, the authorities of Galicia wanted to have a check on such collections. They issued a order that each town was to appoint a prominent to supervise the fund. In Boiberke the man as chosen was David Leiter. In all of Eastern Galicia Jews were permitted to collect only 3000 Florins annually or $1200.
In 1859 the Austrian authorities permitted Jews to live in villages and to buy farm land, and many Jews settled in the villages around the town of Boiberke. Most of these Jews opened small stores and taverns to supply the peasants with their needs.
In 1868 the Jews in Galicia were made equal before the law and had their own representatives in the municipalities. In Boiberke there were eight Jews in a municipality of 24.
On the basis of the law of the communities of 1890, Boiberke had elected Abraham or Avrohm Dugie Lewinsohn as president of the Jewish Community. The Rabbi of the town was Ha'Rav Simche Witeles. In the Boiberke District there were five Jewish communities: Boiberke, Brozdowitz, Mikolayew and Strelisk.From 1901 to 1914, the head of the Jewish community in Boiberke was David Hollander. His assistant was Meyer Zuch.* The other members of the committee were Moishe Fogel, Itzchok Landau, Shmuel Taubes, Yehuda Hersh Wind, and Abraham Lewinsohn.
In the years 1910 to 1914, the following additional men served on the committee: Yehoshua Ehre, Leizer Fuchs, Henoch Probst, grand father of the painter Arieh Alweil , Leib Hauster, Marcus Wind, Yitzchok Alweil, Mechel Matizes and Simche Lothringer.
In 1914, several months before the outbreak of World War I, elections to the Jewish community were held in Boiberke and the following were elected: Hersh Shwadron, Itzchok Landau and Yehudah Hersh Wind.
In the election of 1901-1910, Abraham Yitzchok Beller, David Leib Mantel and Yitzchok Lutzer were also elected. Yitzchok Haber was employed as the secretary of the Jewish community in Boiberke until 1914.
Morris Diamant was teacher of the Jewish religion in the public school, and the cantor was Yehudah Haber.
In Boiberke proper there were few modern intelligentsia. In 1870 a physician by the name of Wilhelm Roth arrived in Boiberke. By the end of the 1890's another physician by the name of Solomon Urich had settled in Boiberke, and the prominent physician Wolf Lechowitch, settled in the town in the early years of the present century.
The first Jewish lawyers to settle in Boiberke were Dr. Kahane, Dr. Isidor Diamant and Dr. Yoachem Rosenthal. Later came Dr. Abraham Shrentzel and before World War I, Dr. David Rothfeld and Dr. Yaacov Shrentzel.
Before the Herzl Zionist movement was founded there were already in Boiberke two Zionist activists, Mechel Matizes and Shmuel Schleider. They joined the movement to collect money for the settling of Jews in Eretz Israel.
With the appearance of Dr. Theodor Herzl on the Zionist scene, there was also organized in Boiberke a Zionist society by the name of Ahavath Zion. Shmuel Schleider was its first president.**
After Ha'Rav Simche Witeles, Ha'Rav Benjamin Galer, served as the spiritual leader of Boiberke.
In 1880 there was a population of 4,391 in Boiberke, of whom 1,480 were Jews. Ten years later, there was a population of 4,939, of whom 2,395 were Jews. In 1910, at the last national census of Austria, there was a population of 5,628 in Boiberke, of whom 2,502 were Jews. That meant that the Jewish population in Boiberke made up 44% of the inhabitants of the town.
After the first world war, when the Province of Galicia became part of the sovereign state of Poland, the Jewish population dwindled to no more than 33%.
At the time of the popular election to the Austrian parliament in Vienna in 1907, Boiberke was part of the 34th election district, which comprised Rozdol, Zidatchow, Ruda-Hotchiska Burshtin and Bolshwetz.
The candidate on the Jewish Naional ticket, Dr. David Maltz, received only 1,260 votes in Boiberke proper, and was defeated, naturally, in the election. But at the same time the election campaign brought out many potential leaders for the town. The Polish authorities were displeased because Jewish leaders preached to an independent Jewish nationalism to the Jewish population, instead of merely the faith of Moses. The Polish authorities, with the help of the Chassidic
Rabbis who had a considerable hold on the Jews of Boiberke would have preferred simply, religion.
In the first part of the 19th century, Jews of the Berzianer District found themselves under the influence of the Chassidic movement, most of them under the influence of the dynasty of Reb Meyer'l of Premishlan and Rabbi Brandwein of
Stretin. There were many Chassidim in Boiberke who were followers of these Chassidic Rabbis.
A short time before the first world war, there emerged in the town a fairly good leadership which served as well the Zionist movement.
* Two sons of Meyer Zuch live in the United States, and one lives in Israel. Return
** Schmul Schleider lost his life in World War I at the battle on the Piave. Of his children, two sons, Leo, Heini, and one daughter, Lola are in the United States. One daughter, Vicky, lives in Melbourne, The mother was deported to the gas chambers. Return
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