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[Page 103]

From the outbreak of the First World War until 1933 Goldcwajg was located in Germany where he appeared in concerts, played on German radio and so on.

Goldcwajg had to leave Germany after Hitler's assumption of power and he returned to Poland where he was active as the first violinist at various musical events.

At the end of 1937 he was engaged in Harbin (Japan)* where he was active as first violinist in a classical orchestra and also played on the radio station there.

[* Translator's note: Harbin is a Chinese city, but in 1937 it was occupied by the Japanese.]


Abram Goldkorn: He showed an ability to paint while still a young child; Henryk Gotlib, the well know painter, was interested in him, which encouraged Goldkorn to enter the local Yavne gymnazie [religious Zionist secondary school] and, later, Gotlib sent him to Krakow to the Free Academy [Academy of Fine Arts] of the Professors Pedkowicz and Homulacz.

In 1927 Goldkorn went to Belgium where he was accepted in the Royal Academy of Brussels. From there, he moved to Antwerp in 1928 and the Higher Institute of Fine Arts where he received an opportunity for individual artistic development. He remained there over the course of five years under the supervision of the well-known Flemish painter, Prof. I[sidor] Opsomer. Thanks to his special ability, Goldkorn received for his use his own atelier and live models paid for by the city.

Goldkorn still found himself in a phase of searching; meanwhile, his painting had not yet taken an expressive direction. His compositions were a mix of sentiment, poetry and social realism. His color scale was rich enough and he tried to avoid the professional and clichéd in his work.


A[szer Anszel] Dreksler: He began to play the violin with an itinerant musician at age 31. He showed clear ability on in the field [of music] and some Będzin intellectuals became interested in him and took care of his further musical education. Thanks to good theoretical and practical preparation from the local musician, Aron Barenblat, in 1909 Dreksler was accepted by the Berlin Conservatory as a student of the well-known professors, Fydeman and Issay Barmas. He remained there until the outbreak of the [First] World War.

In 1915-1916 he was active as the first violinist with the Berlin Imperial Opera.

In 1917 he was accepted in the Vienna Music Academy where the well-known master [Otakar] Ševčík acted as professor. Dreksler graduated from the Academy in 1918. From then on he appeared in concerts in Berlin, Vienna, Budapest and in other capitals.

Since 1924 Dreksler has been in Paris where he is exclusively active in the pedagogic area.


St[anisław] Wygodzki debuted in 1928 in a contest in the Polish literary weekly, “Wiadomoœci Literackie” [Literary News] with a work about Polish literature. Since then he worked with the following literary publications: Głos Literackie [Literary Voice], “Kwadryga” [Quadriga – chariot drawn by four horses harnessed next to each other], “Miesięcznik Literackie” [Literary Monthly], “Okolica Poet” [Area Poet], “Komena”, “Gazeta Artystów” [Artists Newspaper] and others.

During the years 1934-1936, two volumes of poems were published and, in addition, critical and belle-letters prose was published in various literary periodicals.

Wygodzki's works were translated into the following languages: English, French, German, Russian, Ukrainian, Czech, Hebrew and Yiddish. He also published original Yiddish prose in the “Literarishe Tribune” and took part in foreign language anthologies [published] abroad of Polish poets.

Due to Wygodzki's relationship with the leaders of Polish radio, he was active as reviewer of the radio's “drama” theater.


Artur Winer: He became interested in painting during his earliest years. During the German occupation [during World War I], he studied at the Warsaw Art School. He later studied in Vienna and then was accepted as a student in the Munich Art Academy.

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[4 KB] - Lewensztajn
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N. Melnik   Ch. Lewensztajn   R. Jakubowicz   P. Tenenbaum

[Page 104]

After a time studying, Winer traveled to America where he remains, with breaks, taking part in various picture exhibitions.

Winer's painting excels with its naturalistic conception and mainly has a decorative character.


Rachel Tenenbaum: She showed great abilities for music during her childhood years. When she turned 15 years old, she traveled to Berlin, where she studied music in the “Stern'sches Konservatorium” [Stern Conservatory]. She immediately drew attention to herself on the part of professors, who noticed in her an above average talent as well as a strong will and thirst for art.

Despite the difficult times during the [First World] War, R. Tenenbaum went to Budapest to study music with well-known professors, where she graduated from the Academic Hochschule [university] for Music and where she excelled at public piano evenings. During the course of several months, she also performed with great success in Germany and in Poland.

Her aspiration to even higher perfection led her to the Berliner University from which she graduated after completing [the course in] musicology.

During the last years, R. Tenenbaum has been in Eretz Yisrael where she is active in the area of music, performing, establishing courses for classical music and publishing critical reviews about art in the press.


Fela Tenenbaum: She graduated from the Academic Hochschule for Music in Berlin. In 1929, she came to Warsaw and appeared with the Philharmonic Orchestra there as piano soloist in a symphonic concert under the direction of Wolfsztat. She later appeared in concerts at the Berliner Kulturbund [Berlin Cultural Federation], receiving the best reviews in the press. Since 1936, Fela has been active in Eretz Yisrael (Tel Aviv) in the field of music.


Rózia Jakubowicz: daughter of Comrade Graubart, of blessed memory. She debuted in [Y. L.] Peretz's almanac, “Yiddish” (in 1910), with a poem, “Tsu Meyn Taten” [To My Father]. Later, she participated in a weekly newspaper under the editorship of H[ersz] D[awid] Nemberg, in the periodical, “Varshever Almanach” [Warsaw Almanac], and others. In 1934 a song collection was published in book form, “Meyne Gezangen” [My Songs]. In recent years, she has worked for a series of periodicals and periodical publications [and] published songs and novels on popular themes. Now, Rózia is preparing to publish a large collection under the name, “Lider tsu Got” [Songs to God] (“Songs of Job” and others.).


Ch. Lewensztajn: He began to be active in the realm of acting very early. While still a young boy he performed in Częstochowa under the direction of the then famous actor and director, Marek Swzajd.

In 1916 Lewensztajn found himself in Frankfurt on Main, where he organized a Jewish amateur troupe that was successfully active for a long time.

In 1919 Lewensztajn frequented the Jewish Dramatic State School in Petrograd which then was under the artistic direction of Al[eksandr Rafalowicz] Kugel (homo-novus [Kugel's pen name – new man]). A year later he appeared in the main role in [Christian Friedrich] Hebbel's tragedy, “Judith”, which was presented in the Leningrad Mariinsky Theater.

In 1922 Lewensztajn returned to Poland and organized a troupe named “Neye Kunst” [new art] in Częstochowa.

In 1925 he was engaged by the Będzin dramatic society, “Muze” as the standing director and a series of pieces was arranged by him.

In 1930 Lewensztajn was engaged by the well-known “Vilner Trupe”, where he played the main roles in Lewik's “Golem”, O'Neill's “Shvartse Geto” [Black Ghetto – adapted from Eugene O'Neill's “All God's Chillun” – “Got Wings”] and in Kabrin's “Dorf's Yung” [Village Youth]…

In 1933 he played in łódź's large “Skala” Theater under the artistic direction of Marek Arnsztejn (Andrzej Marek).

Lewensztajn is presently active as director of the Będzin dramatic society, “Muze”, and appears in poetic recitals.

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R. Tenenbaum   A. Winer   St. Wygodski   A. Dreksler   A. Goldkorn

[Page 105]

Nachum Melnik and Mosze Potasinski 1) Members of the “Muze” for many years. In 1924, they entered the Jewish Dramatic School in Warsaw from which they graduated in 1926.

As students of the dramatic school – under the direction of Dawid Herman – they appeared in performances, such as Perec Hirszbajn's “Grine Felder” [Green Fields], Perec's “Bey Nacht oyfn Altn Mark” [At Night on the Old Market], “Eliyahu HaNavi” [Elijah the Prophet] and others.

It is particularly worthwhile to remember their appearance in the well-known small art theater, “Azazel”, under the direction of director Dawid Herman, who had the greatest success with his “Drei Dybukim Parodie” [Tree Dybbuk Parody].

During the winter Nachum Melnik took part in theater-ensemble until the direction of Ida Kaminska as well as the troupe under the direction of Zigmund Turkow (“WIKT” [Warshawer Yidisher Kunst Teater – Warsaw Jewish Art Theater].

Later Melnik and Potasinski played together in the troupe under the direction of Abram Marewski as well as the “Vilner Trupe” [Vilna Troupe] under the management of [Mordechai] Mazo and in addition to this in a series of first class theater troupes and artistic enterprises.

At the end of September 1933 they both traveled abroad with the “Vilner Trupe” (Mazo director) on a world tour. In Brussels they took part in a performance of Sholem Asch's “Kiddush ha-Shem” [Sanctification of the Name] that was attended by the Belgian king.

The “Vilner Trupe” returned to Poland after a time and also Mosze Potasinski with it. But, Nachum Melnik remained in Belgium longer, from where he later (1934) was engaged by a Yiddish theater in London.

Melnik later returned to Belgium where Potasinski also went for the second time and they acted there in Brussels and Antwerp.

At the end of 1935, Nachum Melnik was employed in São Paulo (Brazil) where he appeared with great success.

He also acted in the theater in Rio de Janeiro and his guest appearances made a strong impression in the local press.

In 1936 Melnik also appeared Montevideo (Uruguay), where he also headed a workers-theater as director.

At the end of the same year Melnik was engaged in Buenos Aires where until today he carries out his theatrical activities.

Mosze Potasinski today is in Belgium where he is active as an actor and director.

1) Because the artistic activity of the two actors is almost identical, we are providing a joint note about them. Return


Luta Nunberg began to play the piano when she was 13 years old. In 1910-1913 she studied music with the famous old Viennese pianist and pedagogue, Professor [Teodor] Leszetycki. She was in Poland during the years, 1913-1923 where she constantly perfected her music.

In 1923 she went to Paris where she appeared at various concerts.

In 1927 Luta Nunberg drew the attention of the Parisians and international music spheres with her first appearance about her own creative method that signified fundamental reform in the music pedagogy up to then in general and in piano playing technique in particular.

This method was also supported by a series of analysis carried out of the hand movements (during the playing of the greatest piano virtuosos such as Karta, Rubinstein and others), which were recorded on film in slow motion.

The newly created method allows each average bright student to master even the most difficult technical problems, which until then only a few virtuosos had successfully conquered and unconsciously as well.

Mrs. Nunberg published two large works in book form about the method, as well as a series of notebooks that contain Chopin's Etudes, which were revised according to the mentioned method.

In recent years, Mrs. Nunberg has been active both in the artistic and pedagogical realm. Students from all parts of the world come especially to study. She has appeared in various nations to read about the method and simultaneously for her own concerts.

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M. Potasinski   S. Feder   B. Salno   L. Nunberg

[Page 106]

She also has a reputation as a first-class artist. She also took part in all of the Salzburg music festivals, which, after the Anschluss [German annexation of Austria] in 1938 lost its international character.


Bernard Salno (Salomonowicz).

In the first “Hazamir” [musical, literary and dramatic society] concert in which Bernard Salno took part, he drew attention to himself with his superb bass voice.

In 1909 he went to Berlin where he studied singing in the state conservatory there from which he graduated in 1914.

During the [First] World War, Salno sang with the Berlin Opera where he appeared in various roles, as comic-bass.

In later years he was engaged in Hamburg, Dortmund, Cottbus and Görlitz where he played in the state theaters there.

In 1925 Salno was engaged as director and singer of the large state theater in Rostock (Mecklenburg). He occupied this post until July 1931, when Germany began to have Jewish artists removed – thanks to Nazi influence – from management positions.

A copy of a letter, dated the 5th of July 1931 lies before us, from the administrative officer of the Rostock state theater, Ernst Immisch. It becomes clear from that letter that no other reason but racial hatred caused Salno to be dismissed from the Rostock Opera.

Among other things in it, we read the following:

“During the course of six years, you were active as the first comic-bass and opera director under my direction and you received the highest acclaim from the public and the press. Alas, I must however lose you.”

“Reasons entirely apart from artistic have caused you to leave Rostock and I must confess that both from a human and from an artistic standpoint, I very deeply regret this fact.”

In Rostock Bernard Salno directed, played and sang in approximately 90 different operas and his artistic activity always found a warm reverberation in the entire Mecklenburg press.

In 1933, after Hitler came to power, Salno founded a troupe of some 30 Jewish actors and opera singers under the name “HaNigun” [the melody].

The troupe then played in the largest cities in Czechoslovakia, Austria, Greece and finally in Eretz Yisrael where the ensemble dissolved.

From there, Salno was engaged in Egypt where he remained for a long time.

Since the beginning of 1938 he has been located in Argentina. There he founded a quartet of well-known artists who are invited to regularly scheduled concerts by the radio station, “Splendid,” in Buenos Aires. In addition, Bernard Salno appears in the theater there with great success, to which warm reviews in the Buenos Aires press provide evidence.


Sami Feder (now in Paris) traveled to Frankfurt-on-Main in 1919 where he attended the Kunstgewerbeschule [school of arts and crafts] there. He simultaneously helped found various Jewish youth organizations, among them the dramatic-musical Sholem Aleichem Club where he himself performed.

Feder's acting abilities drew the attention of the German-Jewish director, Leontine Sagan who helped him to be accepted in German State Actors School.

At the same time, “Habima” [theater founded in Białystok in 1912 and now the national theater of Israel] and Cwi Fridland and the writer, Mosze Lifszyc, who created a Jewish theater studio in Berlin, came to Frankfurt. They brought Feder, who remained at the studio there. Feder also performed with the “Piscator Bühne” [theater] in Berlin and with the German-Russian film society, “Prometheus”.

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Ch. Szajntal   Leibusz Szpigelman   Teodor Ryder   Szmul Cygler

[Page 107]

After Hitler came to power, Feder was forced to leave Berlin and he returned to Poland. In 1934, he directed the play, “Oyf der Velt Beyt Zich Gornisht” [Nothing Changes in the World], (a joint work of S. Feder and L. Felzner) with the Jakob Rotbaum Studio, which was performed in Kaminski's Theater in Warsaw.

In 1935 Feder returned to Zagłębie where he made contact with the Będzin dramatic society, “Muze”. He directed the play, “Hitleriade”, which had a great success. Since 1937 Feder has been active since in the Sosnowiec musical and dramatic society, “Lire”, where he presented, among others, the play, “Der Go'el” [The Savior] by Emil Bernhardt, which was performed many times in Zagłębie.


Szmul Cygler: At age 31, Cygler began to learn to draw and turned to painting. During 1918-1920 he studied in the Hamburg Kunstgewerbeschule and during 1920-1924 he studied painting in the Krakow Art Academy, from which he graduated from with distinction.

After graduating from the academy, Cygler traveled to Paris where he further perfected his painting. He interrupted his study trip because he was invited to take part in painting the Będzin synagogue.

Cygler's painting has a neo-impressionist character and with a completely different style he distinguished himself as a graphic artist. In recent years he has been occupied mainly in watercolor painting.

During the course of Cygler's artistic activity, a series of exhibitions of his work was organized in this country as well as abroad, from which several of his works were bought by the Polish State Collections in Warsaw and in Krakow.


Teodor Ryder: He studied music with Professor Julian Wolfson in Warsaw and later with Professor Sass (director of the conservatory and first choirmaster of the Dramatic Opera).

During 1904-1906 Ryder was engaged as accompanist for the soloist of the Dramatic Opera. During 1906-1914 he was active as opera conductor at the State Theater in Freiburg (Baden), Rostock (Mecklenburg), Basel and Lyon; during 1916-1918 at the Warsaw Opera and since 1918 he has been the director of the łódź Philharmonic Orchestra, professor at the conservatory there, director of various choirs and is also active as an accompanist.

It is worth mentioning that in addition to music, T. Rader [an error in the spelling of his name] also studied jurisprudence (Warsaw, 1899-1901) and mechanics (Darmstadt, 1901-1905).


Chana Szajntal debuted first in the local dramatic society, “Muze,” where she showed a pronounced acting talent. She later traveled to Eretz Yisrael where she has been an actress with the famous workers theater “Ohel” [tent] since 1925.

She has performed in the entire “Ohel” repertoire and has distinguished herself particularly in character and children's roles, grotesque types, young and old.

She made an impression with the following plays: Stefan Zweig's “Jeremiah,” Mendele's “The Brief Travels of Benjamin the Third,” Bergelson's “The Bread Mill”, “Jakob and Rachel,” Heyerman's “Fisher” [Fisherman], “Megilat Ester” [Book of Esther], [Israel Joshua] Singer's “Yoshe Kalb” and many others.


Lajbisz Szpigelman: In 1911 he founded a weekly under the name “Anonsen Blat” [Announcement Sheet] that was published until 1913. The same year the name was changed to “Undzer Telefon” [Our Telephone] and in 1919 to “Zaglembier Zeitung” [Zagłębie Newspaper], which still exists under the editorship of L. Szpigelman.

It is worth mentioning that editor Szpigelman was one of the pioneers who created regional Yiddish periodicals that later strongly developed throughout the country. Simultaneously, with the rise of the Yiddish press in Poland, Szpigelman founded a newspaper agency as well as a bookstore and ensured that the Yiddish press and books would come under a modern way of management and be sold among the widest masses in Zagłębie.

Remarks from the Editorial Board:

With this ends the part of “Zaglembier Almanac” that was saved successfully. All studies in this part that are not signed, as well as the article about M.Y. Berg, were written by Sz. Rotenberg.

The articles about Professor, Dr. Majer Balaban and Emanuel Ringelblum were especially written for the Almanac and have not been published until now.

[Page 108]

Memories of a Jew from Będzin
about the Polish Uprisings of 1831 and 1863

by Dr. A. Szacki

Translated by Gloria Berkenstat Freund

In 1914 (through the involvement of the editor, L. Szpigelman) I became acquainted in Będzin with Szwajcer, an old Jew. In a beautiful Polish, this Jew told me several episodes about life that had a connection to the Uprising of 1831. I asked him to set them down in writing for me and he did so. I have translated his short memories into Russian for the Evreiskaia Starina [Jewish Heritage – a journal published by the St. Petersburg Historical Ethnographic Society from about 1909 to 1916]. I found confirmation of the facts that the old Pinchas Szwajcer told me in the historical literature.

“I was six years old at the time of the Uprising of 1831. However, the extraordinary events that took place in our city were deeply engraved in my memory. In addition, when I became older, a paper arrived that we should create a guard in the city and also to include the Jews as straznikes [frontier guards].”

The guard was asked to stand at the city market; at that time there were in total 300 Jewish families in Będzin. I remember that they were given iron picks and, armed, they left to be guards.

Young and old, business owners and poor people were among the “policemen.” This was an extraordinary picture. Pious Jews with long caftans, gathered together from commerce and houses of prayer, went through the market with the inscription on their hats: straż bezpieczeństwo [safety watch].

Among the Jewish policemen (they numbered 30) was one Reb Anszl, a great scholar, a student of Talmud, famous for his expertise. His wife sold salt and supported a very large family. Reb Anszl bragged that, thanks to God, he knew nothing about troubles with money. He was a bad mathematician and ignorant about trade. Suddenly, he had to lay down his Gemara [book of Talmudic commentaries] and become a “watchman” at the market.

A few weeks later all of the Jews were freed from this service. It was said in the city that this cost a great deal of money. However, the memory of that Jewish straznike is still alive to this day in Będzin and many families take pride in this, that their grandfather was a “Jewish soldier.”

In 1863, the Jews were not touched here. Three noblemen from the surrounding area entered the city once and traveling through the city they proclaimed that Poland was restored. Although the majority of the Jews sympathized with the Poles, the fear of the Russian regime meant sitting still. Only some rich Jews contributed a considerable sum for that time to the national government, approximately 10,000 rubles. (This was confirmed from Polish sources.)

(Yivo Bleter [YIVO Pages] 1933, volume 5, page 174)

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[A view of the synagogue and the fortress]

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