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[Page 357]

The Foundation of a Library in Augustow

In the year 5642 (1882) a library was founded in Augustow. In the daily Hebrew newspaper “HaYom,” (The year 1887, No. 18), which appeared then in Peterburg, edited by Dr. L. Kantor, Y. Barkat writes:

“In another few days, the young men and women of our city will celebrate the day in which five years have been fulfilled from the day that a collection house for books was instituted, and the number of books will exceed three hundred volumes, most of them written in the language of Russia, and the number of books in the language of Ever are few at this time.” The bringer of the information gives in this “appreciation and praise to the administrators of the house for doing their work faithfully, and planning their deeds with order and authority.” One must point out that in the course of time the “Folk Library” was developed from this library in Augustow, which existed until the days of the Shoah. According to a notice in the one-time newspaper “Augustower Leben,” 5 Adar 5699 (February 24, 1939), we learn that in the library there were 6000 books. Of that: 1300 in Hebrew, 1700 in Yiddish, 1600 in Polish, and 1400 in Russian. In the library 160 subscribers were listed. The reading fees went up from 25 prutahs until 1 gold a month. Only twenty percent of the readers borrowed books in Hebrew and Yiddish.

The Library

by Meir Meizler

After I was honored, honored friends, to see you under my roof, you gathered together in my house to take counsel on what to do with the collection house of the books. I will take for myself the permission to preach a few words in your ears, but this I must tell you from the start: that you should not hope to hear from me lofty and sublime poetic phrases, you will not be able to fly very high with them on the mountains of reason. To these I have never been accustomed, and also presently for many days I have made my Torah a spade with which to dig,[1] to dig a grave for my ideas. In simple words that emerge from the source of my heart I will speak to you this time, and this will be my reward if they will enter your hearts too, and you my lords will be so kind as to listen, even if all the words of my mouth will not be acceptable before you.[2] Please don't disturb me, and after my words praise me or desecrate me, each person according to his spirit, for all that the master of the house will say, do!

* * *

We are children who are faithful to our people, faithful children and paying attention. And although we are young in days, nevertheless there is in us the reason of elders, and in their ways we will walk without leaning from them right or left,[3] and like them we will not keep from doing that which we have established with our lives. A matter fell in the camp of the Hebrew youths who did not leave their holy flag - to speak the language of Ever, to resurrect our dead language and to make it a living and spoken language. We hurried, we too, to emulate their deeds and speak, we too. We spoke, we preached, and our soul enjoyed pleasure but not for long, for the end of the summer of 5651 [1891] had not yet come, the summer that ended its society,[4] and also she did not fulfill her year, it became like a woman's stillbirth that does not see the sun,[5] and found for it a grave, and all

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our words that we spoke about the love of the language and its expansion were carried away by the wind and it was as if they never were. We founded for ourselves a collection house for books, and over the two years of its existence we acquired for ourselves many books, Hebrew and Russian, also from the other nations who speak about our nation. And we acquired for ourselves a community of readers who dedicated their time to our books, also we made many souls[6] for our language, for the reading of Hebrew books brought the readers to an understanding of the language[7] of Ever, to know all that was done in the midst of our people, to rejoice in its joy and to sorrow with its sorrow. I will not turn for even a minute but after a few years, and the youths that began to read Hebrew books will become lovers of our people, its language, and our holy land, until they become seed blessed of God, in whom Israel will be proud.

And here bad days have reached the collection house, the springs of income have diminished and dried up, and a yoke of obligations too heavy to carry hangs over it, and is it fitting for a foot to stumble and to fall from the eternal calamities, and we its first founders who lay its cornerstone fall silent? In the rest of soul and heart we will gaze at our ruin, and not even a faint sigh will come from our hearts. The thing that we are doing is not good, my brothers and friends! We are shirkers,[8] shirkers! Be strong and strengthened[9] for our language, and for the great building on which builders toiled and build in it! Let's participate each and every one according to his offering and the giving of his hand, according to all that his heart will offer.[10] Here we have made for this house sockets of silver[11] at the beginning of its founding, let's also make for it now a silver staff, maybe it will live long, be encouraged and be strengthened, and this work of our hands to be proud of will continue to make souls for our language. The youths that read when they grow up and become adults, from their great love of their language they will increase and glorify the collection house, will multiply books in it and multiply readers, and then with pride and swelling heart[12] we will be able to look at this enterprise, for we the first founders made all this success. Also the poor blessing of our lips will come upon us, for we made an effort to establish a community of readers, Hebrew thinkers, Hebrew writers, whose hearts are Hebrew hearts faithful to their people and their language. We have the obligation to give money this time too, but those who are obligated for reading, will want to give what is coming from them, also every one of us will be so kind in their goodness to give their donation. With the collected money we will turn away from ourselves the suffering of obligations, we will also buy for ourselves new books which will also bring to us increased fruit, and by this we will save the book collection house, so that it will not go down to destruction in its youth and in the spring of its life.

Augustavo 5653 [1891] (from his estate)

Translator's Footnotes:

  1. Mishnah Avot 4:5 “Rabbi Zadok said: do not make them [words of Torah] a crown for self-exaltation, nor a spade with which to dig. Return
  2. Psalm 19:15 “May the words of my mouth and the prayer of my heart be acceptable before You, Adonoi, my rock and my redeemer.” Return
  3. Numbers 22:26 “Once more the angel of the LORD moved forward and stationed himself on a spot so narrow that there was no room to lean right or left.” Return
  4. Playing on the words for end, קץ ketz, and summer, קיץ kayitz. Ezekiel 7:6 “The end is coming! The end is coming! It stirs against you; there it comes! Return
  5. Psalm 58:9 “…like a woman's stillbirth, may they never see the sun!” Return
  6. It is not exactly clear what is meant by this obscure phrase found in the story of Abraham and Sarah in the Torah. Genesis 12:5 “Abram took his wife Sarai and his brother's son Lot, and all the wealth that they had amassed, and the persons that they had made in Haran…” In the Bible, the Hebrew word nefesh does not mean “soul,” as it does in later Hebrew, but rather “living thing.” Return
  7. This word has a typographical error, spelled שפר sfar rather than שפת sfat. Return
  8. Exodus 5:8 “do not reduce it, for they are shirkers; that is why they cry, ‘Let us go and sacrifice to our God!’…” Return
  9. Reminiscent of the expression used when one completes the reading of a book of the Torah, “chazak, chazak, v'nitchazek,” “Strong, strong, and we will be strengthened.” Return
  10. Exodus 25:2 “Tell the Israelite people to bring Me gifts; you shall accept gifts for Me from every person whose heart will offer.” Return
  11. Describing the Wilderness Tabernacle, Exodus 26:32 “Hang it upon four posts of acacia wood overlaid with gold and having hooks of gold, [set] in four sockets of silver.” Return
  12. Isaiah 10:12 “He will punish the majestic pride and swelling heart of the king of Assyria.” Return

The Education of the Jews of Augustow

by Yaakov Bergstein

The old “cheder” in which many generations were educated, and from which emerged learners and intellectuals, sages and learned people, was preserved in Augustow until the First World War. The “cheder,” with its flaws, was that which caused Torah not to be forgotten by Israel. Despite its very old method, and its unmodern, anti-logical form, the “cheder” nevertheless succeeded in inculcating much wisdom and knowledge in the heart of the students, to guide them in the practical mitzvot, and to root truth and faith in their hearts, love of the Torah and love of Israel. In the days of the old “cheder” every person from Israel, even the simplest

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of the simple and the poorest of the poor, raised his sons for Torah. No sacrifice would compare, in the eyes of the father, to the acquisition of an education for his sons according to the law of Moses and Israel; he would save his bread, and would not withhold the learning of Torah from his sons. Know well that “poverty is good for Israel”[1] and ignorance is not good for a child of Israel, and therefore it is comfortable for the father to live like a poor person rather than his child should be an ignoramus. One who cannot afford to pay the fees for learning that are placed on him by the teachers would turn his son over to the “Talmud Torah,” which was supported by the community. The year was divided into two “times:” from after Pesach until Rosh HaShanah, and after the festival of Sukkot until 8 Nisan. The Rebbes[2] were diverse, as were the types of learning. Rebbe Chaim Bayar was a teacher of young children; he lived on the street of the synagogue. He was bad-tempered. He would beat with a belt on the bottom part, and also pinch the cheeks. The children learned the “aleph bais[3] with him and finished with the Chumash. He knew Russian, German, and Polish. The Tsar's regime required the teaching of the Russian language in the “chadarim.” Reb Chaim himself would give this Russian lesson. Another teacher of young children was Tzvi Sherman. The children of the wealthy learned with him. Kantor taught the Russian language. The Rebbe Abba taught Chumash and Nach[4] and a little Gemara. The Rebbe Yisrael Rotblit (from Stavisk) taught Chumash, Nach, Gemara for beginners, and also Hebrew, and even Yiddish. He was helped by his sons: Zhimmy, Nissan, Moshe and Dovid. The “cheder” of the teachers D. Boyarski and Eizerski was more modern.

They were stricter about the learning of the Hebrew language. There was also a girls' school with two classes. Its owners and also its teachers were Bulkin and his wife. Another school was directed by the teachers Reuven Levin and his wife Miriam. They taught Hebrew and also Russian in it. There was also a Russian gymnasium, with four divisions, in which only daughters of the wealthy learned. In the “cheder” of the Rebbe Filivinsky (the teacher from Sapotzkin) older children learned Chumash with Rashi's interpretation, Nach, Talmud and also Hebrew. He was a somewhat modern Rebbe and also very knowledgeable in Torah. He also knew foreign languages. A group of parents specially brought from the town of Lazdie the teacher Elyakum Levinzon, and they set a condition with him, that he would not accept more than 15 children. He did not keep this condition, since the children were drawn to him, because of his method in the learning. He taught everything in melody. They would sing the shacharit prayers, and likewise Tanakh etc. Rebbe Pesach taught only Talmud. Rebbe Betzalel Grader also gave lessons in Gemara. He would come to the student's house or would teach in the “Ezrat Nashim[5] that was in the Beit Midrash and in the Kloiz of Reb Chaim Zalman Shub. Boys learned in the “chadarim” until age 12-13.

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The Students of the “Talmud Torah


The Elementary School Building

[Page 360]

The Students of the “Hebrew Courses” (1917-1918)

First row from right to left: Roza Kolfenitzki, Boba Boyarski, Sonia Bramson, Lazdeizka, Sonia Poniminski, Devorah Bramson, Shulamit Grinberg, Rechtman, Channah Starazinski, T. Beker
Second row: Yedidiah Ivraiski, Meir Vezbotzki, Borovitz, Leah Ivraiski-Sherman, Sarah Gershovitz, Channah Finkelstein, unknown, Golda Goren, Abba Rozenfeld, B. Tz. Boyarski
Third row: Shimon Feinstein, Mendel Borek, Moshe Markus, the Teacher Boyarski, the Teacher Levin, Ratner, Sheinmar, Patek. Laying down: Borovski, A. Grinberg, A. Markus

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Teachers of the Elementary School in the Period of the German Conquest

Standing from right to left: Dovid Levinzon, Ch. Veisbord, Glikstein, P. Rabinovitz, R. Levi
Sitting: D. Boyarski, A. Meizler, the German Director, S. Soloveitchik, Elyakum Levinzon


Some of them continued their studies in the government school, and some of them traveled to the yeshivas of Slobodka, Lomza, Radin, and more. Girls who finished the two classes continued their learning in the Hebrew language in private lessons with the teachers D. Boyarski, R. Levin, M. Meizler. They learned foreign languages with the teachers Dina Frankel, Malkah Rotblit, P. Gutel,

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Borovitz (from Rajgród). Boys and also girls learned Russian with Ziman, Rabinovitz, Mintz. The boys that attended the Russian government school learned Hebrew in the afternoon with Meizler, and Gemara with the Rebbe Betzalel. When the Germans conquered the city, they set the requirement for learning German in place of Russian. The German regime confiscated suitable apartments and opened schools in them; a girls' school, and a boys' school. Mrs. Yones, Rabinovitz, Meizler, and the teacher Reuven Levin were accepted as teachers. As administrator of the school a German teacher who served in the army was appointed, at the rank of Corporal or Sergeant. He brought into the schools, which were administered according to the program of elementary schools in Germany, also sports and agricultural work. In that same period the teachers Boyarski and Levin founded evening courses for Hebrew.

The last is the most beloved – the “Talmud Torah.” The Rebbes of that time were Reb Betzalel Grader and his son-in-law Reb Avraham Yitzchak. Rabbi Azriel Zelig Koshelevski saw to the Talmud Torah, assisted by Reb Reuven Rotenberg, who with heart and soul devoted himself to public activism day and night. He actually did not have to worry about his livelihood, for his wife, who was a woman of valor, saw to it; he only helped her. He was also helped by Reb Yehuda Arieh Levatinski, who was a wood merchant; and Dov Bergstein, owner of a manufacturing store, a donor and contributor.

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He would go out to the villages during the week of Purim and


The Girls' Class (1921)

First row standing: (from left to right) Kaplanski, Stolar, Denmark, Preis, Olchnovitz
Row 2: T. Viniski, S. Stolar, M. Zufnitzki, R. Lutinski, A. Gotstein, Tz. Levinzon, G. Beder, P. Ofenstein, A. Burak, Eilender, Soloveitchik, A. Ivraiski
Row 4: S. Rechtman, the Teacher Domovitz, the Teacher Bertishovna, the Teacher Bartish, B. Ivraiski. Sitting: Y. Stolnitzki, the Teacher Kolinski, D. Linda


gather donations from the village Jews for the benefit of the “Talmud Torah.” Yaakov Ze'ev Otstein, a baker, would neglect his store and engage in this mitzvah. He would voluntarily collect the tax money that the Jews owed to the Community Council. He would transmit the money to the “Talmud Torah” fund, and the list of payers, to the Community Council, which would issue receipts. This task was not easy and even not so pleasant.

In the last years, before the outbreak of the Second World War, the “Talmud Torah” became a modern school with 8 classes. The Director of the school was Zilber from Galitzia, who taught the Polish language. Vasserman, born in Augustow, who completed a Polish government seminar for teachers, also taught Polish. Yehoshua Bergstein was a teacher of Tanakh and Hebrew in the upper grades. The teacher Diskin taught Tanakh and Hebrew. The teacher Yismachovitz taught Torah and Hebrew in the lower grades. Efraim Maletz served as secretary of the institution and also was a teacher of laws and Gemara.


The Girls' Class in the Year 1917

Row 1, from left to right: Gritzen, Blacharski, Viedenboim, Kolpitzki, Donieger, … Staviskovski, Staviskovski, … … … … Rozenfeld
Row 2: … Gotstein, Giteleh (and Chaneleh), … Preis, … … … … … Popkin, Denmark, Grodzin
Row 3: Levin, Boyarski, Povembrovski, Veisbrot, Meizler, Soloveitchik, Rabinovitz, Levinzon, the Supervisor
Sitting: … … … Eilender, Kronenrot, Zupnitzka, Levinzon, … … … Kleiman, Viniski, Popkin

[Page 364]

The Girls' Class in the First World War


Female Students 1917

The teachers sitting from right to left: R. Levi, D. Boyarski, Feigl Rabinovitz, Chaya Veisbord, Povembrovski, A. Meizler, A. Levinzon, Tzovak – the Director of the School by Order of the Germans

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An Invitation to a Party in Honor of Dovid Boyarski
Honored Sir: Teivel Linda
We are Honored to Request His Honor to Participate
In a Banquet That We Are Arranging in Honor of Our Teacher
Mr. Dovid Boyarski
On Wednesday 13 Elul 5682 [1922] in the Home of H. Rozenfeld
at the Hour of 8:00 in the Evening.
With Complete Respect and the Blessing of Abundance[6]
The Students of the “Orah[7] Courses
Augustow, 12 Elul, 5682


The Boys' Class in the Elementary School

First row standing from right to left: M. Zborovski (Einat), … Kaplanski, … A. Kaplanski, P. Levin, Ratzkovski, M. Volmir, M. Borovitz, L. Blech, R. Kaplanski
Second row standing (from right): … Barglovski, A. Chaliupitzki, Y. Feivishovitz, Y. Bernski.
Third row sitting (from right): … Ch. Bilovzetzki, A. Glikstein, A. Levinson, Vilkov, Veisbort, Beka Blech, … Y. Feivovorski
Fourth row sitting (from right): M. Glikstein, Ch. Orimland, S. Relski, D. Inonovitz, Y. Aleksandroni, Y. Trestzenski


Translator's Footnotes:

  1. Babylonian Talmud Chagigah 9b “Shmuel said, and some say it was Rav Yosef: This explains the folk saying that people say: Poverty is good for the Jewish people like a red bridle for a white horse….” Return
  2. Rebbes are teachers, not Rabbis. Return
  3. The Hebrew alphabet. Return
  4. An acronym for Prophets, in Hebrew Nevi'im, and Writings, in Hebrew Ketuvim. Return
  5. The women's section of the Jerusalem Temple, and also of the synagogue. Return
  6. A typographical error, the substitution of a letter heh instead of a letter ayin at the end of the word, has the word hasafah, השפה, the language, in place of the word hashefa, השפע, the abundance. Return
  7. Light. Return

[Page 366]

Our Communal Institutions


The People's Bank

When we attempt to describe such an important institution, which in today's world plays such a vital role in our difficult economy of our daily life, we must first provide a brief overview of its origin in order to be able to appreciate the great rise and quick development of the aforementioned institution.

The People's Bank in Augustow was founded in 1922, at the initiative of several people, with an initial capital of several hundred zlotys collected locally and with the assistance of the Joint.

The following episode is typical: a certain member of the initiative-group, Mr. Monush Kantorovitsh, turned to the accountant Mr. Nakhman Freydberg, of blessed memory, to see if he would like to pay to replace the small electric lamp in their small office whereupon the latter flew into a rage: “You want us to go into deficit just to buy a bigger lamp?”

The steady development of the bank over the course of sixteen years means that we now see it as one of the most stable banks in the whole region, one which stands on a solid foundation and which still, at times, supports the smaller banks in the area. All thanks to the devoted and energetic work of the management as well as the capable employees.

The bank currently boasts 267 members and possesses a capital of 70,000 zlotys. The highest loan that it offers is 5,000 zlotys; deposits in the bank amount to 220,000 zlotys; it is worth noting that all kinds of transactions are facilitated by the bank, from the smallest to the largest.

The bank distributes 1,200 zlotys annually for philanthropic purposes, of which 250 zlotys for Zionist funds.

Chairman of the bank: Monush Kantorovitsh. Council members: Dovid Simner, Alter Ravidovitsh, Dr. Shor, Alter Polak, Ariye Aynshtat. Management – Chairman: Binyomin Markus. Members: Shaul Kelzon, Mordkhe Rekhtman, Yoysef Gifshteyn, Yitskhok Varhaftig.

[Page 367]

Talmud Torah

The Talmud Torah, which is our only Jewish school in town, traces its history back about 50 years to the time when Mr. Yehuda Kohen built the premises on Kopernika Street. As is usual, it was divided into several sections according to the old system. It was administered by the gabbais Reb Avrom Yankev Shilevski, of blessed memory, and Reb Yankev Leviush, of blessed memory, who took an interest in its fate and existence. During the world war it survived only thanks to American money and stood under the supervision of our esteemed rabbi Reb Azriel Zelig Noyekh Kushelevski, long may he live, who together with the dedicated activists Reb Ruven Rotenberg, may his light shine, and Reb Yehuda Leyb Levantinski, may his light shine, stood guard and worked for the survival of the Talmud Torah.

From 1920 it began to have the characteristics of a school, but for a certain period it only had four classes; experience showed that it was not enough to provide students with only an elementary education, as once they had graduated from the four classes of the Talmud Torah they would need to continue their education in the public schools. It turned out that it could not remain as a half-school and it was necessary to develop it to the same level as a public school. And so, thanks to the determined work of the parents' committee under the leadership of the rabbi, long may he live, together with the Jewish community, a class was added each year until in 1934 it had achieved the status of a seven-class public school with government approval. The school now provides a religious, national education to around 230 pupils from the town; in the preparatory class and in the first three classes girls are also taught. The teaching staff is made up of eight teachers: 5 in Hebrew and 3 in Polish.

The budget of the school is around 15,000 zlotys annually; student's fees make up 10,000 zlotys, and there is also a stream of small donations meaning that the school runs with a deficit of 25% though it is the only Jewish school in town.

In the school there is also a small library of Polish books which was created to meet the requirements of the school inspector.



The important charitable institution “CENTOS” feeds and clothes thirty poor children in our town. It has existed for three years now, founded as an offshoot of the Bialystok branch. In the beginning

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of its formation it took the form of a boarding house where children between the ages of 5 and 7 would be provided with all their daily meals and a special teacher would take charge of their education. Recently the setup has been changed to a half-boarding house, meaning that children from the other schools go there after their regular lessons to receive lunch and an evening meal as well as help from the teacher with their homework.

The local CENTOS is funded by a monthly subvention from the Bialystok branch, as well as subsidies from the state itself. With the arrival of winter it also receives an allowance from the magistrate's office called, so-called “winter aid.” All of this would not be enough to cover the running costs if it weren't for the energetic work of the administrators who raise the remaining funds through various initiatives such as children's spectacles and events.

The administration and auditing commission are made up of the following individuals:

Management: Mrs. Niuta Tenenboym–chairwoman. Members: Sore Safirshteyn, Rokhl Kelzon, Khiene Levit, Yudis Lazman, Libe Shvedzki, Golde Lenzinger, Mashe Stolar, Bronie Stolar, Zelda Vazbutski, Miss Rishel Mayzler. And the auditing commission: Messrs. H. Lap, A. Shevakh, M. Shteyn, I. Gizumski.


Gmiles-Khesed Fund

This fund was founded in 1927 thanks to the work of a number of community activists in Augustow who established it under their own initiative. The founding capital was made up of registered promissory notes, donations from local townsfolk, as well as several foreigners, who happened to be visiting at the time, as well as credit from the Joint.[1]

By the first quarter of 1938 there were 357 members, or whom 218 were active, who paid their debts on time in addition to their regular membership dues, as well as 139 passive members with combined debts of 14,860 zlotys. To this is added the Joint's long-term credit of 8,640 which came in yearly payments of 900 zlotys to reimburse loans underwritten by the management. The “Tsekabe”[2] also received 400 zlotys a year paid throughout the year with promissory notes.

Their own basic capital was 5,820 zlotys, which had been saved over the years thanks to the volunteer work of the accountant and the manager of the fund.

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From the founding of the fund to January 1st 1939, 4,860 loans were given out. The unpaid loans of about 5,000 zlotys paralyzed the fund. The management did everything they could; the question of whether to chase up the loans through the courts or by gentler means, as was the normal modus operandi of the Gmiles-Khesed, took up a lot of their time and energy.


Social Club

The Social Club in Augustow, which was a focal point of the high society of the town, developed a broad span of cultural activities during the one year of its existence. Thanks to it the townsfolk had the opportunity to meet a variety of celebrities in the club's meeting hall, such as Roman Brandstaetter, the newspaper editor Mark Turkov, Hertz Grosbard, Rochel Holzer etc.

Also noteworthy is the wide selection of press material that they made available from all the Polish-Jewish daily newspapers and literary periodicals. They also had a well-developed ethos of philanthropy with which the club distinguished itself this year with its generous donations to various causes.

The management of the club is currently made up of the following people: Chairman: Mr. Nosn Varhaftig; administrator: Khonen Kantsiuk; treasurer: M. Lap; secretary: A. Vaksman; members: Dr. Grodzienski, Frayshtern and H. Y. Zalkind.


Tiferet Bakhurim by Khayim Bialobzyski, Tiferet Bakhurim Chairman

On Wednesday, during the week of the Torah portion Beshalakh in the year 5693, our Tiferet Bakhurim was visited by Zalman Gradovski from Suwalki. A meeting of the community council was called straight away with the participation of the guest, at which it was decided to hold a general meeting on Thursday. There was also consideration given to the creation of a spiritual council. With this in mind invitations were sent to the best spiritual minds in the community to attend the meeting along with the esteemed guest, in the rabbi's house.

On Thursday evening the general meeting took place. The esteemed guest gave a report on the Tiferet Bakhurim conference in Baranovits. The next Shabbes, during the week of the Torah portion Yitro, the Tiferet Bakhurim held a gathering in honor of the yeshiva council made up of local friends.

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Shepsl Sandler (Falander) spoke before Kries-HaToyre several words about the importance of the yeshivas in our modern times. We quickly said Mishebeyrekh and many of us promised to contribute each according to his means.


Tiferet Bachurim (5691) [1931]

First row standing from right to left: Aharon Cohen, Ch. Yachnish
Second row: B. Lazovski, A. Arbstein, A. Borovski, A. Gritzen, A. Krinitzki, D. Freitzeit, B. Sherman, M. Staviskovski, Y. Grodzin, Freund, Z. Ampel, M. Lazdeiski
Sitting: Tz. Shumski, Shibek, Y. Blacharski, R. Tsherman, B. Tz. Filivinsky, Rabbi Koshelevski, the Rabbi's son Arieh, S. Zebla, Ch. Bialovzetski, Y. Melamed


Translator's Footnotes:

  1. The Joint Distribution Committee, a Jewish Relief Organization based in New York City. Return
  2. Central No-interest Loans' Office. Return


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