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[Columns 143-144]

Chapter B

Holocaust and Heroism in Zloczow

Translated by Moshe Kutten

[Columns 145-150]

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[Columns 151-152]

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[Columns 153-178]

The Holocaust in its Occurrence

Note: The Hebrew version is a short version of the Dr. Altman's article (“Haunting Memories”) on column 29 of the English section

[Column 161]

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A Certificate for Reporting to Forced Labor during the Nazi regime in Zloczow

[Columns 165-166]

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Mass Grave of Zloczow's Jewish Residents in 1943

 

[Columns 179-180]

Sections from “Chapters from Galitsia”

Edited by Israel Cohen and Prof. Dov Sadan

“Am Oved” Publishing, Tel Aviv 5716 (1956)

The wave of pogroms swelled during the summer and fall of 1941. In many cities, the first in line to be executed was the intelligentsia. The following are some examples: In Lviv, the Germans demanded a quota to come forward. In Ivano-Frankivsk [Stanislawow] 600 people were murdered in August. In Kolomyia, 200 physicians, lawyers, engineers, and clerks were executed. In Chortkiv, more than 300 victims were killed. Similar stories occurred in other places… (see page 429).

… In November 1941, [concentration] camps were established in Borki Wielkie, Jaktorow, Kamyanky, near Ternopil, Kosow Lacki, Winniki-Ostrov, and Korovitza. Jews from Zloczow were brought to the concentration camp established in Kozaki in January 1942 … (Page 431).

… The ghetto in Zloczow was sealed and surrounded by a barbwire fence in December 1942. Remnants of the Jewish populations from the neighboring towns: Olesko, Sasiv {Sasov], Bialy Kamien, Sokolovka, and other locations crowded in that ghetto. Altogether 9000 Jews resided in the ghetto … (Page 434).

German rounding operations [Aktsia's] took place numerous locations: in Rava Ruska, Borislav (involving 5000 people), Drohobich (where most of the people were sent to Belzec, and those who were able to work were sent to Janowska camp), Chortkiv (where more than 3000 people were involved), Buchach (where approximately 1800 people were involved), and Zloczow (where 2700 people were involved in an Aktsia, which occurred on August 28) … (Page 437).
… Rounding operations (Aktisias) also took place in the following locations: in Brody (4500 people), Berezhany (approximately 6000 people), Ternopil (more than 2000 people), Zloczow (80 people were killed on the spot and 1000 were murdered in Belzec camp) … (Page 438).

… The murderous operations continued unabated. Bloody slaughtering has befallen upon the Jewish settlements: Horodenka (September-October – 6000 victims), Zloczow (2 – 3 November – 2500 victims) … (Page 438).

According to the report by Katzmann [the commander of the SS and Police in the District of Galitsia], 34,239 Jews were “deported” from the province of Galitsia until June 1943. According to the same report, Galitsia was declared “free of Jews”, on 25 June 1943. Indeed, July 1943 was the final date by which the destruction of the last Jewish settlements in Galitsia was final. Three hundred artisans from Zloczow were executed in Janowska camp and the survivors were killed in Yaktorov Forest. The last seventy of the Jewish workers were killed in Zhovkva … (Pages 440 – 441).
… The number of survivors in Zloczow – 74. Out of 2000 Jewish residents on Gliniani, only 25 survived.

… The poet Shmuel Yaakov Imber was murdered during the second bloody Aktsia in Zloczow … (page 443).

… Gravestones like those from the cemeteries in Lviv, Kolomyia, Gliniani, Zloczow, Ternopil, Rava-Ruska, and many other towns, were used to pave streets and roads. Only a few gravestones, which they could not uproot, remained standing. For example, the “grave-tent” of [Rabbi Avraham Khaim] the author of the book “Orakh Le'Khaim”, and the gravestones of other Tzadik's) remained standing… (page 444).

… Some of the members of the Judenrat in Eastern Galitsia showed courage and refused to blindly serve as instruments in the hands of the German executioners. They were the scapegoats. The murderers poured their fearsome and cruel anger out on them. The first chairman of the Judenrat in Lviv, Dr. Yosef Parnas, paid with his life because he refused to surrender to the demands of the German executioners. Like him, the chairman of the Judenrat in Zloczow, Dr. Sigmund Meiblum, was shot because he refused to sign a document authored by the Germans. That document stated that an Aktsia had to take place because of a typhus epidemic that broke out in the ghetto. The Aktsia occurred on 2nd April 1943 … (Page 447).

… There were bunkers in the ghetto, like the Stersler's Bunker in Zloczow, where twenty-three Jews hid and survived until they were freed … (Page 448).

When the hiding bunkers in Ternopil (on Barone Hirsch Street) and Zloczow (at the home of V. Tzukerkendel) were discovered, the Jews were driven to stubbornly resist their oppressors. During an Aktsia in Kolomyia, 17 September 1942, a young Jewish girl, Batya Singer, attacked a Ukrainian policeman. She was cruelly murdered on the spot.
… Jewish groups from Lviv arrived there [forest underground bunker] accompanied by a Jew who had a “good look” (Arian appearance).
[Columns 181-182]

Resistance groups were established in the ghettoes and camps in Toporiv, Zloczow, Kozaki, and Sasiv with the help of the organization of Brody warriors,

The Jewish warriors bombed the turpentine factory near the village of Sokolovka. Acts of sabotage took place in German military and industrial installations. According to Katzmann's Report, a search operation, held in the forest on May 15, 1943. Gendarme brigades, Ukrainian police units, and six Wehrmach battalions participated in that operation. Thirty-three Jewish warriors (named “members of the gang” by the report) were killed … (page 450).

… Attempts to organize partisan groups in the area of Stryj and Zloczow, were only slightly successful. However, some of the rebellious Jewish were renowned. They were feared throughout the entire region due to their daring operations and courageous resistance … (page 452).

 

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